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Synopsis of Introduction .... 


I. Frederick, Duke of Wirtemberg 
II. Lewis Frederick, Prince of Wirtem- 


III. Emanuel Van MET£REN,aDutch Mer- 


IV. Levinus Lemnius, a Dutch Physician 
V. Hieronymus Turler, a German . 

VI. Samuel Kiechel, a German . . 
VII. Norden's Notes on London and West- 

Lewis, Prince of Anhalt, used 

in the Notes and Introduction . 

VIII. Paul Hentzner, a German . . . 


IX. Juan Fernandez de Velasco, Con- 
stable of Castile .... 
X. Johann Jacob Grasser, a Swiss 
XI. Justus Zinzerling, a German . 
XII. Sights and Exhibitions . . 

XIII. Otto, Prince of Hesse 

XIV. John Ernest, Duke of Saxe- Weimar 
XV. Pictures, &c. in the Royal Palaces 

XVI. Peter Eisenberg, a Dane . . . . 
XVII. Valentin Arithm^eus, a German 








J 574 




c 1606 
c 1610 




Language of 
original work 

French MS. 



Eng. MS. 











vii, viii 










1. Comedians acting before Prince Charles, 1623 

2. Portrait of Frederick, Duke of Wirtemberg . 

3. Ceiling in Theobalds Palace .... 

4. Portrait of Lewis Frederick, Prince of Wirtemberg 

5. James I. feasting the Spanish Ambassadors, 1623 

6. Preaching at Paul's Cross, 1621 

7. Drebbel's Perpetual Motion .... 








8. Caron House, Lambeth 



)OREIGN Travel. — Foreigners coming to England during 
the two reigns chiefly Germans, ix-xii. 

Englishmen abroad. — Collections of Travels by Hakluyt 
and Purchas, xiii. 

Remarkable Travels by Moryson and Coryat, temp. Elizabeth and 
James, xiv-xvii. 

Passages from Shakespeare on the advantages of Foreign Travel, 
xvii, xviii. 

Quotations from several early English works in praise and censure 
of Foreign Travel. — Precepts for travelling, xix-xxviii. 

Remarks on the Travels of German Princes in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, xxix, xxx. 

Albums, xxxi-xxxiii. 

Handbooks of Travel Talk in several languages (including English), 
published in Holland, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. — Specimens 
from the Foreign-English Dialogues, xxxiv, xxxv. 

English Pronunciation of Latin, xxxvi, xxxvii. 

Retrospect of Travels to England undertaken by Foreigners, from 
the time of Edward IV, 1466, to the reign of Elizabeth, xxxviii-1. 

Story of a wandering Princess, Cecilia, daughter of Gustavus Vasa, 
King of Sweden, who visited England in 1565, li-liv. 

Story of a Polish nobleman, 1583, lv. 

Biography of Frederick, Duke of Wirtemberg, from original sources, 
introducing his correspondence with Queen Elizabeth and James I. 
(Record Office and British Museum) ; especially with reference to 
the Duke's desire to be made a Knight of the Garter, lv-xciv. 

viii Synopsis of Introduction. 

Breuning, the Duke of Wirtemberg's Ambassador, charged by Lord 
Burghley with drunkenness on appearing before Queen Elizabeth. — 
Explanation and Apology of the Ambassador, 1595 (MS. Brit. Mus.), 
lxv, Ixvi. 

Breuning's quarrel with Count Philip von Solms, the Ambassador of 
Hesse Cassel, lxvii, lxviii. 

Sharp Message sent by Queen Elizabeth to the Duke. — Presents to 
the Queen, lxix-lxxi. 

The Duke elected a Knight of the Garter, 1597, lxxii. 

Embassy from the Duke of Wirtemberg to James I, 1603, lxxvi. 

Special Embassy sent by the King to invest the Duke at Stuttgart. — 
Description of the Ceremony of investiture from a contemporary Latin 
work, lxxvii-lxxxii. 

Special Embassy from the Duke to Windsor at the Feast of the 
Order of the Garter, with presents of horses, &c. 1604. — Silver Garter- 
plate of the Duke at Windsor, and its subsequent fate, lxxxiii-lxxxvii. 

Duke Frederick's character. — Original Journal of his Travels to 
England. — Portrait at Hampton Court, and prints, lxxxviii-xciv. 

Question of Shakespeare's allusion to this Duke of Wirtemberg in 
the Merry Wives of Windsor (act iv. sc. 5.) as " Duke de Jamanie " and 
44 Cosen Garmombles" the title by which he was known in England 
being Count Mompelgard. — Remarks on this subject by Messrs. C. 
Knight, J. O. Halliwell, H. Staunton, and Dr. W. Bell, xciv-ciii. 

Custom of English Actors to travel and perform plays in Germany 
and the Netherlands. — Some new evidence of this custom, in one in- 
stance immediately connected with the Duke of Wirtemberg, ciii-cxi. 

Biography of Prince Lewis Frederick, son of the Duke. His corre- 
spondence with James I. (Record Office and British Museum.) He 
sees Othello acted. — Account of the Prince's visit to Cambridge, by 
Bishop Hacket, cxii-cxx. 

Hentzner and other foreign travellers in the present volume re- 
ferred to, cxxi-cxxiii. 

Strangers and sojourners in England, as Secretaries and in other 
capacities. — G. Rudolph Weckherlin. — Death of Abraham Vanderdort, 
Keeper of Charles the First's pictures, cxxiii-cxxxii. 


Courteous and Gentle Reader, 

ITH all becoming respect we beg leave 
to introduce to your favourable notice a 
group of " intelligent foreigners," who, 
in the ensuing pages, will discourse, if 
not very learnedly, at least it is hoped 
pleasantly and profitably, on the fascinating and attractive 
theme of Old England — its men and manners, its women 
and their ways, as they were seen and noted by those 
observing foreigners during the glorious effulgence of 
the Shakespearian era. 

To assemble this group of foreigners who have 
recorded their impressions of England and the English 
has not been the task of a day ; for no bibliographical 
guide to such works exists. Our knowledge of them 
is only gained by degrees, as the books occur at sales or 
in the catalogues of foreign booksellers. The majority 


x Introduction. 

of those here selected have only of late years found a 
place on the shelves of our National Library. They 
are, moreover, of the greatest rarity in this country. 
Horace Walpole, upwards of a century ago, and before 
the foundation of a British Museum, met with one book 
of the kind, viz. Hentzner's " Itinerary/' and he alludes 
to the scarcity of that work in his Preface to the trans- 
lation of the portion relating to England, of which he 
printed a few copies only at his private press at Straw- 
berry Hill in 1757. We believe that this book by 
Hentzner is the only one of a foreigner's travel to and 
stay in this country in the reign of Elizabeth as yet 
known to the public through an English translation, 
while no work of the kind has been published relating 
to the next reign. 

Among the foreigners admitted into our collection 
we find no less than ten Germans (five of them 
princes), two Dutchmen, one Swiss, one Dane, and 
one Spaniard. The number of Germans who visited 
us is remarkable, and may be accounted for by the 
peculiar character of the people, then, as now, curious, 
inquiring, fond of peregrinating, journalizing, and 
seeing the fruits of their pen and ink in print. One 
of our Dutchmen was settled in London as a mer- 
chant, the other came over to see his son who was 
practising in England as a physician. We note also 
the total absence of Frenchmen and Italians during the 

Introduction. xi 

two reigns, and see the Spaniards only reappearing at 
the beginning of that of James I, when, true to his 
motto of Beati pacijici, he concluded a peace between 
the two nations which had so long been bitter enemies. 
The Frenchman would probably travel mainly pour 
s'amuser; and in England it is likely that at that time 
his reception would not be so agreeable as in the neigh- 
bouring countries of the Continent. 

The cessation of diplomatic relations between the 
Governments of Venice and of England, on the score of 
antagonistic religion, at the Accession of Queen Eliza- 
beth, will account for the want of any of those valuable 
Reports (relazioni) of England during her reign, which 
the Venetian Ambassadors were bound to present to the 
Senate on returning from their missions. In place, then, 
of records of travel, descriptive of the country visited, we 
may encounter whole volumes of diplomatic correspond- 
ence carried on by the French, Spanish, and other am- 
bassadors who resided at our Court, and who were too 
apt to rely more on their imaginations than on facts ; it 
therefore becomes the historian's duty to approach these 
chronicles of scandal with the utmost caution and 

Let us not, however, expect to find the descriptions 
and opinions, as delivered in these pages by foreigners, 
respecting our country and people, exhibiting the 
roseate hue of admiration and panegvric ; let us rather 

xii Introduction. 

look for a wider, more variegated, and more chequered 
field, where we may encounter some observations, ac- 
cording to the humour of the writer, expressed in a 
grave, some in a gay and lively, others again, and more 
frequently, in a severe strain ; presented to us, in short, 
under divers aspects. And should those observations 
and opinions happen to be offensively put, let us abstain 
from discourteous rejoinders, in terms like those which 
were applied to the traveller Pinto of old. 1 We confess 
to being a proud people, but we deny that we are per- 
fidious, and we by no means desire to " see ourselves as 
others see us ;" nevertheless we can afford to be generous, 
and will pardon slight mistakes, misapprehensions, and 
misconceptions as to our national character, &c. Let 
us then be thankful for these helps to self-knowledge, 
and accept them "for better, for worse. " Nor will the 
infliction of censure cause any serious shock to our 
sensibilities, seeing that we have been accustomed to 
receive sundry hard knocks at the hands of our foreign 
friends, from the day when Maitre Estienne Perlin be- 
stowed upon us the opprobrious epithets of villains, 
drunkards, reprobates, &c, even to that recent period 
when an acute American author came forth with Haw- 
thorn cudgel in hand to administer to the peccant John 

1 " Ferdinand Mendez Pinto was but a type of thee, thou liar of the 
first magnitude ! " — Congreve's Love for Love^ 1695. 

Introduction. xiii 

Bull, the "female Bull" and family, some gentle re- 
minders of their weaknesses and shortcomings. 

We need scarcely inquire where was the Englishman 
in those early times r Was he backward in setting 
foot on foreign soil ? Should proof be required of the 
ubiquity of our countrymen, the three stout tomes 
painfully prepared and published in Queen Elizabeth's 
reign by Master Richard Hakluyt, preacher, followed in 
the next reign by rive yet more ponderous volumes of an- 
other preacher, Master Samuel Purchas, will sufficiently 
and satisfactorily show how and where our bold Britons 
had been for many a long year voyaging and travelling, 
dispersed and settled in all the known quarters of the 
globe, for the most part engaged in the glorious pursuit 
of improving and extending the boundaries of trade and 
commerce and founding new plantations and colonies. 
The two preachers, by their remarkable publications, 
held out to their countrymen the precious examples 
of those adventurous and hardy ancient mariners and 
travellers, and supplied the exciting stimulant for our 
" home-keeping youth" to go forth likewise and " see 
the wonders of the world abroad." There were also 
erratic Englishmen of a somewhat different stamp — 
men who had no other ambition than to examine with 
their own eyes and recount to their admiring country- 
men whatever marvels and matters of curiosity their 
indomitable energy and boldness in traversing distant 

xiv Introduction. 

regions might bring within their ken. These were not 
the persons to hesitate and turn back. With such 
characters may be classed a pair of roving worthies — 
Fynes Moryson and Thomas Coryat, true sons of the 
famous old knight-errant of St. Alban's, Sir John 
Mandeville, — 

" Before him was none that ever was known, 
For travel of so high renown." 

Moryson, possessing from his tender youth an " innated 
desire" to see foreign countries, started on his travels 
in 1 59 1, being about twenty-five years of age, and 
having shortly before received his M.A. degree at Cam- 
bridge. After visiting almost every part of Europe, he 
set foot again on the shores of " blessed England" in 
1595, but in sorry plight, having been robbed of his 
best cloak and his crowns in France. On arriving in 
London, he hastened to greet his sister ; and he relates 
a little scene which thereupon took place. For he 
says : — 

" When I entered my sister's house in poore habit, a servant upon 
my demaund answered that my sister was at home ; but when he did 
see me goe up the staires too boldly (as he thought) without a guide, 
hee not knowing mee in respect of my long absence, did furiously and 
with threatening words call me backe, and surely would have been 
rude with me, had I not gone up faster than he could follow me ; and 
just as I entred my sister's chamber, he had taken hold on my old 
cloake, which I willingly flung ofF to be rid of him. Then by my 
sister's imbraces he perceived who I was, and stole backe as if he had 
trodden upon a snake." 

Introduction. xv 

Moryson made subsequent long journeyings : and after 
his death, in 1617 appeared a goodly folio of 900 pages 
entitled, "An Itinerary, written by Fynes Moryson, gent., 
first in the Latine Tongue, and then translated by him 
into English ; containing his ten yeeres travell through 
the twelve dominions of Germany, Bohmerland, Sweitzer- 
land, Netherland, Denmarke, Poland, Italy, Turky, 
France, England, Scotland, and Ireland." Moryson 
was an intelligent and keen observer, and his Journal is 
exceedingly valuable and interesting. 

Tom Coryat, the " Odcombian leg-stretcher," as he 
chose to call himself, was the son of a clergyman, and 
undertook, in 1608, a continental tour. He went 
through France, and as far as Venice, where he stayed 
six weeks, delighted with the place and the people. 
He returned by way of Germany. " The cities," he 
says, " that I saw in the space of these five months, are 
five and forty. Whereof in France five. In Savoy 
one. In Italie thirteene. In Rhetia one. In Helvetia 
three. In some parts of High Germanie fifteene. In the 
Netherlands seven." The number of miles he passed 
over he reckons to be 1975, accomplished for the most 
part on foot, and he tells us that he went 900 miles on 
one pair of soles, and on his return he hung up these 
well-worn shoes in the Church at Odcombe, Somerset- 
shire, his native place, as a memorial of pedestrian 
labour — a trophy of his tedious travels. Ben Jonson, 

xvi Introduction. 

in some verses prefixed to Coryat's Crambe, 1 6 1 1 , thus 
sings of the shoes : — 

" How well, and how often his shoes too were mended, 
That sacred to Odcombe are now there suspended, — 
I meane that one paire, wherewith he so hobled 
From Venice to Flushing, were not they well cobled ? 

Coryat ought to have recorded the name of his won- 
derful shoemaker ! The tough old shoes remained in 
Odcombe church until about 1702. Tom published 
his Travels in 161 1, in a bulky quarto volume of 655 
pages — " a bonnie, bouncing booke," (as Ben Jonson 
calls it,) bearing the quaint title of " Coryat's Crudities, 
hastily gobled up in five moneths Travells in France, 
Savoy, Italy, Rhetia commonly called the Grisons 
country, Helvetia alias Switzerland, some parts of High 
Germany, and the Netherlands ; newly digested in the 
hungry aire of Odcombe in the county of Somerset, 
and now dispersed to the nourishment of the travelling 
members of this kingdome. ,, This amusing work is 
prefaced by a host of mock-commendatory verses, many 
of which were written by the best poets of the time. 
The copy which belonged to Prince Henry, to whom 
the book is dedicated, and in whose service Coryat was, 
is now in the Grenville Library. It is bound in crim- 
son velvet and has the initials H. P. on the covers, but 
the interesting engravings have been spoilt by colouring. 

Introduction. xvii 

The author, on presenting the volume to the Prince, 
termed it "this tender feathered Red-breast." 1 

Coryat subsequently went on a painful and perilous 
pilgrimage to the East, travelling as usual mostly on 
foot, or, as Fuller quaintly says, " on an horse with ten 
toes." He visited Constantinople, Persia, the Court 
of the Great Mogul, and at length reached Surat, ex- 
hausted from fatigue, sick, and dispirited. During his 
illness, he cried out, in FalstafPs vein, for " Sack, sack, 
is there any such thing as sack ? I pray you give me 
some sack." His friends incautiously indulged him 
with a little of the tempting beverage, which served 
only to aggravate his malady, and he died a few days 
afterwards, in December, 1617. 

Shakespeare has evidently embodied his own senti- 
ments on the advantages of foreign travel in the Two 
Gentlemen of Verona (act i. sc. 3), which is considered to 
be one of his earliest dramatic productions : — 

" Panthino. He wondred that your Lordship 
Would suffer him, to spend his youth at home, 
While other men, of slender reputation 
Put forth their Sonnes, to seeke preferment out. 
Some to the warres, to try their fortune there ; 
Some, to discouer Islands farre away : 
Some, to the studious Uniuersities ; 
For any, or for all these exercises, 
He said, that Protheus, your sonne, was meet ; 

1 Coryat's Crambe, 1611. 

xviii Introduction. 

And did request me, to importune you 
To let him spend his time no more at home ; 
Which would be great impeachment to his age, 
In hauing knowne no trauaile in his youth. 

Antonio. Nor need'st thou much importune me to that 
Whereon, this month I haue bin hamering. 
I haue considered well, his losse of time, 
And how he cannot be a perfect man, 
Not being tryed, and tutord in the world : 
Experience is by industry atchieu'd, 
And perfected by the swift course of time : — " 

Elsewhere, in the same Play (act i. sc. i) : — 

" Home-keeping-youth, haue euer homely wits, 

* * * * 

I rather would entreat thy company, 
To see the wonders of the world abroad, 
Then (liuing dully sluggardiz'd at home) 
Weare out thy youth with shapelesse idlenesse. ,, 

And again, in the 'Taming of the Shrew (act i. sc. 2) : — 

" Such wind as scatters yongmen throgh y e world, 
To seeke their fortunes farther then at home, 
Where small experience growes." — Edit. fol. 1623. 

Lord Bacon composed an admirable Essay on the 
subject, which, as it is at once short, and to the point, 
we will reproduce from the latest enlarged edition of 
his Essays published in his lifetime (1625, 4-to.) : — 

Of Trauaile. 
Trauaile^ in the younger Sort, is a Part of Education ; In the Elder, 
a Part of Experience. He that trauaileth into a Country, before he 
hath some Entrance into the Language, goeth to Scboole, and not to 

Introduction. xix 

Trauaile. That Young Men trauaile vnder some Tutor, or graue 
Seruant, I allow well ; So that he be such a one, that hath the Lan- 
guage, and hath been in the Country before ; whereby he may be able to 
tell them, what Things are worthy to be seene in the Country where they 
goe ; what Acquaintances they are to seeke ; what Exercises or disci- 
pline the Place yeeldeth. For else young Men shall goe hooded, and looke 
abroad little. It is a strange Thing, that in Sea voyages, where there 
is nothing to be seene, but Sky and Sea, Men should make Diaries ; 
But in Land-Trauile, wherin so much is to be obserued, for the most 
part, they omit it; As if Chance, were fitter to be registred, then 
Obseruation. Let Diaries, therefore be brought in vse. The Things 
to be seene and obserued are : The Courts of Princes, specially when 
they giue Audience to Ambassadours : The Courts of Justice, while 
they sit and heare Causes ; And so of Consistories Ecclesiasticke : 
The Churches, and Monasteries, with the Monuments which are 
therein extant : The Wals and Fortifications of Cities and Townes ; 
And so the Hauens and Harbours : Antiquities, and Ruines : Libraries, 
Colledges, Disputations, and Lectures, where any are : Shipping and 
Nauies : Houses, and Gardens of State, and Pleasure, neare great 
Cities ; Armories ; Arsenals ; Magazens ; Exchanges ; Burses ; Ware- 
houses; Exercises of Horse-man-ship; Fencing; Trayningof Souldiers; 
and the like : Comedies ; Such wherunto the better Sort of persons doe 
resort ; Treasuries of Jewels, and Robes ; Cabinets and Rarities : 
And to conclude, whatsoeuer is memorable in the Places where they 
goe. After all which, the Tutors or Seruants, ought to make diligent 
Enquirie. As for Triumphs ; Masques ; Feasts ; Weddings ; Funer- 
alls ; Capitall Executions ; and such Shewes ; Men need not to be 
put in minde of them ; Yet are they not to be neglected. If you 
will haue a Young Man, to put his Trauaile^ into a little Roome, and 
in short time, to gather much, this you must doe. First, as was said, 
he must haue some Entrance into the Language, before he goeth. 
Then he must haue such a Seruant, or Tutor, as knoweth the 
Country, as was likewise said. Let him carry with him also some 
Card or Booke describing the Country, where he trauelleth ; which 

xx Introduction. 

will be a good Key to his Enquiry. Let him keepe also a Diary. 
Let him not stay long in one Citty, or Towne ; More or lesse as the 
place deserueth, but not long : Nay, when he stayeth in one City or 
Towne, let him change his Lodging, from one End and Part of the 
Towne, to another ; which is a great Adamant of Acquaintance. 
Let him sequester himselfe from the Company of his Country men, 
and diet in such Places, where there is good Company of the Nation, 
where he trauaileth. Let him vpon his Remoues, from one place to 
another, procure Recommendation, to some person of Quality, resid- 
ing in the Place, whither he remoueth ; that he may vse his Fauour, 
in those things, he desireth to see or know. Thus he may abridge his 
Trauaile, with much profit. As for the acquaintance, which is to be 
sought in Trauaile ; That which is most of all profitable, is Acquaint- 
ance with the Secretaries, and Employed Men of Ambassadours ; For 
so in Trauailing in one Country he shall sucke the Experience of 
many. Let him also see and visit, Eminent Persons, in all kindes, 
which are of great Name abroad ; That he may be able to tell, how 
the Life agreeth with the Fame. For Quarels, they are with Care 
and Discretion to be auoided : They are, commonly, for Mistresses ; 
Healths ; Place ; and Words. And let a Man beware, how he 
keepeth Company, with Cholerick and Quarelsome Persons ; for they 
will engage him into their owne Quarels. When a Trauailer returneth 
home, let him not leaue the Countries, where he hath Traualled^ 
altogether behinde him ; But maintaine a Correspondence, by letters, 
with those of his Acquaintance, which are of most worth. And let 
his Trauaile appeare rather in his Discourse, then in his Apparrell, or 
Gesture : And in his Discourse, let him be rather aduised in his 
Answers, then forwards to tell Stories : And let it appeare, that he doth 
not change his Country Manners, for those of Forraigne Parts ; But 
onely, prick in some Flowers, of that he hath Learned abroad, into 
the Customes of his owne Country. 

Purchas, before mentioned, delivers some pungent 
remarks against such of his countrymen as undertake 

Introduction. xxi 

the Continental tour. He says (Preface to his " Pil- 
grimes,' , 1625) : — 

" As for Gentlemen, Travell is accounted an excellent Ornament 
to them ; and therefore many of them comming to their Lands sooner 
than to their Wits, adventure themselves to see the fashions of other 
countries, whence they bring home a few smattering termes, nattering 
garbes, apish crings, foppish fancies, foolish guises and disguises, the 
vanities of neighbour nations (I name not Naples) without furthering 
of their knowledge of God, the World or themselves. I speake not 
against Travell, so usefull to usefull men, I honour the industrious of 
the liberall and ingenuous in arts, bloud, education ; and to prevent 
exorbitancies of the other, which cannot travell farre, or are in 
danger to travell from God and themselves, at no great charge I offer 
a c World of Travellers ' [his own volumes of the c Pilgrimes'] to their 
domestike entertainment, easie to be spared from their smoke, cup, or 
butter-flie vanities and superfluities, and fit mutually to entertaine 
them in a better Schoole to better purposes." 

Robert Burton, the celebrated author of the " Ana- 
tomy of Melancholy" (first published in 1621), who, 
as he tells us, never travelled but in map or card, 
expresses himself as follows : — 

" There is no better Physicke for a melancholy man than change of 
ayre and variety of places, to travell abroad and see fashions. For Pere- 
grination charmes our senses with such unspeakable and sweet variety, 
that some count him unhappy that never travelled, a kinde of prisoner, 
and pitty his case that from his cradle to his old age beholds the same 
still; still, still, the same, the same." — [Edit. 1632, p. 261.) 

Other English authors wrote and published special 
works on the art of travelling, holding, as might be 

xxii Introduction. 

expected, conflicting opinions on the subject. Thus, 
Robert Dallington, afterwards knighted, and Master of the 
Charterhouse, has much sensible advice in his " Method 
for Travell" (preliminary to his " View of France"), 
1598, a few extracts from which may be amusing : — 

" Base and vulgar spirits hover still about home ; those are more 

noble and divine that imitate the heavens, and joy in motion He 

therefore that intends to travell out of his owne country, must likewise 
resolve to travell out of his country-fashion, and indeed out of him- 
selfe — that is, out of his former intemperate feeding, disordinate 
drinking, thrift-lesse gaming, fruit-lesse time-spending, violent exercis- 
ing and irregular misgoverning whatsoever. He must determine that 
the end of his Travell is his ripening in knowledge, and the end of his 
knowledge is the service of his countrie, which of right challengeth 
the better part of us." 

Touching on the Traveller's religion, he counsels him — 

" Not to alter his first faith. Wherefore if my Traveller will keepe 
this birde safe in his bosome, he must neither be inquisitive after other 
mens religions, nor prompt to discover his owne. For I hold him unwise 
that in a strange country will either shew his mind or his money. . . . 
For the attaining of language it is convenient that he make choice of 
the best places — Orleans for the French, Florence for the Italian and 
Lipsick for the Dutch [i.e. German] tongues, for in these places is 
the best language spoken." 

Next he must make choice of a good Reader — 

" His Reader should not read any Poetry at first, but some other kind 
of style, and I think meetest some modern Comedy. Privately he may 
for his pleasure read poetry. He must be talking and exercising his 
speech with all sorts of people." 

One great hindrance to obtaining a language is the 

Introduction. xxiii 

" often haunting and frequenting our own countrimen." 
" I would rather he should come home Italianate than 
Frenchefied" Many Travellers bring home the "Italian 
huffe of the shoulder, or the Dutch pufFe with the pot, 
or the French apishnes." 

The body is to be preserved in good state by diet and 
exercise. He advises the Traveller to — 

" Beware of foreign wines, which agree not with some natures, 
except sparingly taken or well qualified with water. Tennis-play in 
France is dangerous for the body and for the purse. The French 
fashion of dancing is in most request with us." 

The young and courtiers may follow this, but other- 
wise he holds it needless and in some ridiculous ; e.g.— 

" I remember a countriman of ours, well seene in arts and language, 
well stricken in years, a mourner for his second wife, a father of mar- 
riageable children, who with other his booke studies abroade joyned also 
the exercise of dancing. It was his hap in an honourable Bal (as they 
call it) to take a fall, which in mine opinion was not so disgracefull 
as the dancing itselfe, to a man of his stufFe. 

" Money is the soule of Travel If he travel without a servant, 
fourscore pounds sterling is a competent proportion, except he learn 
to ride 5 if he maintain both these charges, he can be allowed no less 
than 150/. ; and to allow above 200/. were superfluous and to his hurt. 
The ordinary rate of his expense is 10 gold crowns a month his own 
diet ; 8 for his man (at the most) ; 2 crowns a month his fencing, as 
much dancing, no less his reading, and 15 crowns monthly his riding, 
except in the heat of the year. The remainder of his 150/. I allow 
him for apparell, books, travelling charges, tennis-play and other 
extraordinary expenses. 

"Let him have 4 Bills of Exchange with him for the whole year, 
with letters of advice, to be paid him quarterly. If he carry over 

xxiv Introduction. 

money with him (as by our law he cannot carry much) let it be in 
double pistolets, or French crowns. 

" Concerning his books, let them be few or none he carrieth from 
place to place ; or if any, that they be not such as are prohibited by 
the Inquisition j least when his male is searched (as it is at every 
Cities gate in Italie) they bring him to trouble ; they will make him 
pay toll at every such town. I would only have him carry the papers 
of his own observation, especially a Giornale, wherein from day to day 
he shall set down the divers provinces he passeth, with their com- 
modities, the towns with their manner of buildings, the names and 
benefit of the rivers, the distance of places, the condition of the soile, 
manners of the people, and what else his eye meeteth by the way 
remarkable. I must advise for his apparel as for his books, that upon 
his jorney he be not overcharged with over much luggage ; even a 
light burthen is farre heavie ; beside, somewhat is likewise to be paid 
for these at the entry of everie Citie gate. Let him also take heede 
that the apparell he wears be in fashion in the place where he resideth, 
for it is no less ridiculous to wear clothes of our fashion among them, 
than at our return to use still their fashion among us — a notorious 
affectation of many Travellers. I conclude, therefore, that when he 
comes out of those foreign countries, he likewise come out of their 
humors and habits, and come home to bimselfe, fashioned to such carriage 
in his apparrell, gesture and conversation, as in his own country is most 
plausible and best approved." 

Thomas Palmer published an " Essay of the Meanes 
how to make our Travailes into Forraine Countries the 
more profitable and honourable," 4to. London, 1606. 
In the dedication of his book to Prince Henry, he says, 
" This subject hath not worne an English habite here- 

Joseph Hall, " Doctor of Divinitie," afterwards 
Bishop of Norwich, took the opposite view of the 

Introduction. xxv 

question, and published in 1617 his protest, entitled, 
" 0^° Vadis ? A just Censure of Travell as it is com- 
monly undertaken by the Gentlemen of our Nation :" — 

" I meddle not (he says) with the common journeyes to the minerall 
waters of the Spa, to which many sicke soules are beholden for a good 
excuse. There are two occasions wherein Travell may passe — matter 
of trafique and matter of state. It is the Travell of Curiosity where- 
with my quarrell shall be maintained, the inconvenience v/hereof my 
own senses have so sufficiently witnessed, that if the wise parents of 
our Gentry could have borrowed my eyes, for the time, they would 
ever learne to keepe their sonnes at home. 

" I have known some that have travelled no further than their owne 
closet, which could both teach and correct the greatest Traveller after 
all his tedious and costlv pererrations. Let an Italian or French pas- 
senger walk through this our Hand, what can his Table-books carry 
home in comparison of the learned c Britaine ' of our Camden, or the 
accurate Tables of Speed ? With these helps let us travel by our 
owne fireside. A good booke is at once the best companion and guide, 
and way and end of our journey. Necessity drove our forefathers out 
of doores, which else in those misty times had seene no light ; we may 
with more ease and no lesse profit sit still, and inherit and enjoy the 
labours of them and our elder brethren." 1 

1 " Bishop Hall's Sayings concerning Travellers to prevent Popish 
and Debauched Principles,' were printed in a folio broadside sheet at 
London in 1674, and sold at the Gilded Acorn in St. Paul's Church- 
yard. It has a curious Engraving representing a ship about to sail, 
a boat with waterman and passenger near the shore, and another group 
on shore taking leave of a traveller, girt with a sword, and with hat in 
hand ; his servant stands near, and two females are weeping, with 
handkerchiefs to their eyes : beneath are the lines : — 

u Coyne and Good Counsell are the Trav'lers Eys, 
Hee does but stray abroad wants those supplies." 


xxvi Introduction. 

James Howell, the celebrated letter-writer, and himself 
an experienced traveller, sent forth to the public in 1642, 
his " Instructions for Forreine Travell.' , He remarks : — 

" Amongst other nations of the world, the English are observed to 
have gained much and improved themselves infinitely by voyaging both 
by land and sea ; and of those four worthies who compassed about the 
terrestriall globe,, I find the major part of them were English." 

The Paris of his day he calls, " that hudge, though 
durty theater of all nations." 

" One thing I would disswade him from, which is from the ex- 
cessive commendation and magnifying of his own Countrey j for it is 
too much observed that the English suffer themselves to be too 
much transported with this subject, to undervalue and vilifie other 
countreys, for which I have heard them often censured. The most 
materiall use of forraine travel is to find out something that may be 
applyable to the publique utility of one's own countrey ; as a noble 
Personage 1 of late yeares did, who, observing the uniforme and regular 
way of stone structure up and down Italie, hath introduced that forme 
of building to London & Westminster and elsewhere, which, though 
distastfull at first, as all innovations are, yet they find now the com- 
modity, firmeness and beauty thereof, the three maine principles of 

1 This evidently points to that eminent patron of art Thomas 
Howard, Earl of Arundel. Walker (" Life of Lord Arundel," written 
1651, printed in "Historical Discourses," fol. 1705, p. 222) says of 
him that he " was the first person of quality that brought in uniformity 
in building, and was chief commissioner to see it performed in London, 
which since that time has added exceedingly to the beauty of that 
city." (See also Lilly's "Life of Charles I," 4*0. 1651, p. 104.) 
Many of these works and improvements were effected by Inigo Jones. 

Introduction. xxvii 

Francis Osborne, Esq., of Oxford, imparted some 
Advice to his son 'on travel' in 1656. He says: — 

" I am not much unwilling to give way to peregrine motion for a 
time, provided it be in company of an embassadour or person of 
quality. . . . Shun all disputes, but especially concerning religion. 
Eschew the company of all English you find in Orders. The English 
are observed abroad more quarrelsom with their own nation than 
strangers, and therefore marked out as the most dangerous com- 
panions. Inns are dangerous, and so are all fresh acquaintance. Next 
to experience, languages are the richest lading of a traveller, among 
which French is most useful, Italian and Spanish not being so fruitful 
in learning, except for the mathematicks and romances." 

This topic has also been discussed by many foreign 
writers. Beckmann has enumerated as many as nineteen 
different works on the subject of the art of travelling, 
which were published in Germany in the last half of 
the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth centuries. 
These works are all in Latin, and their great use, 
not merely by German but by other travellers, is 
proved by their repeated editions. One of these tra- 
vellers was Hieronymus Turler, a Doctor of Laws, and 
a native of Saxony, who appears among our travellers to 
England, and who published in 1 574 a small work con- 
taining some judicious remarks worthy the attention of 
his young countrymen. It was translated (1575) under 
the title of " The Traveiler of Jerome Turler, . . . con- 
teining a notable Discourse of the maner and order of 
Travelling Oversea, or into Straunge and Forrein Coun- 

xxviii Introduction. 

treys ... A woorke very pleasaunt for all persons to 
reade, and right profitable and necessarie unto all such 
as are minded to Traueyll." In his prefatory notice 
he says : — 

" I have written this booke in the behalf of such as are desierous to 
traveill, and to see forreine countries, and specially of students. For 
since experience is the greatest parte of humane wisedome, and the 
same is increased by traveil, I suppose there is no man will deny but 
that a man may become the wiser by travelling. ... It is a great parte 
of wisdome to know the nature and maners of men, and how to live 
with everybody" (p. 37). "This saying is usually objected against 
them : They which run oversea , chaunge the aire and not their minde" 1 
(p. 91.) 

Dr. Turler then touches upon a tender question : — 

" But perhaps some man wil demaund whether such as be maried 
bee meete to traveill ? For over that, that weemen are forbidden, as it 
were of honestie and womanhoode not to take long or often journies 
in hand, it is the leave of matrimonie that those whiche bee coupled 
therin shall dwell evermore together, and the one to bee a comforte 
unto the other. Howbeeit this matter, as apperteyning to y e weemen, 
dependeth upon the custome of the countrey. . . . Moreover, ther 
may be mutuall frindship and affection shewed even in travelling, and 
one minde and one soule remaine in two bodies, although the two 
bodies be distant far asunder." 

Professor Beckmann offers some remarks on this sub- 
ject. In the sixteenth century, he informs us, it was 
usual in Germany for young men of rich and distin- 
guished families to be sent on travel, in order to acquire 

* " Coelum non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt." — Hor. 

Introduction. xxix 

more useful knowledge than they could at that time 
obtain in their own country. In consequence many 
books were written by such as had themselves travelled, 
frequently as companions or tutors, which might serve 
as guides to others who also contemplated travelling. 
Others gave general instructions on the art of travelling ; 
and books of this last description are much more plenti- 
ful in the sixteenth and following century than in our 
own. The travels of princes were in that age much 
more necessary than in the present. At that time, in 
most countries, at least in most German States, there 
were no institutions for the instruction of youth, parti- 
cularly of the higher classes. In most universities, only 
theologians, scholastics, jurists, and some physicians were 
to be met with. If a person desired to have efficient 
teachers in the other sciences, he was obliged to engage 
them from a distance, at great expense, and frequently, 
indeed, none were to be procured for money. Whoever, 
therefore, wished to acquire learning according to the 
enlarged necessities of the fatherland, was compelled to 
seek the larger and more perfect educational establish- 
ments in Italy and France. Princes had not even the 
opportunity of acquiring at home foreign languages, 
dancing, fencing, and riding. Should they wish to 
become acquainted with the constitution of other States, 
they must themselves travel thither. Statistical teachers 
and manuals were not yet to be had. 

xxx Introduction. 

The travels of princes, moreover, were necessary in 
this respect, to incite others by their example, and by 
this means to convey knowledge to the fatherland, which 
it was their purpose to diffuse and make useful there. 
This, therefore, explains why at that time princes were 
more intent in their travels upon useful objects than in 
our days, when having received a certain amount of in- 
struction at home, they fancy that they have long known 
what is necessary, and travel more with the view of 
showing and enjoying themselves than of acquiring useful 
knowledge. 1 

Coryat translated from the Latin, and inserted in his 
" Crudities," 1611, two Orations of Hermann Kirchner, 
a learned Professor at the University of Marburg ; the 
one in praise of travel in general, the other in praise of 
the travel of Germany in particular. From the latter 
we quote the following remarks, having reference to 
the roaming habits of the Germans at that period. 
Kirchner says : — 

" Which custome of travelling, if we have read to have beene at 
any time frequented and used of any nation whatsoever, certes we may 
most plainly perceive, as it were at noone-tide, that it is at this day 
most famously exercised by the men of our Germany, even by the 
common and almost daily endevour of our Princes and noble per- 
sonages that travell into farre countries, so that there is scarce found a 
man of any note and fame in the courtly life, in the politique conver- 

1 Beckmann's " Litteratur der alteren Reisebeschreibungen," 1. 208, 
&c, 11. 10, &c. 

Introduction. xxxi 

sation and civill society, which hath not both learned the manners and 
languages of forraine nations, and also seene abroade in the world the 
state and divers governements of kingdomes, that hath not with eyes 
and feete made use of England, Italy, France, and Spaine, and observed 
whatsoever is memorable in remote nations, and worthy to be seene in 
every place of note.' ' 

The German, when setting out on his travels, would 
on no account neglect to carry with him his Album, or 
" Stammbuch, ,, as he would himself call it ; and, indeed, 
he would consider it an indispensable article to be in- 
cluded among his bag and baggage, or " impedimenta/' as 
such things are expressively termed in Latin. Producing 
his little book, whenever in the course of his peregrinations 
he came into contact with friends or persons of more or 
less note, he would solicit them to favour him by inscrib- 
ing on its leaves either an autograph or a motto, or by 
inserting an emblazoned shield of arms, or a sketch. 
Humphrey Wanley, the Earl of Oxford's librarian, in 
describing these alba amicorum, adds that the young 
German traveller, at his return, "by these hands {i.e. 
autographs) demonstrates what good company he has 
kept." A very rich assemblage — to be counted by 
hundreds — of these earliest collections of autographs is 
in the Manuscript Department of the British Museum. 
They are the albums which were once happily possessed 
by natives of Germany, where the fashion originated, 
and were much used in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, but more especially during the first quarter of 

xxxii Introduction. 

the latter. Many of these interesting volumes — which 
are usually of an oblong shape and have costly bindings 
— enshrine autographs of very distinguished persons. 
The quondam owner of one, Christopher Arnold, Pro- 
fessor of History at Nuremberg, visited England in the 
middle of the seventeenth century, and being in London 
on the 19th of November, 1651, obtained the autograph 
of the author of " Paradise Lost," ' Joannes Miltonius.' 
An album which belonged to a traveller, Fred, de Bot- 
nia, contains beautifully coloured drawings of James I. 
and his Queen, the Lord Mayor of London and his 
brethren on horseback, and also the Lady Mayoress 
for the time being. For the same purpose were used 
printed books of emblems, some having delicate en- 
gravings, and interleaved with blank paper for the 
insertion of autographs, &c, others merely an orna- 
mental border, the space within which was to be used 
by the contributors. One very beautiful example of 
the former description that we have seen is a copy of 
" Emblemata," with exquisite engravings on copper by 
Theodore de Bry, and published at Frankfort-on-the- 
Main in 1593. This was the " stammbuch " of Daniel 
Rindfleisch (Anglice 'Beef'), M.D. of Breslau, who died 
a Dominican monk in 1631. 

These autograph albums, it appears, were used also 
by the travelling English. Fynes Moryson, writing 
from Emden, 1592, relates a "merry accident" which 
befel him at Bremen : — 

Introduction. xxxiii 

" Disguised as I was [to avoid falling into the hands of freebooters], 
I went to the house of Doctor Peuzelius [Christoph Pezel], desiring 
to have the name of so famous a divine written in my stemme-booke, 
with his mott [motto], after the Dutch [/. e, German] fashion. Hee 
seeing my poore habite, and a booke under my arme, tooke me for 
some begging scholler, and spake sharpely unto me. But when in my 
master's [i. e. his own, for he was disguised as his own servant, or as 
he says, C I was servant to myselfe'] name I had respectively [sic] 
saluted him and told him my request, he excused his mistaking, and 
with all curtesie performed my desire." — Itinerary, 1617, pt. i. p. 38. 

The knights of Windsor, in 1466, produced their 
missal when, after dinner, they requested the autograph 
of the Bohemian Baron Leo von Rozmital, ' in memo- 
riam ' of his visit to them. But the uncouth name 
when written was a puzzle ; for after the travellers had 
left Windsor, the knights ran after them, and once more 
made inquiries respecting Leo's name and titles. Horky 
supposes the form to have been written as follows : 
" Lwyk z Rozmitala a z Blatnie ;" which certainly must 
have been a nut for them to crack. 

There were also hand-books of travel-talk published 
at an early period, to render the tourist's path to the 
tongues smooth and easy. These little polyglot manuals 
appear to have been set on foot by the Flemings, 1 and 
the demand for them was evidently great, as there are in 

1 William Caxton, our first English printer, published about 1483, 
Dialogues in French and English, which is usually called u A Book for 
Travellers. " It is of the utmost rarity, no copy having as yet found 
its way into the Library of the British Museum. 


xxxiv Introduction, 

the British Museum Dutch editions dated 1589 (preface 
1585), 1593, 1600, 1630, 163 1 ; and Venice, 1656. 
The earliest of these we have met with was printed at 
Liege (Leodii), and is entitled, " Colloquia et Dic- 
tionariolum septem linguarum, Belgicae, Anglicae," &c. 
or Dialogues in Flemish, English, German, Latin, 
Italian, Spanish, and French. The languages are in 
parallel columns, the English being in italic letters ; the 
printer having no small * w,' has used throughout the 
capital instead, which, when coming in the middle of a 
word, presents a very uncouth and puzzling appearance. 
The Foreign-English employed in these Dialogues is 
occasionally quaint and amusing, and the following may 
serve as specimens. The book opens thus : — 

" Beloued Reader, this booke is so need full and profitable, and the 
usance of thesame so necessarie, that his goodnes euen of learned men, 
is not fullie to be praised, for ther is noman in France, nor in this 
Netherland, nor in Spayne, or in Italie, handling [traffiquant, Fr.] in 
these Netherlandes, Which hat not neede of these seuen speaches that 
here in are Writen and declared : fer Whether that anyman doo mar- 
chandise, or that hee do handle in the Court [ou qu'il hante la Court], 
or that hee folio We the Warres, or that hee be a travailling man, 
hee should neede to haue an Interpretour for som of theese seuen 
speaches," &c. 

In the chapter, For to aske the Way, the travellers 
riding along meet a shepherdess, whereupon B. says, 
"Aske of that shee sheapherd." A. complies: "My 
shee freend, where is the right Way from hence to 

Introduction. xxxv 

AnWerp." The She replies : " Right before you, 
turnyng nether on te right nor on to left hand till you 
come to an high elme tree, then turne on the left hand." 
The traveller addresses Jone, the chambermaid at the 
inn, thus: "My shee frinde, is my bed made? is it 
good?" — "Yea Sir, it is a good federbed, the scheetes 
be very cleane." Traveller: "Pull of my hosen and 
Warme my bed : draWe the curtines, and pin then With 
a pin. — My shee frinde, kisse me once, and I shall 
sleape the better. — I thanke you fayre mayden." On 
the following morning " at the oprising," he calls 
to the boy, " Drie my shirt that I may rise;" then, 
" Where is the horse keeper ? go tell him that hee my 
horse leade to the river," &c. And at departure he 
inquires, " Where is ye maiden ? hold my shee freend, 
ther is for your paines. Knave, bring hither my horse, 
have you dressed him Well?" — "Yea Sir," the knave 
replies, " he did Wante nothing" 

It is to be feared that the above linguistic guides 
would avail but little those travellers who were anxious 
to express themselves with tolerable fluency in our 
vernacular. The Duke of Saxe -Weimar and his com- 
panions conversed in Latin with the Oxford students : 
it would therefore seem that they had a greater com- 
mand of this language, and would employ it when 
addressing persons of education, rather than French, 
which at this time had not yet grown to be the uni- 

xxxvi Introduction. 

versal tongue. Meteren, the Dutch merchant and 
historian, in 1575 travelled through England and Ire- 
land in company with his cousin Abraham Ortelius, the 
celebrated geographer ; but as Meteren had been resident 
in England some years previously, it is likely that he had 
acquired enough of our language to serve him in his 

It is, however, very questionable whether Latin as 
pronounced by the educated Englishman would be intel- 
ligible to the foreigner. Tom Coryat found his Latin 
so little understood when travelling on the Continent, 
that he soon found it necessary to abandon his old 
English pronunciation of vita, fides., and amicus, and 
adopt the Italian veeta, feedes, and ameecus. Neither is 
this, he says, "proper to Italy only, but to all other 
nations whatsoever in Christendome, saving to England." 
Milton was of opinion that the Italian pronunciation 
was necessary if one would talk with foreigners, and 
declared that " to smatter Latin with an English mouth 
is as ill a hearing as law French." When Cosmo III, 
Grand Duke of Tuscany, visited Cambridge in 1669, 1 
he could not, on account of the peculiar pronunciation, 

1 The Journal of Cosmo's Travels through England was written in 
Italian by Count Magalotti, and an English translation published in 
1821, in 4to. This work is frequently referred to by Lord Macaulay 
in his celebrated chapter on the " State of England in 1685." 

Introduction. xxxvii 

understand the Latin oration recited in his praise, nor the 
Latin comedy acted by the scholars. At Oxford the 
Latin speeches were equally unintelligible to him, nor 
could he understand the English, which had to be inter- 
preted to him. In Zinzerling's Notes there is mention 
made of resident interpreters for the benefit of the tra- 
velling Germans : a youth is named, and his address 
pointed out. In Finett's " Philoxenis," p. 202, one of 
these persons who undertook to cater for German princes, 
ambassadors and their suites, and to conduct them to 
London and about England, was summarily punished for 
attempting in 1627 to extort more money than was 
justly his due from the Danish ambassador, who made 
the complaint. 

Having gone over some of the ground of the litera- 
ture of early travel, as provided both by our ancestors 
and by the Germans for stimulating and encouraging 
the vagrant propensity so characteristic of the two 
peoples, it may now be desirable to go back in search of 
the earliest record of a visit to England by a foreigner * — 

1 There are two or three remarks on the English, by the old French 
chronicler Froissart, which are amusing. He passed, it will be re- 
membered, many years of his life in our country during the reigns of 
Edward III. and Richard II. The Englishmen, he says (cap. ccxlii. 
Lord Berners' translation), M are the pervloust people of the worlde, 
and most outragyoust if they be up, and specially the Londoners." 
In chap. ix. we are told that " these inglisshemen most commonly have 

xxxviii Introduction. 

not one of slight allusion merely, of which there must 
be many, but of lengthy and detailed description, and 
one fairly and worthily entering into the category of 
books of travel. Such a one we meet with in the 
account of the Pilgrimage undertaken " for the sake of 
piety and religion, " by the Bohemian baron, Leo von 
Rozmital, brother-in-law of the then reigning King of 
Bohemia, in various countries of Europe, (our own 
included,) in the year 1466, and during the reign of 
Edward IV. Notwithstanding the professed object of 
travel as above indicated — which seemed to consist in 
the intense enjoyment of the truly wonderful relics 
which everywhere met the eyes of the travellers — the 
Baron was nothing loath to fall in with the habits of the 
people who entertained him ; and we find him, accord- 
ingly, taking part in feastings, in tourneys, in dancings, 
and merry-makings. The whole journey, indeed, 
abounds in quaint and whimsical incidents, highly cha- 
racteristic of the age. The " brief and pleasant Com- 
mentary " which describes these particulars, w r as written 
by the baron's secretary, Schassek, who accompanied 

ever great envy at straungers ;" and in chap, xxxix. "the Englysshe- 
men were so prowde, that they set nothyng by ony nacyon but by their 
owne." And to the old chronicler is usually ascribed the observa- 
tion, that, even in the midst of their amusements and greatest hilarity 
(such as we may suppose a "going to the Derby "), the English are 
very sad, " moult tristes." — Sad fellows, very! 

Introduction. xxxix 

him, in his vernacular Bohemian ; and his narrative was 
translated into Latin and published a century afterwards 
(1577) at Olmutz. This now very scarce work was 
reprinted by the Literary Society of Stuttgart in 1844, 
joined with another narrative of the journey, penned in 
German by Gabriel Tetzel, a citizen of Nuremberg, 
one of the baron's suite. In 1824, a learned Moravian, 
J. E. Horky, made it the subject of an historical and 
critical work, published in German in two volumes at 
Brunn, and the late Mr. Richard Ford, the accomplished 
author of the " Handbook for Spain," contributed from 
its pages a pleasant article to the " Quarterly Review " 
for March 1852. 

At Sandwich, where they landed half dead from sea- 
sickness, the Bohemian tells us of a curious custom. 
" Every night persons with fiddles and horns peram- 
bulate the streets, announcing to merchants about to set 
sail, which way the wind blew. ,, 

The Baron was received by Edward the Fourth with 
great distinction. He spent several days in London, 
visiting the royal treasures, the monuments of the 
city, and relics of saints, to describe which accurately 
would, according to Schassek, fully occupy a couple of 
scribes for a fortnight. The Bohemian travellers' hair 
seems to have astonished our ancestors. — 

" Our long hair (says Schassek) was a great astonishment to them, 
for they declared they had never seen any who excelled us in the length 

xl Introduction. 

and beauty of the hair ; and they could by no means be made to 
believe that it was a natural growth, but they said it must have been 
stuck on with pitch. And whenever any of us thus long-haired 
appeared in public, he had more people to stare at him than if some 
strange animal had been exhibited." 

Leo (the ' Lion* in London) was invited to the Ceremony 
of the Churching of Queen Elizabeth Wood ville, in West- 
minster Abbey, and afterwards attended the banquet in 
Westminster Hall, and the ball which ensued. — 

" The women and maids who served the Queen at table, knelt as 
long as she ate. And she ate nigh three hours ( c und sie ass bey dreien 
stunden'). Every one was silent ; not a word spoken. My Lord with 
his companions stood in a recess and looked on." 

Mention is made by the foreigners of the " surpass- 
ingly beautiful damsels " present at the ball {uberschwenk- 
lichen schonen junkfrawen). Among them were eight 
Duchesses, and about thirty Countesses ; all the rest were 
daughters of mighty men. 

Notwithstanding the friendly reception of the Bohe- 
mians, Schassek declares the character of the English 
nation to be " so cunning and faithless, that a foreigner 
would not be sure of his life amongst them ; and that 
a Briton was not to be trusted even on his bended knees." 1 
Too bad this, Mr. Secretary Schassek ! 

1 Quod sint homines (ut mihi videtur) infidi et astuti, vitae 
hominum peregrinorum exitium molientes, qui licet submisse genu 
inflectant, non tamen illis fidem habeas. — " Commentarius brevh et 
jucundus Itineris" etc. Fo. 49 verso. 

Introduction. xli 

The notices of England which follow, during nearly 
a century, appear to be principally the relations of 
Ambassadors. The Lord of Gruthuyse (Louis de 
Bruges), a nobleman of Burgundy and a magnificent 
patron of learned men, came over to England in Sep- 
tember, 1472, on a special mission from Charles Duke of 
Burgundy to Edward the Fourth, who gave Gruthuyse a 
splendid reception, and created him Earl of Winchester. 
The narrative of his visit 1 affords some interesting 
particulars of the manners of the period. A few ex- 
tracts may be acceptable. 

After being regaled at Canterbury, Rochester, and 
Gravesend with wine, capons, " fezantes, pertryches," 
and other good things, he landed at Lyon Key, where he 
was received by the two Sheriffs of London. Two days 
afterwards he rode to the King at Windsor, where he 
was magnificently boarded and lodged. Three chambers 
were placed at his disposal. After supper the 

" Had hym to the Quenes [Elizabeth Woodville] chamber, where 
she had there her ladyes playing at the morteaulx [probably a game 
resembling bowls], and some of her ladyes and gentlewomen at the 
closheys [game of closh, or nine-pins] of yuery, and Daunsinge. And 
some at diuers other games. The whiche sight was full piesaunte to 
them. And the Kinge daunsed with my lady Elizabethe, his eldest 

1 See the " Cominge into Englande of the Lorde Grautehuse," printed 
in the Archceologw, vol. 26. From a contemporary MS. 


xlii Introduction. 

daughter'' [born 1465]. In the morning after hearing mass, " the Kinge 
gave the sayde Lorde Grautehuse a Cuppe of Golde, garnished with perle. 
In the myddes of the cuppe ys a greate pece of an Unicornes home, to my 
estimacyon, vij ynches compas, and on the cover was a great saffre." 
After breakfast " the Kinge had hym and all his Compeny into the 
lyttle Parke, where he made hym to haue greate Sporte. And there 
the Kinge made hym ryde on his owen horse, on a right feyre hoby, 
the whiche the Kinge gaue hym. Item, there in the Parke, the Kinge 
gaue hym a Royall Crosbowe, the strynge of silke, the case covered 
with velvette of the Kinges collours, and his armes andbagges [badges] 
thereapon. Also the heddes of quarrelles were gilte. The Kinges 
dynner was ordeined in the lodge ; before dynner they kylled no game, 
savinge a doe ; the whiche the Kinge gaue to the Seruauntes of the 
foresayde Lorde Grauthuse. And when the Kinge had dyned, they 
wente an huntinge again. And by the Castell were founden certein 
dere lyinge ; som with greyhoundes, and som renne to deathe with 
bucke houndes. There were slaine halfe a doussein buckes, the whiche 
the Kinge gaue to the sayde Lorde Grauthuse. By that tyme yt was 
nere night, yett the Kinge shewed hym his Garden, and Vineyard of 
Pleasour, and so turned into the Castell agayne, where they herde euen- 
songe in theire chambres." 

The Queen then gave a great banquet in her own 
chamber; several noble ladies of the Court were invited. 

" Item, there was a syde table, at the whiche satte a greate Vue 
[view, or number] of ladyes, all on the oon syde. Also in the utter 
chamber satte the Queen's gentlewomen all on oone syde. 

After supper there was dancing, u then, aboute ix of the clocke, the 
Kinge and the Ouene, with her ladies and gentlewomen brought the 
sayde Lorde Grautehuse to iij Chaumbres of Pleasance, all hanged with 
whyte sylke and lynnen clothe, and all the floures couered with carpettes. 
There was ordeined a Bedde for hym selue, of as good doune as coulde be 
gotten, the Shetes of Raynys [Rennes], also fyne fustyans ; the Counter- 

Introduction . xl i i i 

poynte clothe of golde, furred with armyn, the tester and the celer also 
shyninge clothe of golde, the Curteyns of whyte sarsenette ; as for his 
hedde sute and pillowes, [they] were of the Quenes owen ordonnance. 
Item, [in] the ijde Chambre was a other of astate, the whiche was alle 
whyte. And in the same chambre was made a Couche with fether 
beddes, hanged with a tente, knytt lyke a nette, and there was a cupp- 
borde. Item in the iij Chambre was ordeined a Bayne [Bath] or ij, 
which were couered with tentes of white clothe. And when the 
Kinge and the Quene, with all her ladyes and gentlewemen, had 
shewed hym these chambres, they turned againe to theire owen cham- 
bres, and lefte the sayde Lorde Grauthuse there, accompanied with my 
Lorde Chamberlein, whiche dispoyled hym, and wente bothe together 
to the Bayne . . . And when they had ben in theire Baynes as longe as 
was there pleasour, they had grene gynger, diuers cyryppes, comfyttes, 
and ipocras, and then they wente to bedde." 

The embassy of Andrea Trevisano to King Henry 
VII, in 1497, 1S considered to be the earliest Venetian 
ordinary embassy to the English Court. His Report or 
Relation of England — or rather the materials for it — has 
been translated and edited by Miss Sneyd for the Cam- 
den Society (1847), and accompanied by a valuable intro- 
ductory notice by the late Mr. Holmes, of the British 
Museum. At the time of publication of this interesting 
work by Miss Sneyd, neither the author nor the precise 
date of the Relation was known ; these facts were ascer- 
tained by Mr. Rawdon Brown, and mentioned in his 
work, " Giustinian's Four Years at the Court of Henry 
VIII," 1854. The English people are described as 
follows : — 

xliv Introduction. 

" The English are, for the most part, both men and women of all 
ages, handsome and well-proportioned j though not quite so much so, 
in my opinion, as it had been asserted to me. • I have understood from 
persons acquainted with these countries that the Scotch are much 
handsomer, and that the English are great lovers of themselves and 
of everything belonging to them ; they think that there are no other 
men than themsjelves, and no other world but England j and whenever 
they see a handsome foreigner, they say that c he looks like an English- 
man/ and that * it is a great pity that he should not be an Englishman ;' 
and when they partake of any delicacy with a foreigner, they ask him 
4 whether such a thing is made in their country ?' They take great 
pleasure in having a quantity of excellent victuals, and also in remaining 
a long time at table, being very sparing of wine when they drink it at 
their own expense. And this it is said they do in order to induce their 
other English guests to drink wine in moderation also ; not considering 
it any inconvenience for three or four persons to drink out of the same 
cup. Few people keep wine in their own houses, but buy it for the 
most part at a tavern ; and when they mean to drink a great deal, they 
go to the tavern, and this is done not only by the men, but by ladies 
of distinction. The deficiency of wine, however, is amply supplied by 
the abundance of ale and beer (a/a and birr a), to the use of which 
these people are become so habituated, that at an entertainment where 
there is plenty of wine, they will drink them in preference to it> and 
in great quantities. Like discreet people, however, they do not offer 
them to Italians, unless they should ask for them j and they think 
that no greater honour can be conferred or received, than to invite 
others to eat with them, or to be invited themselves, and they would 
sooner give Jive or six ducats to provide an entertainment for a person, than 
a groat to assist him in any distress. 3 ' (Pp. 20-22). 

Mr. Rawdon Brown, in his valuable work before 
referred to, has introduced a highly interesting narrative 
of the diplomatic mission of Piero Pasqualigo and 

Introduction. xlv 

Sebastiano Giustiniani to the Court of Henry VIII, 
in 1 51 5, from a very rare printed work in the British 
Museum, written by the former Ambassador. 

The Venetians were conducted in the royal barge or 
bucintor to Richmond Palace, where they were intro- 
duced to Henry VIII, (at that time twenty-four years 
old), after which they were invited to dine with his 
Majesty and hear mass. The voices of the royal 
choristers were in truth rather divine than human ; they 
did not chaunt, but sang like angels. On the first of 
May the Ambassadors went to Greenwich, for the 
purpose of celebrating " May-Day" and " gathering May- 
dew " on Shooter's Hill, in the company of the King, 
Queen Catherine of Aragon, and the Courtiers, all 
mounted on horseback. 

Pasqualigo writes : " His Majesty is the handsomest 
potentate I ever set eyes on." Tables were spread 
within bowers, where they ate — 

" What they call here a proper good breakfast, {un Brecafas a la 
polita.) His Majesty rode a bay Frieslander; he was dressed entirely 
in green velvet, Directly we came in. sight, he commenced making 
his horse curvet, and performed such feats that I fancied myself looking 
at Mars. He came into our arbour, and addressing me in French, 
said, ' Talk with me awhile! The King of France [Francis I.] is he 
as tall as I am ?' I told him there was but little difference. He con- 
tinued, ' Is he as stout ? ' I said he was not ; and then he inquired, 
'What sort of legs has he?' I replied, 'Spare.' Whereupon he 
opened the front of his doublet, and placing his hand on his thigh, said, 
' Look here ! and I have also a good calf to my leg.' ' 

xlvi Introduction. 

In 1543-4, a Spanish nobleman, Don Manriquez de 
Lara, Duke de Najera, a Knight of the Golden Fleece, 
visited England to pay his court to Henry VIII. He 
arrived in London, February 1 ith, and had an audience 
with his Majesty on the following Sunday. Afterwards 
he was conducted into the apartments of the Queen 
(Catherine Parr), when dancing was introduced, which 
lasted several hours ; and a Venetian gentleman capered 
so wonderfully, that he " appeared to have wings in his 
feet." Princess Mary is described as possessing a " pleas- 
ing countenance and person. She is so much beloved 
throughout the kingdom, that she is almost adored. " 
He went to see the lions at the Tower, bear-baiting 
at Paris Garden, which is " no bad sport to see them 
fight ; " a pony with an ape fastened to its back, 
and " to see the animal kicking amongst the dogs, with 
the screams of the ape, beholding the curs hanging from 
the ears and neck of the pony, is very laughable." He 
speaks in raptures of fair Thames, its fine bridge with 
the houses on it, and the multitude of swans in the 
river. The Duke stayed in London eight days. One 
of the Biscayan ships he had hired struck on a rock off 
the Isle of Dogs (La IJla Duque) and went to pieces. 
Thirty-three <nen perished. The narrative of his visit 
is contained in a Spanish MS, written by the Duke's 
Secretary, Pedro de Gante, and an extract from it was 
translated by Sir Frederic Madden, and communicated 
to the Archceologia, vol. 23. 

Introduction, xlvii 

A work entitled " Anglicae Descriptionis Compen- 
dium," by a French historian, Guillaume Paradin, was 
published in small 8vo, at Paris, in 1 545 ; but the author 
does not seem to have been in England. At page 7 
he says, " The climate is so healthy that men often 
live to 120 years, and that labourers never sweat." At 
page 8, " Shepherds never allow their sheep to drink any- 
thing but dew." Chap. 30 treats of the tailed Englishmen, 
" Anglos quosdam caudatos esse," particularly in the 
neighbourhood of Strood, Kent ; for the proper under- 
standing of which the reader is referred to the strange 
story in Lambarde's " Perambulation," 1576. 

In I545>6,Nicander Nucius,anativeofCorcyra,paid 
a visit to England. The Camden Society published his 
curious Narrative in Greek, with an English translation 
by the Rev. J. A. Cramer, in 1841. Nicander, having to 
remain in London awaiting King Henry VJII's final 
despatch of the affairs laid before him, set to work to 
investigate the peculiarities of our island, said to be the 
greatest in the world except Taprobane and Thule. 
The author says : — 

" As regards their manners and mode of living, ornaments and vest- 
ments, they resemble the French more than others, and for the most 
part they use their language. And in feasts and drinkings, and in 
pledgings of health and carousals, they differ in nothing from the 
French. Their nobles and rulers, and those in authority, are replete 
with benevolence and good order, and are courteous to strangers. But 
the rabble and the mob are, as it were, turbulent and barbarous in 

xlviii Introduction. 

their manner, as I have observed from experience and intercourse. 
And towards the Germans, Flemish, Italians, and Spanish they are 
friendly disposed. But towards the French they entertain not one 
kindly sentiment of goodwill. . . . Wherefore the French rarely dwell 
in London. 

" The race of men indeed is fair, inclining to a light colour ; in 
their persons they are tall and erect ; the hair of their beard and head 
is of a golden hue ; their eyes blue, for the most part, and their cheeks 
are ruddy ; they are martial and valorous, and generally tall ; flesh- 
eaters, and insatiable of animal food ; sottish and unrestrained in their 
appetites; full of suspicion. But towards their King they are won- 
derfully well affected, nor would anyone of them endure any thing dis- 
respectful of the King, through the honour they bear him ; so that the 
most binding oath taken by them is that by which c the King's life ' 
has been pledged. 

" The horses are naturally swift-footed and very fleet, and for the 
more part white." 

Paulus Jovius (Giovio), Bishop of Nocera, in 1548 
published a work, " Descriptio Britanniae," at Venice. 
It is a compilation, and his statements are little to be 
trusted ; nor does the author appear to have visited 
England. Speaking of the Isle of Wight, he remarks, 
" The people there are pleased because they have no 
monks, lawyers, wolves, or foxes." He says, " The 
females are fair and beautiful, but they are not so 
learned and highly cultivated as our own ladies." 

Girolamo Cardano, a physician and astrologer of 
Milan, visited Scotland in 1552, at the invitation of 
John Hamilton, Archbishop of St. Andrews, whom he is 
said to have cured of asthma. Among other things, he 
advised for his patient turtle soup and distilled snails ! His 

Introduction. xlix 

fame having reached the ears of Edward VI, who was 
suffering from an affection of the lungs, that " marvellous 
boy" wished to consult the Italian physician on his case. 
Cardan rode on horseback from Scotland through Eng- 
land, and was introduced at Court in October by Sir 
John Cheke, with whom he lodged. The astrologer 
cast the young king's nativity, and predicted a long life 
for him. Unfortunately Edward died in the following 
year; but Cardan, accustomed to such mischances, re- 
vised his calculations, corrected his figures, and made 
out to his own satisfaction that the king had died 
according to all the rules of astrology. The eccentric 
career of Cardan has been traced by Mr. Morley, whose 
interesting work was published in 2 vols. 8vo. 1854. 

The following curious extracts relating to the people 
of England have been translated from Cardan's Dialogus 
de Morte, at the end of his work " Somniorum Syne- 
siorum libri 1111." (4*0. Basil. 1585, p. 371, &c): — 

" It is worth consideration,' ' he reports, " that the English care 
little or not at all for death. In figure they are much like the Italians ; 
they are white — whiter than we are, not so ruddy ; and they are broad- 
chested. There are some among them of great stature ; urbane and 
friendly to the stranger, but they are quickly angered, and are in that 
state to be dreaded. They are strong in war, but they want caution ; 
greedy enough after food and drink, but therein they do not equal the 
Germans. There are great intellects among them. In dress they are 
like Italians ; for they are glad to boast themselves most nearly allied 
to them, and therefore study to imitate as much as possible their 


1 Introduction. 

manner and their clothes. And yet, even in form, they are more 
like the Germans, the French and the Spaniards. The English are 
faithful, liberal, and ambitious. But as for fortitude, the things done 
by the Highland Scots are the most wonderful. They, when they are 
led to execution, take a piper with them ; and he, who is himself often 
one of the condemned, plays them up dancing to their death." 

Speaking of the English language, Cardan says : — 

" I wondered much, especially when I was in England, and rode 
about on horseback in the neighbourhood of London, for I seemed to 
be in Italy. When I looked among those groups of English sitting 
together, I completely thought myself to be among Italians ; they 
were like, as I said, in figure, manners, dress, gesture, colour ; but 
when they opened their mouths I could not understand so much as a 
word, and wondered at them as if they were my countrymen gone 
mad and raving. For they inflect the tongue upon the palate, twist 
words in the mouth, and maintain a sort of gnashing with the teeth." 

The Italian " Relation of England," which was drawn 
up by the Venetian Ambassador, Giovanni Micheli in 
1556-7, is considered to be the best and most trustworthy 
of those valuable and important narratives. A transla- 
tion of a great portion has been introduced by Sir Henry 
Ellis in his " Letters," Second Series, vol. 2. We have 
made use, in our Notes, of certain extracts translated 
from the larger Report. 

Master Estienne Perlin, " estudiant en Tuniversite 
de Paris," visited England in the last two years of 
Edward VI, and was an eyewitness of some of the me- 
morable events that marked the commencement of the 
reign of Queen Mary. His " Description des Royaulmes 

Introduction. li 

d'Angleterre et d'Escosse" was published at Paris in 1 558. 1 
He was a right good hater of the English, and we have 
quoted many of his observations and remarks upon perfide 

As we approach the times of that " bright occidental 
star, Queen Elizabeth, of most happy memory," we 
remark without surprise the increase of our foreign 
travellers; their curiosity was naturally excited to be- 
hold with their own eyes those much-vaunted charms, 
extraordinary virtues, and princely qualities with which 
the maiden Majesty of England was endowed ; and 
mention of their visits to her Court is frequently made 
in Nichols's Progresses of the Queen. Some came 
only to see the angel in the house, some ventured even 
to woo, but none could win the fair prize. One of the 
most extraordinary of these visits was made by a woman — 
by no less a personage, no meaner beauty, than Cecilia, 
daughter of the great Gustavus Vasa, King of Sweden, 
and sister of that Eric who was one of the disappointed 
suitors for the hand of Elizabeth. This Swedish lady, 
who is a very prototype of the wayward and eccentric 
Christina, had an intense longing to travel and to imitate 
the far-famed example of the Queen of Sheba. She 
had heard much from her brother John in praise of 
Elizabeth when he visited the English Court in 

1 Gough reprinted the work in 1775, in 4to. 

lii Introduction. 

1559-60, with the purpose of urging the suit of King. 
Eric. To England and to England's Queen, Lady Cecilia 
was determined to go. Accordingly, on November 17, 
1564, she left Stockholm — not in the capacity of an 
" unprotected female," but shielded by the strong arm 
of her noble husband, the Margrave of Baden, to whom 
she had recently been married. After encountering 
perils by sea and perils by land, the pair reached London, 
and took up their quarters at Bedford House, ten weary 
months having passed since they left the shores of their 
native north. 

Four days after her arrival (September 15, 1565), 
Lady Cecilia brought into the world an infant son, who 
was christened in the Queen's Chapel at Whitehall, her 
Majesty herself being godmother and naming the little 
stranger Edwardus Fortunatus, " for that God had 
gratiously assisted his mother in so long and dangerous 
a journey and brought her safe." Matthew Parker, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Duke of Norfolk 
were the godfathers. 

How the lady prospered at Court, with what speed 
and success she brought her necessities before the notice 
of the Queen, and in what estimation she and " my Lord 
Marquis" were held by our countrymen, the letter- writers 
and State Papers of that age sufficiently disclose. 

Among other royal favours conferred, Roger Ascham, 
" Secretary for the Latin Tongue," received orders " to 

Introduction. liii 

turn into Latin" a Patent for allowance of an annual 
pension of iooo crowns to the Lady Cecilia, daughter 
of the King of Sweden. 

Before long it was reported that my Lord Marquis 
had left London, intending to return homewards, but on 
his arriving at Rochester he was arrested, by order of the 
mayor, for large debts due to sundry London tradesmen — 
butchers, poulterers, jewellers, and others — who had 
supplied the Lady Cecilia with their goods. The mayor 
reports to the council that Christopher, Marquis of 
' Bawdwyn,' was a prisoner in his custody, that his be- 
haviour was outrageous, and asks for instructions. An 
Italian puts forward a claim for a kirtle wrought with 
gold, and a Venice lute. The lady herself writes in 
trouble to Cecil, complaining of the conduct of her 
groom, who detained certain silver mountings made for 
her saddles. It appears that she was, in the end, compelled 
to sell her jewels, and to call in the aid of the Queen, 
before the unlucky pair could get out of their difficulties 
and distresses ; and that even when they had reached 
one stage further, at Dover, an attachment was applied 
for against my Lady for a debt of .£300. 

The poor Margrave of Baden-Baden terminated his 
career in 1575, at his Castle of Rodemachern, burthened 
with debts contracted by the extravagance of his wife. 
After his death, she, like her more celebrated great-niece 
Christina, embraced the Catholic faith, and died in 1627, 

liv Introduction. 

at the age of eighty-seven, after leading a rambling and 
dissolute life. 

Edward "the Fortunate" was not destined to justify 
the epithet which the Queen of England had bestowed 
upon him. He too, imitating his mother, became a 
Roman Catholic, and inherited the possessions of his 
father; but, like that father, being greatly involved in 
debt, he was forced to take refuge in the Netherlands, 
where he served under the Archduke Albert, and met 
his death in consequence of a fall at an entertainment in 
1600. From him the present Margraves are descended. 
Following the example of his uncle, King Eric, he had 
contracted an union with a person much beneath his 
station ; for a considerable time the marriage was not 
acknowledged, and the legitimacy of the issue was con- 

Helena, afterwards the Marchioness of Northampton, 
to whom the poet Spenser dedicated his Daphnaida in 
1 591, came over in the retinue of the wandering princess. 
She was a Swedish lady, and was happy enough to resign 
her maiden name of Snachenberg, when she became the 
third wife of the Marquis of Northampton. She sub- 
sequently married Sir Thomas Gorges, and died in 1635, 
aged eighty-six. The inscription on her monument in 
Salisbury Cathedral is incorrect in making Cecilia the 
daughter (" filiam "), instead of the sister, of Eric, King 
of Sweden ; this has been overlooked by the Salisbury 

Introduction, lv 

Camden has recorded the visit to England of a Polish 
nobleman, by name Albert Alasco, who made both 
his entrance and his exit in the year 1583, under circum- 
stances closely resembling those which attended the de- 
parture of my lord Marquis of Baden, but with a more 
successful issue : — 

" The same summer came from Poland, neighbouring vpon Russia, 
into England to visit the Queene, one Albret Alasco, Count Palatine 
of Sirad, a man most learn'd, of comly stature and lineaments, wearing 
his Beard long, richly cloathed, and of gracefull behauiour. The 
Queene with much bounty and loue receiued him ; the Nobles with 
great honour and magnificence entertained him \ and the Vniuersitie of 
Oxford with learned recreations, and diuers pastimes delighted him ; 
but after a while finding himself e ouercharged with debt^ he priuily stole 
away." — Camden's Annales^ 4-to. Lond. 1625, book 3, p. 42. 

We have now arrived at the period when Frederick, 
Duke of Wirtemberg, the " Cosen Garmombles,' , 
and " Duke de Jamanie ' : of the Merry Wives of 
Windsor, paid a visit to the far-famed kingdom of 
England. The narrative of his travel and experiences 
in this country in 1592, was drawn up by the duke's 
private secretary, Herr Jacob Rathgeb, who accom- 
panied him in his wanderings. The book was published 
at Tubingen in 1602, in 4to, and is the earliest work of 
this description that we have met with in the reign of 
Elizabeth ; it therefore takes precedence in our volume. 

Frederick, Duke of Wirtemberg and Count Mom- 
pelgard (in French, Montbeliard), was born August 1 9th, 

lvi Introduction. 

i S5J- 1 He studied at the University of Tubingen, giving 
his attention particularly to history, politics, natural 
philosophy and its branches. Being fond of foreign arts 
and customs, and eager, like the wise Ulysses of old, to 
observe and study the manners of many men and cities, 
he set out, in his twenty-third year, on a tour through 
Bohemia, Saxony, Holstein, Denmark, Silesia, Moravia, 
Hungary, returning through Vienna to Stuttgart, after 
an absence of four months. In November of the same 
year (1580) he married Sibylla, a princess of Anhalt. 
In the following year he became possessed of the county 
of Mompelgard, where he took up his residence. 

In 1592, the Count, still intent on the acquisition of 
wisdom and experience, contemplated another far-distant 
and more important tour, and this was now in the direc- 
tion of England. Accordingly, on the 10th of July, he 
set out with two coaches and several riding horses. His 
companions included a steward, a counsellor, a physician, 
grooms of the bed-chamber, his secretary Jacob Rathgeb, 
the author of the printed journal, with a queue of barber, 
tailor, &c. At Cassel, Frederick visited the Landgrave 
William, who was at that time seriously ill, but from 
whom he obtained a Latin letter of introduction to 
Queen Elizabeth, which soon proved to be of the greatest 
service to him, and probably even saved his life. For 

1 His name is not to be found in the biographical dictionaries. 

Introduction. Ivii 

on reaching Olderson, in East Friesland, the Prince and 
his party were attacked by a band of Stadian freebooters, 
the innkeeper having given out that the travellers were 
Spaniards. They were in bed, when at midnight the 
robbers rushed in upon them with guns and drawn swords. 
The Prince, with those of his suite in a small room, pre- 
pared to defend their lives, and having himself pitched 
the captain or ringleader down the stairs, they fastened 
and barricaded the door, loaded their muskets, and stood 
ready for a siege. The freebooters blustered and threatened 
for a long while, till at length the Prince produced the 
letter directed to the Queen of England, thrusting it 
through a small window ; but when they saw the super- 
scription they appeared satisfied and withdrew, after 
having had " something for drink" (etwas zuver trine ken), 
given to them by way of acknowledgment for their 
courtesy and the trouble they had taken. 

It is a curious coincidence that only two or three 
months later than the above affair, viz. in October 1592, 
our roving countryman Fynes Moryson, of whom we 
have before spoken, travelled over the very same dangerous 
ground, and in his Itinerary (16 17, p. 37, &c.) he has 
related some droll adventures he met with in his endeavour 
to escape this terrible band of freebooters, of whose un- 
gentle exploits he had heard so much, and who were said 
to be very particular in their inquiries after Englishmen. 
He accordingly disguised himself as a poor Bohemian 


lviii Introduction. 

boor, besmeared his face, and thus accoutred he went on 
his way merrily, his " hands in his hose." He travelled the 
distance from Stode [Stade] to Emden sometimes on foot, 
sometimes in waggons, and concealing his money in his 
shoes. Thus he passed Bremen, " a filthy place," (ex- 
pressed more strongly by the Wirtemberg travellers — 
" a nasty, stinking place," ein unflatige stinckete Statt), 
through Steinweck ; Oldenburg, where he had a drink 
of English beer, the goodness whereof made his com- 
panions " speake much in honour of England and of the 
Queene, with much wonder that shee, being a Virgine, 
was so victorious against the Spaniards." At Leere he 
heard news of the cut-throats being at Aurick. " Their 
chief captain was Hans Jacob, a notable roge, and very 
malicious to the English, whom he used to spoyl of their 
apparell, mocking them with these English words, 'I 
cannot tell!'" Arrived at Aldernsea, "-the freebooters 
spies came to the inn and gaped upon us, but seeing us 
all covered with durt, they tooke us for poore men, and 
a prey unfit to be followed." Shortly afterwards Mory- 
son reached Emden in safety, much to his delight, and 
there, he says, " I wrote myselfe an Englishman I" 

But to return to his Highness of Wirtemberg. On 
arriving at Emden, a bargain was made with the captain 
of a i o-gun ship to take him and his suite to Dover for 
eighty gold or sun crowns, exclusive of provisions. They 
embarked on the 7th of August. It is at this point that 

Introduction. lix 

our translation of the Journal of the English Travels 
{Badenfahrt) of Duke Frederick of Wirtemberg com- 
mences. After an apparently agreeable stay in this coun- 
try for a month, visiting the Queen at Reading, and 
viewing the more remarkable objects of interest in and 
within a short distance from London, they took shipping 
at Gravesend on September 5th. We now-a-days term 
Oxford and Cambridge " short distances ;" but what an 
undertaking was it to reach those places in the reigns of 
Elizabeth and James ! We remark in these Journals how 
slowly the travellers went over the ground, how wretched 
the state of the roads — in many places almost impassable 
— the hired and tired post-horses dragging the lumbering 
coach out of the mud and mire, and no others to be had. 1 
We must not forget also the desperate highwayman ever 
on the look-out for Viator's fat purse, on Gad's Hill, 
Shooter's Hill, and other dangerous spots. 2 Journeys 
were undertaken mostly on horseback; coaches were a 
very expensive luxury, and not to be hired anywhere but 
in London. This may serve to explain why the foreigners 
did not extend their tours into more distant parts of 

The homeward journey was anything but prosperous, 
for hardly had they got half-seas over, when a violent 
storm arose, and they expected every moment to go to 

1 See pp. 30, 31. 2 See p. 49. 

lx Introduction. 

the bottom. They were obliged to throw overboard the 
guns and merchandize ; the ship's compass was broken ; 
thrice did they sit up to their waists in water. In this 
extremity Count Mompelgard displayed the utmost in- 
trepidity and courage, and from his water-bed 1 spake 
words of cold comfort to his companions in distress, and 
inspirited the sailors. " Now, of a truth (Rathgeb ex- 
claims) the proverb was verified — * He that would learn 
to pray y let him go to sea ! ' " The storm lasted a whole day 
and a night ; at length, however, the voyagers landed 
safely at Rammekens, and passing Dockum in Friesland, 
escaping still another danger, arrived at Mompelgard on 
the 1 9th of October. 

The Wirtemberg historian Sattler 2 relates that, during 
this visit of the Count, Queen Elizabeth had promised 
to receive him into the Order of the Garter, and that this 
honour would have been conferred upon him on that 
occasion if the Queen had been minded to stretch the laws 
of the Order ; for, according to these, the number of the 
Knights was limited to twenty-six, and as this number 
was already complete, it became necessary to defer the 
fulfilment of his cherished hopes till another time. There 
is, however, no allusion to this promise of the Queen in 

1 The book is jocosely entitled " Badenfahrt," or Bathing-trip; this 
will be more fully explained hereafter. 

2 Geschichte des Herzogthums Wiirtenberg unter der Regierung der 
Herzogen (1772), Theil v. p. 160. 

Introduction . lxi 

Rathgeb's Journal of his travels ; but it has been main- 
tained, as well by Cellius in his Account of the Ceremony 
of the Duke's Investiture, 1 which took place at Stuttgart 
in 1603, as in the Correspondence between the Duke 
himself, Queen Elizabeth, and King James, which is 
found in the Museum and the Public Record Office. 2 
The first letter we have met with is from Frederick; Count 
Montbeliard, to the Queen, dated Stuttgart, April 2nd, 
1593, in which, after some phrases of compliment, he 
writes : — 

" Your Majesty will doubtless remember what / in my own person 
humbly asked ofyou y together with the favorable reply made to me. With 
this object in view, and because the proper time is near at hand, I 
have despatched this bearer, a gentleman and good soldier, to solicit my 
affairs, trusting to receive by him a favorable and much wished-for 

Her Majesty, in her letter of May 31st, 3 does not touch 
on this matter so fraught with interest to the German 
Prince, but merely assures her "cousin" [alluding of 
course to " Cosen Garmombles ,, ], how happy she has 
been to hear of his escape from the dangers of the stormy 
weather in his so long a journey, which he had under- 
taken out of honour and affection to herself. On the 17th 

1 Eques Auratus Anglo- Wirtembergicus, 4to. Tubingae, 1605. 

2 The letters in the British Museum, being but very few in number, 
are expressly noted ; the others are in the Public Record Office, classed 
under " Germany." 

3 Endorsed " Cop. of her Mat 6 Ire to the Conte Montbeliard." 

lxii Introduction. 

of August, Count Mompelgard, now Duke of Wirtem- 
berg, sends over a special messenger to announce to her 
Majesty his succession to the Duchy on the death of his 
cousin Louis, which took place on the 8th of August, and 
hoping that she will be pleased to accept the intelli- 
gence agreeably. This letter (Cott. MS. Vesp. F. III.) is 
signed " Vostre Majeste treshumble et affectionne Cheva- 
llier et Serviteur, Friderich Due de Wirteberg," a fac- 
simile of which is given in our portrait of the Duke. 
The copy of Elizabeth's reply, on September 20th, in 
Lord Burghley's hand- writing, is in the Record Office. It 
is a strange composition in English, 1 interlarded with 
French quotations from the Duke's previous letter: — 

" M5 Coosin, we have receaved your Ire dated y e 17 of y e last moth, 
by which you do advertise us y* it hath pleased God to rappel de ce vail 
miserable a la vie eternell vre Coosy le Due louys de Wurteberg, and 
thereuppo yow hav take y* possessio de ce que a vous apartient .... 
Yow ar known to us to be a piice worthely born to sucede in y* dig- 
nite," &c. 

On the 10th of February, 1594, the Duke writes to 
the Queen, sending good wishes at the commencement 
of a new year, and he reminds her that he is still "attendant 
d'icelle, une par moy tant desire responnce." This letter 
has been, with others, wrongly endorsed " From the 
Prince Elector Frederick." 

1 This letter is endorsed " Coppie of hir Mat e . Ire to the Duke of 
Witteberg 5" but it seems more probable that it was merely the draft, 
to be put into form by the Secretary. 

Introduction. lxiii 

On the 20th of February he commissions Joachim 
Jhering to purchase in England iooo pieces of cloth, and 
requests the favour of having them duty free. {Cott. MS. 
Vefp. F. III.) 

On the 17th of May the Queen addresses, from her 
" Maison de Grenwich," a long epistle in French to the 
Duke, referring to the receipt of his letter of the 1st of 
March, which no doubt contained another urgent request 
on his part to be admitted a Knight of the Garter. 

She explains the matter thus : — 

" As to what you have reminded us of a promise made of our Order, 
we pray you to take in good part the reply which we formerly gave on 
this subject (you being here) to the Ambassador of the most Christian 
King our Brother, — viz. that seeing there are sovereigns and princes, 
our neighbours, accustomed, from time immemorial, to be received 
into the said order, who are not yet admitted, — even those who although 
elected some years ago have not obtained investiture, we could not incur 
the remark of a remissness towards them, and some other princes who 
are from day to day awaiting it (at which they might with reason feel 
aggrieved), and confer it upon others, leaving those unsatisfied to whom 
we are bound by promise, which our honour obliges us to carry out. 
Were it not that these motives, which we feel assured you will find 
just, retard the fervour of our good will, such is the estimation in which 
we hold your virtues, and the assurance we have of your devotion to- 
wards us, that we should think all honour inferior to your merit. But 
such being the state of things, we would pray you to content yourself 
for this time with these just excuses, awaiting a favourable opportunity 
to avenge ourselves of the honour and affection which you bear to us, 
and for which we shall never be found ungrateful." 

The Duke on the 12th of December addresses a re- 
quest to Lord Burghley to be allowed to transport, free 

lxiv Introduction. 

of duty, iooo pieces of cloth, sending him a gold chain 
for his trouble. {Lansd. MS. 76.) 

Now the Duke, mortified as it would seem at the delay 
and the check given to his fondest hopes, despatches in 
March of the following year (1595), his " Domestique 
po r les Affaires," Hans Jacob Breuning von Buchenbach, 1 
in expectation that the eloquence of his ambassador would 
produce that good result which letters had hitherto failed 
to accomplish. Breuning was (says Sattler) " a man who 
by rare travels had acquired the regard of the Duke, and 
was acquainted with several languages." 2 Her Majesty 
gave him the first audience on the 6th of April. As 
soon as he entered the so-called Privy Chamber she 
advanced towards him with open arms, nearly to the 
centre of the room, and allowed him to kiss her hand ; 
she then stepped back and seated herself in a chair under 
a canopy of cloth of gold. When the ambassador was 

1 The Duke's letter, introducing this ambassador to the Queen, dated 
March 1st, is in the Record Office. 

2 Breuning subsequently (1612) published an account of his Eastern 
Travels, in a small folio volume, entitled " Orientalische Reyss," em- 
bracing Turkey, Greece, Egypt, Arabia, Palestine, and Syria. In the 
Preface he alludes to his former travels in France, England, and Italy, of 
which he gives no description, because, in his opinion, those countries 
were sufficiently well known. The " Eastern Travels" were published 
by desire of the young Duke of Wirtemberg, John Frederick, to whom 
he dedicates the book, dated 1605. The volume contains the author's 
portrait and many other engravings. 

Introductio?!. 1 


about to go down on his knees she would not allow it, 
and he was obliged to deliver standing his address 1 in 
Italian, which was the Queen's favourite language. 2 
After the audience, General Norris and other distin- 
guished English noblemen accompanied him to his coach, 
and [Sir Henry] Wotton, secretary to the Earl of Essex, 
to his lodging." 

So far according to Sattler; let us turn now to an 
original letter of Breuning, the ambassador, dated London, 
9th of April, which reveals to us some very curious and 
startling circumstances in relation to his audience of the 
previous day above referred to. It is addressed in Latin 
to Lord Burghley, 3 and he writes to the illustrious Baron 
as follows : — 

" With reference to the subject which your Excellency brought 
before me yesterday, I should there in person have excused myself more 
fully, if I had not perceived that your Excellency would not at that time 
have given me a dispassionate hearing. But since before God I am 
in truth innocent of the offence [criminis) of which your Excellency 
has accused me, I have therefore thought proper to send you this letter, — 
not because I wish to contend with one to whose authority I willingly 
concede, but for the sake of defending my honour, my name, and my 

1 This speech is printed in Sattler s Appendix, No. 32, and is dated 
April 6th, 1595. In it the ambassador alludes more than once to the 
" benignissime Regie promesse" made to his master three years pre- 

2 Queen Elizabeth's Italian master was Battista Castiglione. 

3 Lansd. MS. No. 79, among Lord Burghley's Papers. The letter is 
endorsed, in an old hand, "The Duke of Wittenberges Messinger. ,, 


1 x vi Introduction . 

most noble family. I call the great God to witness that, by His favour, 
I have from my youth held that vice (id vicium ), above all things, in 
the greatest abhorrence. Far be it from me that I should have dared 
to appear before such a Majesty in such a state ! On that day I had 
not even allowed myself to dine, in order that I might explain rightly 
and worthily the matters with which I was charged. But that I was 
unable to utter with becoming promptitude before her gracious Majesty 
what I had conceived in my mind : I again and with truth affirm there 
was no other reason than this, — that the unusual splendour and regal 
Majesty (the like of which hath not any other part of Europe, nor Asia, 
nor Africa, the chief places in which I have visited,) at first so stupified 
me that my mind became confused. After that I was not sufficiently 
acquainted with a foreign language so as to speak extempore ; her 
Majesty's interruption occasioned me to forget the speech I had pre- 
pared, so that my voice stuck in my throat (vox faucibus harens\ and 
caused my tongue to stammer. Such being the case, I implore and 
most urgently beg of your Excellency to change that unfavourable 
opinion which you have conceived of me, and that you will hold me in 
better estimation, and believe me to be a different character." 

What other conclusion can we draw from the above 
than this, that poor Breuning had been complained of 
for having appeared before the great Queen Elizabeth in 
a state of — must it be said — intoxication ? His explana- 
tion and apology were, without doubt, accepted by the 
noble lord, notwithstanding that the ambassador thought 
proper to address by the inelegant title of " Le Baron de 
Bug/ay" — " Cecil, the grave, the wise, the great, the 
good," as Ben Jonson styles him. 

Breuning, in his letter, then comes to the main object 
of his mission to England, viz. his master's speedy ac- 
quisition of the Garter, according to royal promise. He 

Introduction. lxvii 

begs her Majesty to be mindful of this, and now at length 
to vouchsafe to grace the Duke with that earnestly wished- 
for dignity. In conclusion, he is commissioned by his 
Highness to entreat of his Excellency to aid him in his 
endeavours to obtain it. 

Sattler, who would seem to have had before him 
Breuning's report of his proceedings in England, which 
is in the Royal Library at Stuttgart, continues his narra- 
tive : — 

" But many were the honors shown to the Ambassador, yet his re- 
quest met with great difficulties, because the King of France, and James, 
King of Scotland, had been already elected but had not yet received the 
ensigns of the Order, since by the rules of the Order under such cir- 
cumstances no new choice could possibly take place. The greatest 
difficulty, however, was that the Queen herself could no more remember 
having promised the Order to the Duke. But it was conjectured that 
she had secret reasons for making this excuse, because the Duke placed 
the entire ground of his hope upon this promise, and the Ambassador 
repeated this very often. Notwithstanding, however, the Queen re- 
mained firm in her resolution, and the Ambassador in uncertainty, yet 
he was invited to the Feast of the Order which then took place, 1 and 
was fetched in two coaches, with very many attendants, by a dis- 
tinguished nobleman, Neville. On this occasion Breuning fell into a 
precedence squabble ; for Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse Cassel had 
Count Philip von Solms as his Ambassador at that court, on whose 
right hand Breuning had kept himself as much as he was able all the 
time both in going and returning. The English made a greater fuss 
with this Count, partly because he was already known to them, and 

1 On St. George's Day, April 23rd, which is generally said to be 
Shakespeare's birthday. 

lxviii Introduction. 

partly because he was a Count. When now both envoys were to 
occupy the table in the Earl of Essex's chamber, and my lord Brackhorst 
(Thomas Sackville, Lord Buckhurst, afterwards Earl of Dorset,) had 
placed Von Solms solitary and alone on a stool at the head of a vacant 
table, the latter took this honour for granted ; a seat at the side, how- 
ever, was assigned to Breuning, the Wirtemberg ambassador, who 
openly protested against this before Von Solms and all the English 
gentlemen present, who were in attendance upon them. The Count 
would neither rise nor yield, until at last Breuning approached the door 
and threatened to depart, when the Count von Solms, at the entreaty of 
the English gentlemen, resolved upon giving way, and an English my 
lord, in the name of the Queen, took the upper place. While now 
the Count intimated that he had no order for any innovation, Breuning 
placed himself by the side of my lord at the upper end, and gave the 
Count to understand that he well knew how he was to behave towards 
a Count, but he likewise remembered that they both represented not 
their own but their masters' persons. This quarrel was presently 
brought under the notice of the Queen, and known to the whole 
Court, and caused great honour to the Duke as well as to the Am- 
bassador. 1 

"The 26th of April was appointed for another audience, when 
Breuning was conducted with no other person than Benjamin von 
Buwinghausen into the presence of the Queen, who addressed him in 
Latin as follows : ' I have perfectly understood all the matters which 
you have lately brought before me in the Italian language, in the name 
of your illustrious Prince, and which subsequently by my order you 
have represented in writing on the same subject in Latin. For this 
reason I have sent for you, that I might tell you what you must explain 
from me to your illustrious Prince. And if you should have anything 
to speak to me more at large, which on account of the number of 

1 This " clash " between the ambassadors, Sir John Finett, master 
of the ceremonies to Charles T, would have been delighted to recount. 

Introduction. lxix 

bystanders you perchance omitted to declare, you can now freely bring 
it forward. For now I wish to speak familiarly with you.' The 
Ambassador answered that he hoped to be able to take back with him 
to his Master a satisfactory answer in reference to the promised Order. 
Her Majesty thereupon gave him to understand that she could remember 
no promise made, and that the Ambassador who had been sent to her 
a year ago, had misunderstood her answer. For she could not, on 
account of other knights already elected, but to whom the ensigns of 
the Order were not yet sent, deviate from the rules of the Order. 
Now the Ambassador could not call to mind that any one had been 
sent to the Queen on this suit. There was, however, at that time at 
the royal court a certain Stammler, who had given himself out for a 
Wirtemberg envoy, and had laid his credentials before the High Trea- 
surer, but who had no other business than to purchase English cloth. 
This person made himself despicable by his conduct, and was banished 
the kingdom on account of his discreditable tricks, Nevertheless, 
Breuning perceived quite well that such a circumstance would operate 
as a great obstacle to his solicitation. For this reason he requested 
a written reply, which the Queen promised him, and she still further 
proposed to apprise the Duke — (ist) That he should constantly bear 
in mind what she had told him three years before, namely, that German 
Princes should not meddle in any foreign quarrels, but only care for 
what concerned them ; (2ndly) Not to suffer the agitations and libels 
of theologians ; (3rdly) To provide every assistance and security for 
English merchants and subjects ; and lastly, That he should not give 
credence to the evil reports current against the Queen, but should 
defend her. On which points she conversed for nearly an hour 
standing, notwithstanding that she had attained the 64th [62d] year 
of her age." 

The draft of the written reply of her Majesty above 
alluded to is in the Record Office. It is in French, and 
wholly relates to the Duke's oft-repeated request for the 

lxx Introduction. 

Garter. She regrets the difficulties and obstacles which 
have presented themselves ; her own wish is as prompt 
and ready as the Duke himself could desire. She wishes 
that he had borne in mind certain reasons she formerly 
gave him on this very subject, which, if rightly weighed, 
might have induced him to spare the labour of the gen- 
tleman his messenger. After explaining these at some 
length, she concludes : " Your messenger will relate to 
you more at large the matters which we have given him 
in charge." 1 

On the 14th of July the Duke writes two letters, one 
to the Queen in answer to the above, the other to Lord 
Burghley. 2 The former is couched in a very humble 
strain, and he assures her Majesty that he is content to 
await her royal promise, and begs that she will not take 
in bad part his so frequent solicitations and reiterated 
applications (" mes sy souuentes solicitations et recharges"} 
The second letter enters into a long explanation, in a 
tone of offended dignity, respecting the free transporta- 
tion of 1000 pieces of cloth for his own use, and the 
misunderstanding arising from the proceedings of a certain 

1 The endorsement on the letter reads : " Aprill, 1595. Draught 
of a Ire w ch I conceaved upon the remembrance of one w ch Mr. 
Lock translated out of English to the Conte Montbeliart, from her 
Ma tie ." 

2 The former, written in French, is in the Record Office \ the latter, 
in Latin, in the British Museum (Lansd. MS. No. 79). 

Introduction. lxxi 

person employed for this purpose a few years before 
(evidently the aforesaid Stammler). At the same time he 
takes occasion to thank his Lordship, as well as Sir Robert 
Cecil, his son, for their promises of assistance. 

A lull follows ; but, according to Assum, 1 the Duke 
received letters from the Queen, dated Jan. ioth, 1597, 
giving him to understand that he would shortly be 
elected. On May 10 [April 30, old style in England] 
his Highness sent three letters by one of his domes- 
tics to the English court : viz. to the Queen, to Lord 
Burghley, and to Sir Robert Cecil. In the first, he 
employs very humble and complimentary language, 
and wishes her Majesty long life and victory over 
her enemies ; at the same time he begs her " d'auoir 
souuenance de ses Royalles promesses a moy faictes." He 
solicits the aid of the ' Baron de Bourghley' — "pour 
avancer mes affaires'' — and waits a reply ; and he writes 
in a similar strain to Sir Robert Cecil, accompanying the 
request with a "petite souvenance" promised by his am- 
bassador, Breuning, two years before. The Duke follows 
this up by a letter dated August 3rd [July 24, O. S.], in 
which he says, that knowing her Majesty is curious in 
seeing artificial things of foreign countries, he sends 
her a handsome present in the shape of a " chandelier, 
fagon cTAllemagne" to be used in her cabinet, which was 

1 In a Latin Poem, entitled, " Panegyrici tres Anglowirttembergici" 
&c. 1604, 4 to * 

lxxii Introduction. 

to be delivered by the hands of Captain Neniman, a 
native of Stuttgart, who was going to visit his friends. 
The present of the chandelier had the desired effect, and 
produced, on the ioth of October, a letter from the 
Queen, communicating the agreeable intelligence that 
his Highness had been elected a Companion of the 
Order of the Garter, " to which honour (she remarks) 
we have always chosen great Princes our allies, and 
other personages who have acquired reputation by their 
merits. " She moreover informs him that she had des- 
patched her servant, John Spilman 1 the bearer, expressly 
to him on this affair. 

1 This John Spilman was a German, born at Lindau. He settled 
at Dartford, where, shortly before 1588, he erected a paper-mill, which 
at that time was a great curiosity, although not the earliest in this 
country, a record being extant that Henry VII. had, in 1498, viewed 
a "Paper Mylne" at Hertford, when he gave in reward 16s. 8d. 
Thousands flocked to see this paper-mill set up in Kent by the 
* c straunger," who employed no less than 600 men. Thomas Church- 
yard wrote a very curious poem, entitled : cc A Description and playne 
Discourse of Paper, and the whole benefits that Paper brings, setting 
foorth in verse a Paper-Myll built near Darthford, by an High Germaine, 
called Master Spilman, Jeweller to the Queenes Majestie ;" 4to. 1588. 
In the following year a special licence was granted by Elizabeth to 
" John Spilman, her Ma. t,es Juiler or gouldesmith of her Juelles, for 
the gatheringe of all maner of linen ragges, scrolles or scrappes of 
p[ar]chement, peaces of lyme, leather, shreddes and clippinges of cardes 
and oulde fishinge nettes fitte and necessarie for the makinge of all or 
anie sorte or sortes of white wrightinge paper ... for the space of tenne 

Introduction. lxxiii 

According to Cellius, the Qjjeen sent the Duke a pre- 
sent of an elegant English coach [Rhedam she Essedum 
Anglic anum), rather a novelty at this time, and especially 
so in Wirtemberg. Cellius (p. 91) has given a lengthy 
description of the beauty and conveniences of the vehicle, 
which in all probability was not unlike that cumbrous 
one we see figured in Hoefnagel's view of Nonesuch. 

There were still the habit and ensigns of the Order to 
be received. The next step taken was in 1598, when 
Benjamin von Buwinckhausen was sent by the Duke to 
tender thanks on behalf of his master. Among the Cotton 
MSS. (Galba, D. 13 ) there are two original letters of 
the Ambassador, having reference to this mission, dated 
London, May, 1598, and addressed to Sir Robert Cecil, 
urging him to expedite the delivery of the answer from 
her Majesty to his Prince. On the return of the Ambas- 
sador, the Duke writes to the Queen, on August 14 : — 

" I have heard with extreme regret that some of my enemies endea- 
vour to calumniate me, and prejudice your Majesty against me. I have 
given them no occasion for this. I hope that when your Majesty has 
discovered this report to be false, you will have greater reason to con- 
tinue your affection towards me, and give neither faith nor credit to 
such vipers, &c. Stories have been told your Majesty that I have 

yeres next ensuinge." (Harl. MS. 2296, fo. 124.) In 1605 Spilman 
was knighted by James I, on the occasion of the King's inspecting the 
mill at Dartford. Sir John died in 1626. In Dartford church is a monu- 
ment erected by him for his first wife, who was a German lady, with an 
inscription in German. Upon it is also his effigv, kneeling, in armour. 


Ixxiv Introduction. 

quarrelled with the Elector Palatine and other princes in matters of 
religion or otherwise, which are false. ,, 

This long epistle, in French, is endorsed, " An Apo- 
logie against some evill suggestions." He writes again to 
her Majesty on November 20th, sending his most affec- 
tionate recommendations by the bearer, who is returning 
to England. He humbly prays her Majesty to remember 
him, and to rejoice him with the sign of her royal 
favours (" de se souvenir de moy & me rejouyr du signe de ses 
Royalles faveurs") Again the impatient Prince addresses 
her on January if, 1599, wishing her " ung bon nouvel 
annee ;" and with a view to quicken her sluggishness, he 
begs to offer another little present — " ce petit present 
facon de ce pais." He continues : — 

" I waited all last year for the sign of the Order from your Majesty, 
which I had been given to expect, but I have found myself hitherto dis- 
appointed of my hope. I therefore take this occasion very humbly to 
beg your Majesty to hold me in remembrance this year, and to rejoice 
me with the said sign, which I wait for with great devotion, hoping 
that the present that I intend then to send will be agreeable to your 

In the beginning of this year (1599), Sir Stephen 
Lesieur was sent to Spire as the English Ambassador to 
the Assembly of the German Protestant Princes ; the 
Duke, in a long despatch in Latin, addressed to the 
Queen, on March 7th, promises to mediate with the 
Emperor and princes, that the proscripts of English 

Introduction. lxxv 

merchants shall not go forward ; he sends also another 
letter to her Majesty, in French, on April 21, in which 
he refers to his having given audience twice to the bearer, 
Lesieur. In neither of these is the subject of the Garter 
touched upon. Writing to Sir Robert Cecil from Spire, 
on May 8 th, Lesieur says : — 

<c The duk of Wirtemberg, his manner of intertaining me, and 
speech in favour of the Spanishe proceedings in the Empire, hath ben 
strange and contrary to my expectacon, the one I impute, for that he 
hath not the ordre of the garter w ch he greatly desireth, and wherof 
with his owne hand he writtes himselffe knight, the other for that he is 
in treatie with the Emperor," &c. 

In October the Queen writes to the Duke : — 

"As to the 'affaire' of which you desire the fulfilment, it has not 
been the fault of good-will that you have not already received our Order, 
but because there are also other princes who are elected, to whom we 
have not yet been able to send it owing to certain hindrances in our 
affairs, and who would conceive jealousy if we sent it to you rather 
than to themselves. But we hope ere long to be able to give you the 
contentment you desire." 

Cellius, under the year 1600, refers to another embassy 
to the Queen, by Buwinckhausen and Christopher von 
Haugwitz. There is a letter in the Ashmolean Collec- 
tion at Oxford (No. 1729), written by the Duke to her 
Majesty, dated T \ March, 1602, expressing much friend- 
ship, and congratulating her on her success in Ireland. 
This is the last of the correspondence we have met with 

lxxvi Introduction. 

in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, who died on March 
24th of the following year. 

And now was the " winter of his discontent" to be 
made " glorious summer," by the rising of that bright 
sun, the most high and mighty James. Duke Frederick 
was of course not slow to congratulate the new monarch 
on his accession to the crown of England. Accordingly, 
on July 1st, 1603, he indites a letter (HarL MS. 1760, 
fol. 90), wherein he expresses the great interest he has 
always taken in England, and hopes that his Majesty 
will continue the favours with which the late Queen 
had honoured him ; he therefore sends his counsellor, 
Buwinckhausen, to speak with the King on what he had 
commanded him, and regretting that his affairs pre- 
vented him from delivering these wishes in person. On 
the Ambassador's return, James sends, on August 9th, a 
letter of thanks merely ; but on September 24th, the 
King, being at Winchester, writes another, which must 
have rejoiced and fluttered the heart of the German 
prince. In it were conveyed expressions of great regard 
and affection, intimating that the " late Queen our good 
sister made election of you to be a companion of the 
Order of the Garter, which for certain considerations she 
had deferred carrying fully into effect. To this end we 
have appointed the lord Spencer to convey to you our 
said Order, which we pray you to accept," &c. Accord- 
ingly, the Embassy started on this important and costly 

Introduction. 1 


mission, which is chronicled in a few words by Stow 
(Annals, 163 1, p. 828): — 

" Soone after his Majesties coronation [Sept. 1603], order was given 
that the high and mighty Prince Fredericke Duke of Wirtomberge, &o 
who had beene elected to bee one of the company of the noble Order 
of the Garter by the late Queene Elizabeth, at Saint Georges feast in the 
thirtie nine yeare of her raigne, should now foorthwith be invested with 
the ornaments of that order, whereupon the right honourable the Lord 
Spencer of Wormleyton, and Sir William Dethicke, Garter Knight, 
principall King at Armes, was sent to the sayd Duke in that behalfe. In 
which journey went Sir Robert Lee and divers other Knights and Gen- 
tlemen. They tooke shipping the eight of October, and landed the next 
day at Calice, and by Loraine came to Stutgard the second of November, 
where the said Lord Spencer was received with much honor and love, 
and the same day the Duke heard the cause of their comming, and highly 
contented therewith, caused his principall noblemen and officers to be 
sent for. Uppon the sixt of November (which was the day appointed 
for that action), the Duke was invested, the robes, Garter and other 
ornaments of the sayd Order, and other ceremonies were performed in 
the Cathedrall Church of that citie, in as religious and solemne manner 
as in like cases hath bene used, and all the residue of that day was spent 
in great feastes, and triumpes, fower dayes after were spent in hunting 
the wild Bore, and other pastimes, the evening before they departed, 
were made very admirable and costly fire-workes, and nothing was 
omitted that might seeme to serve for celebration of that Feast and 
Triumph, and for the honorable entertainement and satisfaction of the 
sayd Lord Spencer and the whole company ; finally they departed from 
Stutgard the fourteenth of November, and returned all safe into Eng- 
land before the feast of the Nativitie following." 

There is in the British Museum a volume describing 
in great detail the ceremony of the Duke's investiture at 

lxxviii Introduction. 

Stuttgart, written by Erhardus Cellius, 1 Professor of 
Poetry and History at Tubingen. It is entitled, " Eques 
Auratus Anglo-Wirtembergicus. ,, 4to. Tubingas, 1605. 
The author has also made use of Rathgeb's Journal of 
the English Tour, which he has abridged ; yet, not- 
withstanding the valuable matter relating to the cere- 
mony of Investiture, it is a most tedious and tiresome 
book to consult, being laden with digressions on every 
conceivable subject. The copy above mentioned had 
belonged to Sir William Dethick, who accompanied the 
Embassy as Garter King of Arms ; and this very volume 
was used by Ashmole 2 for the interesting extract he 
caused to be translated by Edward Philipps (Milton's 
nephew), and inserted in his " Institution of the Order of 
the Garter," fol. 1672. Dethick has written on the fly- 
leaf: " Hos ego versiculos feci — I gave the direction 
and Intellegence for the accomplishment of all these 
ho[norable] procedings conteyned. To the honor of the 
Kinges Ma te and Renome of his most noble Order of 
the Garter." It contains besides many notes, forms, 
and precedents in his handwriting, and a copy of the 

1 His name was properly Horn, Cellius being that of his birth-place, 
Celle, or Zelle. 

2 He says he consulted it at " the Soveraign's Library at St. James's." 
But in Ashmole's account of the Duke's Investiture, Garter is incor- 
rectly named Sir Gilbert Dethick. Cellius has given the Christian name 

Introduction. lxxix 

letter or certificate written by the Duke to James I, 
expressing his satisfaction with Garter's proceedings at 
Stuttgart. Cellius could not print the herald's name 
correctly ; he is variously called Dutleich, Detleick, and 
Deilich. There is likewise inserted at the end a broad- 
side copy of Latin verses in praise of Dethick, written 
by a Tubingen poet, Christophorus Brunnius, and printed 
at that place in 1603. Garter King of Arms seems to 
have been a troublesome character. Anstis calls him an 
" insolent and tempestuous officer." He received as a 
present from the Duke of Wirtemberg a rich sword and 
dagger, a chain of gold with a miniature suspended from 
it, and 1000 rix-dollars. He died in 161 2. In the Cotton 
MS. ^Julius C. in. fo. 144) is a letter by him com- 
plaining of his sickness, troubles, and losses. It is 
addressed to Sir Robert Cotton. He adds, evidently with 
reference to this embassy : "I have sent you verses 
prynted at Tubinge, where that Lo. Spencer was enter- 
tayned w th many honors and orations by the Rector and 
Learned of that Universite ; and he gave them nether 
Aue, Salve, nor Vale. I will send you the Coppie of 
the Kings Ma tes Comission and the testimonie under the 
Dukes hand and seel, wherby my facts are justified how 
honorablie I performed the same and Ires also yf they 
were knowen to the world that would set me, rectus 
in Curia. From my p[oor] cottage at Popler, nere 
Blackw[all] 13 X brs 1608." 

lxxx Introduction. 

It is evident from the frequent references to, and 
quotations from, this work of Cellius by Ashmole, that 
it was considered by the latter to be of great value and 
authority on the subject of which it mainly treats. The 
translated portion, however, is too lengthy to be admitted 
into our narrative ; a few extracts may suffice. A de- 
scriptive Portrait of the Duke, en grande tenue, is given 
at page 412 as follows : — 

" The Elect Duke was most sumptuously habited from head to foot; l 
his hose were ash-colour and seamless, his breeches, doublet, and sleeves 
were of silk prickt, slasht, and fringed, there shining all along through 
the cutwork the gilt plate upon which it was wrought ; his sleeves were 
wrought after the manner of a long pretext or senator's robe, with the 
finest sort of linen, embroidered with needlework blue ; upon his wrists 
were bracelets of costly gems, upon his fingers gold rings, most exqui- 
sitely wrought and inlaid with rubies, diamonds, saphirs, emeralds, and 
other such like precious stones, casting forth a radiant mixture of divers 
colours ; the collar of his doublet was in like manner of the finest and 
softest linen, and of a blue amethist colour, and wrought all about with 
oylet holes ; his cap was of silk ending in a cone at the top, and girt 
about with a hat-band of gold and precious stones, especially pearls of a 
very large size, and also a circle of white plumes erected up towards the 
top, and bending a little downward at the end. His shoes were likewise 
of silk adorned with roses, artificially wrought with precious stones, 
gold and pearls ; across his middle he had a belt very skilfully wrought, 
and adorned with a sword appendant to it on the left side, and a dagger 
(inserted into the belt), the hilt and handle whereof were all wrought 
about and enamelled with gold and precious stones ; his cloak was of 
black silk, bordered about with several orders or rows of broad gold 
fringe.' ' 

1 His engraved portrait in this habit is on the back of the title in Cellius. 

Introduction. 1 


Garter having delivered his oration in French, pro- 
ceeded to the Investiture. 

He " first devested the Duke of his cloak, sword, and dagger, which, 
according to the custom of the Order, he reserved to himself as his 
own fees ; but presently in the room thereof he invested him with a 
surcoat of crimson velvet, lined with white taffaty, which he girded 
close to his waste with a silken girdle, by v/hich there hung a fauchion, 
or shorter kind of sword, made plain after the ancient fashion. Oyer 
his surcoat he put on the mantle of the Order, which reached down to 
his heels, with a long train behind, and buttoned before at the top ; it 
was of velvet, and of a mixt colour, purple with violet, and lined within 
with white taffaty, as also faced with the same, and very neatly fringed, 
and made after the ancient fashion used at the Institution of the Order, 
over the left shoulder whereof hung the tippet or hood." 

A procession was then formed towards the Church of 
St. Ulrick. 

" Next after Garter came jointly together the Lord Ambassador 
Spencer, richly glistering with gold and precious stones, and with him 
the illustrious Duke of Wirtemberg himself, so personable, and withall 
so magnificently [and so strangely] attired, that he attracted the admira- 
tion of all upon him ; some thinking his habit to be Turkish, some 
Hungaric, [some Muscovitish, others Italian, others Venetian,] some 
imperial, others electoral, others pontifical. The train of his mantle 
was held, and carried after by Count Lodowick Leostein." 

After so much solicitation, so many fruitless embassies, 
behold now the sweetest hope of Frederick, Duke of 
Wirtemberg and Count of Mompelgard, realized ; the 
long-sought flower of honour gathered ; the glittering 


lxxxii Introduction. 

garter buckled on his knee, and himself become at last, in 
the language of Dan Chaucer — 

"A very perfect gentle Knight !" 

Pfeil (De merit is sere??. Wurt ember gice Domus, &c. in 
German, 4to. 1732) says that the Duke presented Lord 
Spencer 1 with an entire princely table-service (" gantzen 
Fur st lichen Taffe I- Service") valued at 5000 florins, and that 
he caused a gold and a silver medal to be struck to com- 
memorate his investiture. He sent by his lordship a let- 
ter, dated Stuttgart, November 15, returning his Majesty 
most hearty thanks for the honour conferred in transmit- 
ting to him the habit and ensigns of the Order of the 
Garter; everything having been concluded with the most 
happy success, and to his great contentment. He alludes 
to his having been nominated and received into the 
Order six years before [1597], and to the promise made 
by the Queen eleven years ago [1592]. Her Majesty 
had frequently, in her letters, assured him that she 
desired to carry it into effect. " According to the 
Statutes and Regulations of the said Order," he con- 
tinues, " I am required to send, at a time named, a gen- 

1 A sum of £969 1 31. id. was paid to Lord Spencer for the expenses 
of this mission; viz. £436 for his diets, at £4 per diem for 109 days, 
begun September 7th, and ended December 24th, 1603 ; also 
£533 13^. id. for his postings and transportation of himself and train. 
The Interpreter, Thomas Ferrers, received 205. per diem. (Devon's 
Issues of the Exchequer, p. 1 1.) 

Introduction. . lxxx 


tleman of quality to represent my said person there ; as, 
however, this happiness will not fall to myself, I shall 
send (D. V.) to the next St. George's Day such an one 
as I hope will give contentment, first to your Majesty, 
and next to the whole Order." Sattler (v. 256) tells us 
that the Duke had adopted the title, and assumed the 
ensigns of the Order, in medals and portraits, even before 
it was conferred upon him, and that there are extant 
gold and silver medals of this description of the dates 
1593 and 1602 — the Duke conceiving that the Queen's 
promise had given him the right to make use of these at 
once. Accordingly, as proposed, 

" On the 1 2th of March, 1604, the Duke despatched to England 
Count Philipp von Eberstein and George Leopold, Herr von Landau, 
with five servants, Christoph von Laymingen, with three servants, 
Kilian Brastberger and Melchior Bonacker, together with a riding- 
master, a clerk, a one-horse vehicle, and a trumpeter, with an appointed 
servant for each. The Count was to be the Duke's representative at 
the approaching festival of the Order, and Von Landau was to take 
the Count's place in case of any accident happening to him. The rest 
had orders to assist the former faithfully, as events might turn out. 
The Counsellor Bonacker was deputed to deliver the address, and, 
together with Brastberger, to present safely the arms and shield of the 
Order, of pure silver ; and the riding-master, two horses with their trap- 
pings, one set of these trappings being all of silver. The arms and 
escutcheon were to be borne after the first Ambassador, and after- 
wards they were, in the presence of the entire assembly, to be hung up 
in the Chapel of the Order, next to the shield of the King of Denmark. 
The Duke gave to the Ambassador for an offering 200 ducats, struck 
in Wirtemberg, which he was himself to shoot out of a purse into the 

lxxxiv Introduction. 

basin upon the altar, and then to lay the purse near it. The Duke had 
had these struck the year before, and, in order that the correct date 
should be upon them, it was stamped with a mark before the portrait of 
the Duke, notwithstanding that the former date appeared thereon. The 
Ambassador was further charged to seek an audience of the King on 
the day after the Feast, to bring forth the two horses with their furni- 
ture, and have them exercised by the riding-master, and withal to 
announce that they had been selected from the Duke's own stud. The 
embassy was obliged to take the route through France, because it was 
very unsafe in the Low Countries on account of the war. They were 
accordingly compelled to wait also upon the French King, and request 
safe-conduct for their journey. On the 15th of April they arrived in 
London, and three days afterwards obtained an audience of the King, 
who merely replied : c I shall do whatever I can in honor of the Duke 
your master. Tc-morrow you must go to Windsor to the Installation. 
Three Knights of the most noble Order of the Garter shall accompany 
you, and on Monday next we shall celebrate the Feast of Saint George 
in this our city of London/ The Duke meanwhile kept this feast also 
at Stuttgart. When the Ambassadors returned home, and informed the 
Duke that the King and his whole Court vowed they had never seen 
finer horses, as also that the King had himself ridden them on the fol- 
lowing day, he was quite transported with joy." 

On the 6th of October (1604), the Duke, in a letter 
brought to England by the Lord Howard de Walden, 
sends his regards, and desires news of James and of his 
family. The Wirtemberg exchequer appears to have 
been at a very low ebb in 1605, and this was made worse 
by the large debt owing by France. 1 Nevertheless, Ben- 
jamin von Buwinckhausen managed to procure money 

1 Alencon was in pledge to the Duke ; it was redeemed by Marie de' 
Medici in 16 12. 

Introduction, lxxxv 

sufficient for holding the anniversary Feast of the Order, 
with becoming splendour, on the 23rd of April. The 
Duke celebrated this festival at Stuttgart, to which he 
invited several princes, but only the Palsgrave Philip 
Lewis, his wife and two sons, George Frederick, Mar- 
grave of Baden, and other inquisitive counts and gen- 
tlemen, were present at the pageantry. The Provost 
Magirus preached a Sermon upon 1 Tim. i. v. 18, 
19, and Johan Oetinger of Nuremberg described the 
solemnity in two books in German verse ; the panegyric 
prefixed to these compares the Duke to the Emperor 
Trajan, on account of his physiognomy and endow- 
ments. New medals, with the date 1605, were struck 
to commemorate this feast, which lasted eight days, and 
during which the Duke appeared in his remarkably costly 
habit of the Order, adorned with more than 600 dia- 
monds. (Sattler, v. 266, &c. Pfaff, Geschichte Wirten- 
bergs, ii. 42.) He likewise despatched to England at this 
time Daniel von Buwinckhausen and Friedrich Darker, 
with presents to King James and the royal family ; to 
the former he sent his portrait, painted in the habit of the 
Order, together with the Description by Cellius of the 
pompous solemnity celebrated at Stuttgart in 1603, and 
Assum's " Panegyric! tres xAnglowirttembergici," bound 
in silver gilt \ x to the Oueen he sent an elegant so-called 

1 This is a rapturous Latin poem, descriptive of the Duke's recep- 

lxxxvi Introduction. 

Wonder-Casket (Wunder hasten), or writing-desk ; to 
Prince Charles and the eldest Princess beautiful guns, 
silver jewel-caskets, and other things. With respect to 
the silver plate which the Duke caused to be deposited 
and affixed in St. George's Chapel at Windsor, there is a 
curious remark in a German Guide-book to England, 
by Martin Zeiller (Itinerarium Magna Britannia, oder 
Raissbeschreibwig, &c. 8vo. Strassb. 1634). At p. 201, he 
says : " I read in a MS. book of travels, that when a 
Knight of the Garter dies, the escutcheon of his arms, 
painted on a silver plate (' silber blech') is hung up in 
the Chapel at Windsor — among all which, that of Duke 
Frederick of Wiirttenberg is the finest, being of silver, 
of a large size, and highly finished ; it is also protected 
by an iron railing. But those persons who have been 
there can judge whether these plates are of copper or 
silver. ,, Ashmole, speaking of these garter-plates, and of 
the Duke's in particular, says : " As to the metal these 
plates are of, it is to be acknowledged that the succeeding 
Knights Companions did prudently follow the example 
of their predecessors, who appointed their plates to be of 
copper, and thereby unexpectedly defeated the design of 

tion into the Order of the Garter. It was printed at Tubingen, in 
1604, 4-to. by Erhardus Cellius. On the back of the title is a woodcut 
portrait of the Duke. There is a copy in the Library of the British 
Museum, but not that gorgeously bound one mentioned in the text. 
The author was tutor to Julius Frederick, one of the Wirtemberg 

Introduction. 1 


avarice and rapine. Of which we have an instance in 
the Duke of Wirtemberg's plate, for that being of silver 
and large withal, gave so great a temptation, that in the 
late wars it was forced from the back of the stall whereto 
it was fixed, with some difficulty sure, since they could 
not get it thence without carrying away some part of the 
wainscot along with it. The workmanship about these 
plates was extraordinary.' ' (Institution, &c. of the Order 
of the Garter, fol. 1672, p. 627.) 

A complimentary letter to the English monarch, 
written from Stuttgart on July 12, 1607, completes the 
correspondence during the lifetime of Duke Frederick, 
who died January 29th, 1608. 

The Wirtemberg historians allow the reign of the 
Duke to have been, like most sublunary things, a mix- 
ture of good and evil. They give the ruler credit for 
promoting trade and agriculture, establishing institutions 
and schools, for being a friend to art and science, and for 
bestowing his attention on more beneficial objects than 
the princes of his time had the sense to regard. Much 
of his useful knowledge he had acquired in the course of 
his travels. He w r as a man of great talent and of extra- 
ordinary activity ; but one also of very determined prin- 
ciples, and who held a high opinion of himself. A 
distinguishing trait in his character was his uncommon 
love of show, which he displayed on every possible occa- 
sion. These latter characteristics are exhibited in his 
conduct throughout the whole endeavour on his part 

lxxxviii Introduction. 

to obtain the English Garter, and the enormous expenses 
which this must have entailed. He had beheld the 
splendour of the courts of Paris and London, and desired 
to assimilate his own. He brought back with him 
French servants, introduced French customs and habits, 
and held a brilliant court. But all these magnificent 
doings and this gorgeous pageantry could not be enjoyed 
without burdening the country with debt. In this diffi- 
culty he had recourse to an expedient by which many 
princes of his time vainly sought to create new resources. 
He # employed the alchemists, who swarmed about his 
Court, as they did about that of the Emperor Rudolph II ; 
and he became their dupe, for he was as little able as 
others to obtain possession of the grand desideratum — 
the Philosopher's stone. So much was the Duke cheated 
by these fellows, on whom he had squandered large 
sums of money, that he caused an iron gallows to be 
erected at Stuttgart, and hanged four of them, one after 
another. 1 Yet with all this he invested considerable sums 
even out of Germany, having advanced, as before men- 
tioned, a loan on the security of the Duchy of Alencon 
in Normandy. He has moreover the credit of having 
displayed great zeal and solicitude for the Lutheran 
religion. 2 

1 See on this subject an article, " Friedrich I, und seine Hof-Alchy- 
misten," in Memminger's Wurtemb. Jahrbiicher^ 1829, P- 2I ^ # 

2 Sattler ; PfafF's Gescbichte Wirtenbergs, ii. 40, &c ; Memminger's 
Beschreibung von Wurttemberg, 1841, p. 92 ; Beckmann, i. 208, &c. 

Introduction, Ixxxix 

The narrative of the Journey to England was, as we 
have said, drawn up by Jacob Rathgeb, the Duke's 
private secretary. It appeared at first under the title of 
H Kurtze und Warhaffte Beschreibung der Badenfahrt : 
welche der Durchleuchtig Hochgeborn Fiirst und Herr, 
Herr Friderich, Hertzog zu Wiirttemberg unnd Teckh, 
Grave zu Miimppelgart, Herr zu Heidenheim, Ritter 
der beeden Uhralten Koniglichen Orden, in Franckreich 
S. Michaels, unnd Hosenbands in Engellandt, &c. In 
negst abgelofFenem 1592 Jahr, von Miimppelgart auss, 
in das weitbertimbte Konigreich Engellandt, hernach ini 
zuriick ziehen durch die Niderland, biss widerumb gehn 
Miimppelgart, verrichtet hat. Auss I. F. G. gnedigem 
Bevelch, von dero mitraisendem Cammer-Secretarien, 
auffs kurtzist, von tag zu tag verzeichnet. 

Die Badenfahrt bin ich genandt, 

Dieweil Ihr Furstlich Gnade hand 
Ein gantz Nacht auff dem Meer gebadt : 

Da Wind und Wetter gwiitet hat. 
Die Wallen schlugen in das Schiff, 

Dass sie drin stehen musten tiefF. 
Da hat es gheisen, kalt geschwitzt : 

Da angst und noth, ja Todt einghitzt. 
Du lieber Leser lern hierauss, 

Wo man in solcher Noht soil nauss. 

Getruckt zu Tubingen, bey Erhardo Cellio, anno 1602." 


xc Introduction. 

The translation is as follows : — 

" A concise and faithful Narrative of the Bathing- 
Excursion, which his serene Highness Lord Frederick, 
Duke of Wirtemberg and Teck, Count of Mumppelgart, 
Lord of Heidenheim, Knight of the two ancient royal 
Orders of St. Michael of France, and of the Garter of 
England, made, in the year 1592, from Mumppelgart to 
the far-famed kingdom of England ; afterwards returning 
through the Netherlands back again to Mumppelgart. 
As it was noted down from day to day in the most con- 
cise manner at his Highness' gracious command, by his 
private secretary who accompanied him. Printed at 
Tubingen by Erhardus Cellius in the year 1602." 

The doggrel verses, showing why the book was called 
a " Bathing-Excursion,'' were added by the printer 
Cellius, who was also the poet laureate of Tubingen. 
The following may give some idea of these : — 

" I am called the Bathing-trip, 
For his Highness in a ship 
Bathed in ocean all night long, 
Winds tempestuous blowing strong ; 
Roaring waters rushing in, 
Drenched his Highness to the skin, 
As he shivering sat and sweating, 
Fear with fever alternating. 

Ye gentlemen of Germany, who live at home in clover, 
O think upon our good Duke's straits within the Straits of Dover. " 

Introduction. xci 

This work, which is uncommon, consists of forty-eight 
leaves, in 4to; the part relating to England commences 
at folio ii. In style and language it is exceedingly obscure 
and uncouth, the punctuation moreover is wretched. 
A plentiful crop of difficulties is thereby presented to the 
translator. On the back of the title is a woodcut three- 
quarter length portrait of the Duke, in a square. The 
head has been copied in Mr. Halliwell's folio Shake- 
speare. Facing this leaf is a cut of the Wirtemberg arms, 
and the motto Hony soit 9 &c. These two woodcuts have 
also been used in Assum's book already mentioned. There 
are a few other woodcuts in the volume. 

In November 1599, the Duke made a tour into 
Italy, desiring to witness the jubilee at Rome which 
had been proclaimed by Clement VIII. He travelled 
under the name of " Baron von Sponeck," and returned 
by way of Venice in April 1600. The journal of this 
tour was written by Heinrich Schickhart, and also ap- 
peared at Tubingen in 1602. In the following year the 
two works — now entitled " Warhaffte Beschreibung 
zweyer Raisen," &c, were republished together at the 
same place by Cellius, who prefixed a German poem 
entitled " Wiirttembergisch New Jahr" [Jan. 1, 1603], 
which, in spite of its poor versification, contains some 
historical notices that are valuable, particularly concern- 
ing manufactures and agriculture in Wirtemberg. This 
edition has a different portrait of the Duke, which is a 

xcii Introduction. 

half-length in an oval. The interesting proceedings of 
the English Embassy at Stuttgart stimulated, it would 
seem, the publication of another edition in 1604. 

With reference to the term " Badenfahrt," Beckmann 
remarks that in the sixteenth and following centuries it 
was the custom for princely families to visit watering- 
places once every year or oftener, and that the young 
ladies looked upon this with such intense pleasure, that 
many even made the permission to do so a condition on 
their betrothal. Such a journey was called a " Baden- 
fahrt." A bathing-trip of this description was undertaken, 
in 1474, by the pious and learned lady Eleanora, daughter 
of James I. King of Scotland, and wife of Sigismund, 
Duke of Austria, to the Swiss Baden ne'ar Zurich, once 
the most celebrated of all the German watering-places. 
(Stettler's Schweitzer Chronik, i. 222.) 

At Hampton Court there is a fine large whole-length 
portrait, which was mentioned by Granger in 1775 (i. 
292)^, as intended for our Duke. In 161 3 the young 
Duke of Saxe-Weimar noted at Somerset House a por- 
trait of the Duke of Wirtemberg (see page 162). The 
picture was not described by Mrs. Jameson in her 
" Public Galleries, ,, in 1842, probably on account of its 
not being at that time hung, as she speaks of upwards of 
200 at Hampton Court then waiting their doom About 
this time, however, there seems to have been great altera- 
tions and additions made at the palace, for according to 

Introduction. xciii 

" The Stranger's Guide," published towards the close of 
1842, the portrait of the Duke of Wirtemberg was then 
exhibited; it appears under No. 824 in the List of 
Pictures, and is ascribed to Mytens. In Felix Sum- 
merly's Hand-book (1858), it appears under No. 508, 
as well as in the authorized Guide by John Grundy, now 
sold at the Palace. In the latter book there is a brief 
biographical notice of our Duke. This portrait, which 
we have seen, cannot, however, be that of Frederick : it 
is totally unlike the contemporary prints of him, of 
which there are several ; and Mytens, the alleged painter 
could have been only about eighteen years of age at the 
death of the Duke in 1608. It seems to us to resemble 
more the portrait of the Duke's eldest son, John Frede- 
rick, who succeeded him, and that would better agree 
with the time of the execution of the picture, which we 
believe to be by Daniel Mytens the elder, judging from 
its style and certain peculiarities, such as the label on 
which that painter was in the habit of inscribing the 
names of the persons represented, — as here, in the left- 
hand lower corner we observe the Duke of Wittenberg, 
Wittenberg being the usual form of the name as adopted 
at that time in England. He is dressed in black, and 
holds his hat in his right hand. The portrait which 
Duke Frederick sent as a present to James I, in 160^, 
was in all probability a miniature ; in this he was repre- 
sented in the habit of a Knight of the Garter. 

xciv Introduction. 

We possess a rare portrait of the Duke, engraved in 
line, after a picture of Johan ab Heyden, by his son 
Jacob. It is an oval, surrounded by emblematical sub- 
jects and mottoes, and with six lines of Latin verse 
beneath, beginning, — 

" Europae lustrasse plagas terraque manque," 

This is the portrait copied for the present volume. 

It is necessary now to advert to a subject of considerable 
interest in connection with the visit of the Duke in 1 592, 
bringing us as it does on the classic ground of Shake- 
speare. Mr. Charles Knight, in his pictorial edition of 
the poet's works published in 1838-43, started a sugges- 
tion, derived from a perusal of the German account of 
the " Journey to England," that Frederick, Duke of 
Wirtemberg, Count Mompelgard, was the identical and 
veritable Duke de Jamanie and cosen garmombles who is 
quizzed in the " Merry Wives of Windsor " (act iv. sc. 
5). This suggestion so happily made was critically 
examined and adopted by Mr. Halliwell, who, in his 
" First Sketch " of the play printed for the Shakespeare 
Society, and since in his magnificent folio edition of the 
great poet, has laid before his readers the grounds and 
considerations which influenced him in arriving at the 
same conclusion ; in the latter work he has given the 

Introduction. xcv 

portions of the journal descriptive of the Duke's interview 
with the Queen at Reading, and of his subsequent visit 
to Windsor. If this conjecture be allowed, it will have 
the effect of antedating by a few years the generally 
received period of the composition of the comedy. But 
the similitude is too close to admit of a doubt on the 
point of identity, and we entirely coincide with the 
opinions expressed both by Mr. Knight and Mr. Halli- 
well. It will be right, however, to make the reader 
acquainted with some of these reasons, and, with a view 
to assist his judgment, to add the different readings of 
the incident, as occurring in the early editions of Shake- 
speare's play. 

The first edition of the original sketch appeared in 
print in 1602 ; J the second, presenting but very slight 
variations from the former, was published in 1619, 
both in 4to ; and the amended and enlarged play — 
the form in which we now have it — in the first folio 
of 1623. We therefore quote the passages from the first 
4to. and the first folio editions, most of the prose in the 
early quartos of this play being printed as if it were blank 
verse : — 

1 A copy of this first edition, which had belonged to Mr. George 
Daniel, fetched at the sale of his library in July, 1864, no less a sum 
than 330 guineas ! 



Merry Wives of Windsor, Act iv. Scene 5. 

1st Edit. 4to. 1602. 

Enter Host and Bardolfe. 

Bar. Syr heere be three Gentle- 
men come from the Duke the 
Stanger [sic] sir, would haue 
your horse. 

Host. The Duke, what Duke ? 
let me speake with the Gentlemen, 
do they speake English ? 

Bar. He call them to you sir. 

Host. No Bardolfe, let them 
alone, He sauce them: They haue 
had my house a weeke at com- 
mand, I haue turned away my 
other guesse, They shall haue 
my horses Bardolfe, They must 
come off", He sawce them. 

[Exit omnes. 
* * * 

Enter Bardolfe. Bar. O Lord 
sir cousonage, plaine cousonage. 

Host. Why man, where be my 
horses ? where be the Germanes ? 

Bar. Rid away with your 
horses : After I came beyond 
Maidenhead, They flung me in a 
slow of myre, & away they ran. 

1st folio, 1623. 

Scena Tertia. 

Enter Host and Bardolfe. 

Bar. Sir, the Germane desires 

to haue three of your horses : the 

Duke himselfe will be to morrow 

at Court, and they are going to 

meet him. 

Host. What Duke should that 

be comes so secretly ? I heare not 

; of him in the Court: let mee speake 

with the Gentlemen, they speake 

English ? 

Bar. I sir ? He call him to you. 
Host. They shall haue my 
horses, but He make them pay : 
He sauce them, they haue had my 
houses a week at commaund : I 
haue turn'd away my other guests, 
they must come off", He sawce 
them, come. [Exeunt. 

■■% # * * 

Scena Quinta. 

Bar. Out alas (Sir) cozonage : 
meere cozonage. 

Host. Where be my horses ? 
speake well of them varletto. 

Bar. Run away with the co- 
zoners : for so soone as I came 
beyond Eaton, they threw me off", 
from behinde one of them, in a 

Introduction . 


E?iter Doctor. Doc. 

Where be my Host de gartyre ? 

Host. O here sir in perplexitie. 

Doc. I cannot tell vad be dad, 
But begar I will tell you van ting, 
Dear be a Garmaine Duke come 
to de Court, Has cosened all de 
host of Branfordy And Redding: 
begar I tell you for good will, 
Ha, ha, mine Host, am I euen 
met you ? [Exit. 

Enter Sir Hugh. Sir Hu. 
Where is mine Host of the gartyr: 
Now my Host, I would desire you 
looke you now, To haue a care 
of your entertainments, For there 
is three sorts of cosen garmombles, 
Is cosen all the Host of Maiden- 
head & Readings, Now you are 
an honest man, and a scuruy beg- 
gerly lowsie knaue beside : And 
can point wrong places, I tell 
you for good will, grate why mine 
Host. [Exit. 

Host. I am cosened Hugh, and 
coy Bardolfe y Sweet knight assist 
me, I am cosened. [Exit. 

slough of myre ; and set spurres, 
and away; like three Germane- 
diuels ; three Doctor Faust asses. 

Host. They are gone but to 
meete the Duke (villaine) doe not 
say they be fled : Germane* are 
honest men. 

Euan. Where is mine Host ? 

Host. What is the matter Sir ? 

Euan. Have a care of your en- 
tertainments : there is a friend of 
mine come to Towne, tels mee 
there is three Cozen-Iermans, that 
has cozend all the Hosts of ReadinSj 
of Maidenhead ; of Cole-brooke^ of 
horses and money : I tell you for 
good will (looke you) you are wise, 
and full of gibes, and vlouting- 
stocks : and 'tis not conuenient you 
should be cozoned. Fare you well. 

Cai. Ver' is mine Host de I ar- 
te ere ? 

Host. Here [Master Doctor) in 
perplexitie, and doubtfull delemma. 

Cai. I cannot tell vat is dat : but 
it is tell-a-me, dat you make grand 
preparation for a Duke de lamanie: 
bv my trot : der is no Duke that the 
Court is know, to come : I tell 
you for good will : adieu. 

Host. Huy and cry, (villaine) 
goe : assist me Knight, I am vn- 
done : fly, run : <Scc. &c. 


xcviii Introduction, 

In the above droll scene of cozenage practised by Ger- 
man travellers, particular attention must be directed to 
certain corresponding passages in the two editions : — In 
the 4to. we read, " There is three sorts of cosen gar- 
mombles, is cosen all the Host of Maidenhead and Read- 
ings;" in the folio this is altered to "There is three 
Cozen-Iermans, that has cozend all the Hosts of Readins, 
of Maidenhead ; of Cole-brooke, of horses and money." 
We have seen that the Duke while in this country was 
known as Count Mompelgard (in French, Montbeliard) ; 
and also that a passport, in which he was allowed to take 
up post-horses and " pay nothing for the same" was given 
to " this noblman Connte Mombeliard, ,, by Lord Charles 
Howard (see page 47). We would ask now whether 
this term garmombles used by Shakespeare can by any 
possibility be intended for anything else than a playful 
joke upon the Duke's title of Mompelgard — a joke 
which would have had a peculiar relish for the members 
of a court to whom the German had recently paid a visit; 
but if the word be archaic, and a meaning can be found 
for it, we are willing to yield the point. He did not 
succeed to the Dukedom until the death of his cousin in 
August, 1593, a year after the visit to England; but at 
the time of this visit he had, no doubt, assumed with all 
the pomposity of his character the higher dignity of 
Duke, and we find it was usual even for the younger 
princes of this family to adopt and be addressed by this 

Introduction. xcix 

title also. In the Duke's letter to the Queen, of April 2, 
1593, he combines in his signature the two names, 
" Wirtemberg Mont be Hard." 

It is also a very remarkable coincidence that the places 
mentioned in the Duke's journey from London to the 
court at Reading exactly correspond with those named in 
the play. We see that he dined at Hounslow — 

"Thus, doubtless, (as Mr. Halliwell remarks) taking the road which 
passed through Brentford. He stopped the night at Maidenhead, 
travelling on the Hounslow road which went by Colebrook, and pro- 
ceeded on the following morning to Reading. The journey was taken 
on the old Bristol and London road. On 19th August the Count left 
Reading for Windsor, where he received great attentions, was shown 
the noteworthy sights of the castle, and hunted in the royal park ', but 
he remained there a very short time, leaving Windsor on August 21st 
for Hampton Court, passing through a portion of the forest, probably 
taking the road through Staines. All this is exceedingly curious, and 
importantly illustrative of the play. The circumstances mentioned by 
Shakespeare exactly agree, even to the names of every locality in con- 
nexion with the subject, that is named in the comedy ; and the Count 
unquestionably travelled with the possession of the peculiar privi- 
leges then accorded to distinguished visitors to the court. He was 
honored, in fact, with the use of one of the Queen's coaches, attended 
by a page of honor, and travelled from London in this coach and several 
post-horses towards the royal residence. On such an occasion the 
post-horses * would have to be furnished by the various innkeepers free 

1 A parallel case of cozenage is the following : — Francis (afterwards 
Sir F.) Allen, in a letter of 1589, writes, " Mr. Devereux hath been the 

voyage of Portugal with my lord [of Essex] his brother You 

divined well, for he was cosened of all his horses , and I believe, so will be 
again." — Birch's ^ueen Elizabeth, i. 57. 

c Introduction. 

of expense ; — c cozenage ! mere cozenage/ as Master Bardolph says. 
The scene is, in all probability, an exaggerated satire on the visit of the 
Duke to Windsor ; an allusion that would have been well understood 
by the court within a year or two after its occurrence ; and the facility 
by which the history of the event is unravelled, is one of the most 
curious circumstances in its way in Shaksperian criticism." 

" His grace and his suite (Mr. Knight remarks) must have caused a 
sensation at Windsor. Probably mine host of the Garter had really 
made c grand preparation for a Duke de Jarmany ; ' at any rate he would 
believe Bardolph's story — 'the Germans desire to have three of your 
horses.' Was there any dispute about the ultimate payment for the 
Duke's horses, for which he was l to pay nothing ? ' Was my host out 
of his reckoning when he said, 'They shall have my horses,"but I'll 
make them pay ? ' We have little doubt that the passages which relate 
to the German duke (all of which, with slight alteration, are in the 
original sketch) have reference to the Duke of Wiirtemburg's visit to 
Windsor in 1592 : — a matter to be forgotten in 1601, when Malone 
says the sketch was written; and somewhat stale in 1596, which 
Chalmers assigns as its date." 

Mr. Howard Staunton, in his excellent edition of the 
poet's works (1858, vol. i. p. 637), is reluctant to accept 
the above as illustrative of the cozenage scene in the 
" Merry Wives. " He says, " If any allusion to a visitor 
received by the Court with so much distinction were in- 
tended, an offensive one would hardly have been ventured 
during the lifetime of the Queen." But, we venture to 
think, from the whole tone of the correspondence between 
the Duke and the Queen, from the former's constant 
recurrence to the same stale subject, his Garter; from the 
scenes related of poor Breuning his ambassador in 1595, 

Introduction. ci 

which became a matter of court gossip ; from the sharp 
message that Her Majesty sent by him to be delivered 
to his master ; from the stories that were told of the Duke 
to the Queen by ' some of his enemies' in 1598 ; that a 
harmless squib let off at the Duke of Wirtemberg, alias 
Mofnpelgard, would have been up to this period anything 
but unpalatable to Her Majesty. And we think also that 
these circumstances may go some way towards our not 
assigning a date so nearly approximative to that of the 
visit, which may furnish an answer to Mr. Staunton's 
next observations. 

" Another forbidding consideration to this theory is, its involving the 
conclusion that the * Merry Wives of Windsor ' was written and acted 
before even the First Part of ' Heni*y IV,' and that the fat humorist, 
whose love-adventures afford so much entertainment, was Oldcastle^ and 
not Fahtaff, But the most serious objection to it is, that it strikes at 
th e rootof the long-cherished tradition 1 of Elizabeth being so well 
pleased with the Falstaff of c Henry IV,' that she commanded a play to 
be written, in which the knight should be exhibited in love, and was so 
eager to see it acted, that she directed it should be finished in fourteen days. 
We can by no means afford to part with this tradition : it accounts for 
the many evidences of haste observable in the first draft of the piece, 
and reconciles all the difficulties which are experienced in attempting 
to determine whether the incidents are to be taken as occurring before 2 
the historical plays of c Henry IV,' Parts 1 and 2, and l Henry V,' or 

1 First recorded by Dennis in 1702, and improved upon by Rowe in 

2 Mr. Knight (Studies of Shakspere, 1849, p. 249) justly remarks, 
" The exact date is of very little importance, because we do not know 
the exact dates of the two parts of ' Henry IV.' " 

cii Introduction. 

between any two of them, or after the whole. The title of the original 
sketch, £ Syr John Falstaff,' &c, the * Merry Wives ' being at first con- 
sidered subordinate attractions only, and the delineation of Falstaff and 
his satellites both in that and in the finished version, are to us conclusive 
as to these characters being old favourites with the public; and if we 
accept the pleasant tradition of their revival at the bidding of the Queen, 
there need be no hesitation in receiving them 'without regard to*their 
situations and catastrophes in former plays.' " 

In a note upon the passage in scene 5, as previously 
quoted, Mr. Staunton says, " Our objections to this 
theory, inasmuch as the visit in 1592 is concerned, have 
already been mentioned, but it is far from improbable 
that an allusion was covertly intended to some other visit 
of the same nobleman. We learn that the Duke of 
Wurtemberg-Miimpelgard was in England in 1 6 1 o, and 
it is not unreasonable to suppose he might have visited 
us more than twice in the long interval of eighteen years." 
Mr. Staunton then proceeds to give a brief notice of the 
last visit mentioned by him ; but he is mistaken in 
assigning it to the same Duke, he (Frederick) having 
died in 1608. The traveller in 1610 was his second son, 
Lewis Frederick, who in that year came over to England 
on a politico-religious mission, and a translation of whose 
MS. Journal, written in French by his secretary Wurms- 
ser (which we shall have to speak of presently), forms 
the second piece in our collection. His father never 
paid us any other visit than that in 1 592. A similar error 
has been committed by Granger, and more recently by 

Introduction. ciii 

Dr. W. Bell. The latter gentleman in the second volume 
of his "Shakespeare's Puck and his Folkslore " (i860), 
refers to this Journal of 16 10, and from his not having 
been able to meet with Rathgeb's narrative of the jour- 
ney in 1592, he infers that the visit to King James was 
the second visit of the Knight of the Garter, and that 
the same Secretary may have drawn up both, and he 
argues therefrom to show that the story of the cozenage 
in Shakespeare's two versions "may refer to separate 
periods [of composition], of first thought in 1592, and 
of improved execution in 16 10," and from Dr. Bell's 
taking this view, the subject is involved in considerable 

Towards the end of Cellius's description of the fes- 
tivities at Stuttgart previously quoted, mention is made in 
the original work, but omitted by Ashmole as of no 
moment, of a dramatic performance by a company of 
English musicians and actors. There is likewise an 
allusion to the custom, prevalent at that time of certain 
troops of English comedians, tragedians, and musicians, 
frequenting the courts of foreign princes for the purpose 
of representing and exhibiting their art. This interesting 
passage we will presently reproduce, with others not 
hitherto made known, but directly bearing on the subject 
of the Wirtemberg relations with England. 

On this topic of the continental peregrinations by 

civ Introduction. 

English actors much has been written. Mr. Thorns 
first called attention to the fact in the " New Monthly 
Magazine," 1841, and continued the subject in the 
" Athenaeum " for 1849. 1 Mr - Albert Cohn of Berlin 
also published some very curious and valuable particu- 
lars in the last-mentioned journal for 1850, 1851, and 
1859. The researches of these gentlemen, and especially 
of Mr. Cohn, prove from undoubted authorities both 
English and foreign, that "English comedians," as 
they were generally called — some bearing unmistakeable 
English names, such as Brown and Jones (Robinson has 
not yet been discovered) * — were in the habit of visiting 

1 These articles have recently been collectively reprinted by Mr. 
Thorns, underthe title of "Three Notelets on Shakespeare.'" 

2 The fortunes of one of these strolling actors, an Englishman 
named Thomas Saxfield or Sackville, have been followed with some 
care by Mr. Cohn, who has printed a few items of payments made to 
the actor while in the service of the Duke of Brunswick. We supple- 
ment Mr. Cohn's notice with an extract from Coryat's " Crudities," 
161 1, p. 564, relating to 'Thomas Sackfield,' evidently the same indi- 
vidual as the quondam poor player. The author was present at the 
Frankfort autumnal fair in 1608, and was delighted with the rich dis- 
play of the goldsmiths' shops. " The wealth (he says) that I sawe here 
was incredible. The goodliest shew of ware that I sawe in all Franck- 
ford, saving that of the Goldsmithes, was made by an Englishman one 
Thomas Sackfield a Dorsetshire man, once a servant of my father, who 
went out of England but in a meane estate, but after hee had spent a 
few yeares at the Duke of Brunswick's Court, hee so inriched himselfe 
of late, that his glittering shewe of ware in Franckford did farre excell 
all the Dutchmen, French, Italians, or whomsoever else." 

Introduction. cv 

various large towns and places in Germany and the 
Netherlands, at a time when Shakespeare was still living. 
Mr. Cohn has traced them in those parts as early as 
1 591; and from 1600 to about 16 17 scarcely a year 
passed without some of these itinerant players perform- 
ing comedies, histories, and tragedies, at one place or 
another in Holland 1 or Germany. Tieck and other 
German critics consider that they exercised an extraordi- 
nary influence on the German drama, and some have 
even discovered in the early German and Dutch dramatic 
literature, translations, or imitations, or adaptations, from 
Shakespeare's plays. There is in the British Museum a 
valuable and scarce work, the title of which reads, "En- 
gelische Comedien und Tragedien," &c. small 8vo, 1620, 
and it is further stated in the title that the plays had been 
acted by the English in Germany (" von den Engellandern 
in Deutschland"). A few of these plays appear to be of 
English origin, and something Shakespearean may pos- 
sibly be extracted from them. We gladly leave this 
question of affinity to be decided by the numerous 
dramatic critics in Germany. 2 Dr. Bell endeavours to 

1 See also communications from Dutch correspondents in " Notes 
and Queries," second series, vii. viii. ix. 

2 Since the above was written, this task has been accomplished con 
amore and in a very able manner by Mr. Cohn, who has just published 
a large 4to. volume, entitled " Shakespeare in Germany in the Sixteenth 
and Seventeenth Centuries." 


cvi Introduction. 

show that our great dramatist had himself been one of 
these travelling actors who visited Germany, and con- 
siders it probable that he joined the Earl of Leicester's 
troop which accompanied his lordship when he was 
despatched to the Netherlands in 1585-6. From this 
supposed residence abroad, Dr. Bell argues that the Poet 
had gained much of the continental folk-lore which 
is found in his plays. But Will Shakespeare need not 
have gone far from Blackfriars to pick up scraps of the 
German language and German folk-lore, for the Hanse 
merchants were located in great numbers in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Steelyard in Lower Thames-ftreet ; 
indeed, there is no reason whatever to suppose that 
Shakespeare was ever in Germany. 

The following is the extract translated from the Latin 
of Cellius. Among Lord Spencer's retinue were " Four 
excellent musicians, with ten other attendants {ministris)? 9 
They performed during the state banquet at Stuttgart, 
and are described as — 

"The royal English music which the illustrious royal Ambassador 
had brought with him to enhance the magnificence of the embassy and 
the present ceremony ; and who, though few in number, were eminently 
well skilled in the art. For England produces many excellent musicians, 
comedians, and tragedians, most skilful in the histrionic art ; certain 
companies of whom quitting their own abodes for a time, are in the 
habit of visiting foreign countries at particular seasons, exhibiting and 
representing their art principally at the courts of princes. A few years 
ago, some English musicians coming over to our Germany with this 

Introduction . c vii 

view, remained for some time at the courts of great princes ; their skill 
both in music and in the histrionic art having procured them such 
favour that they returned home liberally rewarded, and loaded with gold 
and silver." — Eques Auratus, :5V. pp. 229, 244. 

Dancing succeeded the feast, and then we are told — 

" The English players made their appearance and represented the 
sacred history of Susanna J- with so much art of histrionic action and 
with such dexterity, that they obtained both praise and a most ample 

The company of actors above alluded to by Cellius as 
having a few years before visited Germany, was pro- 
bably the troop mentioned by Pfaff and Wensin. The^ 
former {Geschichte der Stadt Stuttgart, 1845, *■ ll fy re " 
cords that " a regular company of actors came to Stuttgart 
for the first time in May 1597 ; they were Englishmen, 
who performed during seven days before the Court, and 
in recompense received from Duke Frederick I. 300 
florins, besides having their expenses defrayed." In 
1625 there was a company of six English comedians, who 
held a permanent appointment at the Court of Stutt- 
gart. One of these persons was John Price, who is 
spoken of as early as 1609, and who received a salary of 
270 florins besides his expenses at court, clothing, and 

1 Duke Henry Julius, of Brunswick, wrote a play called " Susanna," 
printed in 1593. It has been reprinted in the " Bibliothek des Litter. 
Vereins in Stuttgart," 1855. 

c viii Introduction . 

other emoluments. Other names given are John and 
David Morell, and John Dixon. (Moser's Beschreibung 
von Stuttgart, 8vo. 1856, p. 417.) 

Daniel von Wensin, in his "Oratio contra Britanniam," 
delivered before Frederick Achilles, Duke of Wirtem- 
berg, at Tubingen in 161 3, says, — 

" Nor is it long since that the majority of artificers and mechanics 
in England were aliens and foreigners, and the goldsmiths in London 
were nearly all Germans. 1 Meanwhile the English have given their 
constant attention to the pleasures of gluttony, (for it is said that they 
imparted the whole culinary science and the preparation of feasts to the 
French and Dutch, when they were masters of so many parts of 
France,) as well as to trifles, and what is more, to the histrionic art, in 
which they have attained to such perfection that the English players now 
delight us the most of all. But who are these men ? They are puppet- 
actors, they are buffoons, whom the rulers designate as base and dis- 
reputable, unworthy to fill or be appointed to any honorable position." 

The above passage occurs in a volume of considerable 
interest, entitled "Fr. Achillis Ducis Wiirtemberg. Con- 
sultatio de principatu inter provincias Europas habita 

1 See the work edited by Mr. Cooper for the Camden Society, 1862, 
" Lists of foreign Protestants and Aliens resident in England, 1618- 
1688." From this it appears that in 1621 in London alone there was 
stated to be 10,000 strangers, carrying on 121 different trades. Fre- 
quent complaints were made against these settlers as injuring the English 
tradesmen. In consequence, returns were from time to time ordered 
to be made of all foreigners dwelling in London. In October 157 1 there 
were in London 4631 " strangers." 

Introduction. cix 

Tubingae in illustri Collegio." 4to. Tub. 1 6 1 3 (2nd edit. 
1620). Frederick Achilles, Duke of Wirtemberg, a 
younger son of Duke Frederick, was born in 1591, and 
educated at Tubingen, his favourite studies being history 
and geography. In 1 6 1 3 he called an assembly of nobles 
and others at Tubingen to discuss the comparative merits 
and demerits of all the kingdoms of Europe. The Duke 
himself, his brother, the Duke of Saxony, the Duke of 
Schleswig-Holstein, and other nobles, made public speeches 
on the occasion, pro and con. The Duke, as in duty 
bound, awarded the palm to the fatherland. Thomas 
Lansius edited these speeches, which must have been very 
popular, as no less than seven editions of the work were 
published during the 17th century. The 2nd edition 
in the British Museum belonged to the Library of King 
James I, and we can well imagine with what gusto the 
royal pedant would peruse the arguments and remarks 
on both sides on the subject of dear old Britannia. 

The intimate relations subsisting at this time between 
England and Wirtemberg, as also with the Elector 
Palatine, whose wife was an English princess royal, must 
have contributed not a little to attract and encourage the 
visits of English actors to Germany. 

In Kiechers Travels in England, 1585, (see page 88), 
will be found some remarks on our actors, together with 
additional illustrations. 

When Prince Charles (afterwards Charles I.) under- 

ex Introduction. 

took his romantic wooing journey to Spain, the contem- 
porary account of the royal entry into Madrid, on March 
23rd, 1623, informs us that "in the streets of the passage, 
divers representations were made of the best comedians, 
dancers, and men of musicke, to give contentment to 
the Royall paire [Charles and Philip IV.] as they passed 
by." This scene is presented to us in the accompanying 
etching, copied from a rare German print in the Gren- 
ville Library. The performers are evidently exerting 
their utmost powers of gesticulation and action on the 
stage of their rude booth, which it seems probable was 
the kind of structure used by our own countrymen, when 
they were wont to figure, strut, caper, and declaim for 
the amusement of German and other foreign audiences. 
There is another illustration of an interesting character 
contained in the Journal of Captain John Saris, an 
Englishman, who made a voyage to Japan in 161 3. In 
his narrative, which was printed in Purchas " his Pil- 
grimes," (1625) i. 368, is the following passage : " The 
one and twentieth, the old king came aboord againe, and 
brought with him diuers women to be frollicke. These 
women were actors of comedies, which passe there from 
iland to iland to play, as our Players doe here from towne 
to towne, hauing severall shifts of apparrell for the better 
grace of the matter acted, which for the most part are 
of warre, loue, and such like." In the Latin edition of 
the celebrated collection of East Indian voyages of the 

' 1 

f II 



Introduction. cxi 

brothers De Bry, (part xii. Frankfort on the Main, 1628, 
p. 137), the above extract in italics from Captain Saris's 
Journal has been altered by the German translator as 
follows : " ut Angli ludiones per Germaniam et G allium 
vagantur " — (/. e. " as the English players stroll through 
Germany and France"); but in the German edition, 
published at the same place and in the same year, the 
passage has been rendered literally from the English. 

Mr. Rundall, in a volume edited by him for the 
Hakluyt Society, (Narratives of Voyages towards the 
North-West" 1849), made known for the first time 
some attractive entries, showing that certain of Shake- 
speare's plays had been acted on board ship by the English 
at Sierra Leone as early as 1607. They occur in the 
Journal of the Dragon (Captain Keeling), bound, with 
the Hector (Captain Hawkins) and the Consent, towards 
the East Indies ; it was from the MS. Records of the 
East India Company that Mr. Rundall derived these 
curious particulars, which, we believe, have not been re- 
produced by Shakespeare's editors since the date of his 
discovery. The extracts refer to " Hamlet" and " King 
Richard II." On September 5th, 1607, we find this 
entry, " I sent the interpreter, according to his desier, 
abord the Hector, whear he brooke fast, and after came 
abord mee, wher we gaue the tragedie of Hamlett" On 
the 30th Capt. Keeling notes, u Captain Hawkins dined 
with me, wher my companions acted Kinge Richard the 

cxii Introduction. 

Second." And on the next day he " envited Captain 
Hawkins to a ffishe dinner, and had Hamlet acted abord 
me : w dl I p'mitt to keepe my people from idlenes and 
unlawfull games, or sleepe." 

The second piece in our collection comprises a trans- 
lation of the MS. Journal, in French, of the visit made 
to this country, in 1610, by Prince Lewis Frederick 
of Wirtemberg, the second son of Duke Frede- 
rick. He was born in 1586, and after receiving a 
careful education at Tubingen, was employed by his 
elder brother, John Frederick, the then reigning Duke, 
on an important mission to France and England, on 
behalf of the United Protestant Princes of Germany, 
who had entered into a league, in May, 1608, for 
opposing the aggressive proceedings of the Roman Ca- 
tholic Princes of the empire. Accordingly, in June 
following, the Prince of Wirtemberg set out in company 
with Buwinckhausen, and at first tried to gain the inte- 
rest of Henry IV. of France in the cause ; but in this the 
Ambassadors were unsuccessful, because, it is said, they 
would not disclose the secrets of the Union in propor- 
tion to the eagerness of the French court. {Sat tier, 
vi. 12.) They therefore proceeded on their journey 
towards England, the Prince writing from Amiens a 
letter to Sir Robert Cecil (August 1st), apprising him of 
his approaching visit, and desiring his Lordship to gain 

Introduction. cxiii 

him access to King James. We find the Wirtemberg 
prince in London on the ioth, whence he writes again 
to Cecil, mentioning that he had received his Majesty's 
commands, which he was ready to obey. And inasmuch 
as the season was already far advanced, if he were to 
await the coming of the King into these parts, he would 
be constrained to give up the idea of travelling into 
Scotland, 1 which, under his Majesty's good pleasure, he 
had proposed to do. Finally, he hopes the King will 
allow him to meet him on his return at any convenient 
place decided upon. 2 

From " Oxfort," on August 26, Lewis Frederick sends 
a letter to Prince Henry by the hands of Buwinckhausen, 
to excuse himself from paying his respects to the prince 
until after his return from his travels. 

In September and October there are letters addressed 
to James I, by the Elector Palatine and the reigning 
Duke of Wirtemberg, the latter thanking the King for 
his favourable disposition in the matter of the Union, 
and for the kind reception of his brother and Buwinck- 

1 Scotland is indeed mentioned in the title of the MS. Journal of the 
Prince's subsequent visit in 1610 ; yet there is nothing therein descrip- 
tive of it. Probably the Secretary had an idea of introducing some 
account of that country as seen by the Prince in 1608. 

2 This and other letters are in the handwriting of his Secretary 
Wurmsser, the author of the Journal. 


cxiv Introduction. 

Buwinckhausen, who seems to have been an able and 
energetic diplomatist, wrote from Stuttgart, October -Ȥ-, 
a long epistle to Cecil, explanatory of the affairs of the 
Union. It appears from the Journal of 1610, that 
Prince Lewis Frederick and Wurmsser left our shores 
for Dieppe on the 23rd of November, 1608. The next 
letter we discover is from John Frederick, the Duke of 
Wirtemberg, to King James, the " Defender of the 
Faith," dated Stuttgart, July 8, 1609 [June 28 O. S.], 
which is couched as follows : — 

" Sire, I doubt not that Sir Robert Ayton, who has delivered to me 
your Majesty's letters, together with the gift with which you have been 
pleased to honor me, 1 will report to you exactly what I have charged 
him." He then declares that, " since we have issued out of the dark- 
ness of the Papacy, and have thrown off the tyranny of that pretended 
monarch, nothing in my judgment has been seen or heard — and from 
the slight inspection which I have yet had of it, — nothing more signal 
and remarkable than your Majesty's writing, and the form that you 
have employed in publishing it. I hope one day to converse with you 
on this all important subject, and to receive c salutaires et tres sages 
instructions' from your Majesty, who is the light and buckler to all 
Christendom, against this beast, so naively, learnedly, and happily repre- 
sented by you." 

Prince Lewis Frederick also writes, ~ July, a note of 

1 James's book against the Pope and Cardinal Bellarmine, entitled, 
" Apology for the Oath of Allegiance," which was now republished 
with the King's name. The previous edition (1607) was anonymous. 
The British Museum contains the very copy of this first edition, cor- 
rected for the second by the King in his own hand throughout. 

Introduction. cxv 

thanks for the present to him of the King's book, which 
he " intends to read with admiration of the great know- 
ledge with which it has pleased the Divine power to 
endow his Majesty." 

On October T S T , the reigning Duke announces to the 
King, Queen, and Cecil, by a special courier, his ap- 
proaching marriage. 

We now come to the second journey to England 
undertaken by Prince Lewis Frederick, which is that 
recorded by the pen of his Secretary Wurmsser. In 1 609, 
the step which the Protestant Princes had taken was met, 
on the part of the Catholic Princes, by the formation 
among themselves of a Liga or League, at the head of 
which was Maximilian of Bavaria. The disturbances and 
complications to which this antagonistic combination 
gave rise were much increased by the death of the child- 
less Duke of Cleves, 1 which soon followed the union of 
the Catholic Princes. The members composing the Pro- 
testant party assembled at Hall in Swabia, and renewed 
their defensive league in February, 16 10. They then re- 
solved that no alliance should be entered into with foreign 
powers, but they were to secure nevertheless their inti- 
mate relations and friendship. The Elector Palatine 
and Duke John Frederick were deputed to carry out this 

1 As he died without heirs, the succession was disputed. 

cxvi Introduction. 

intention. They thereupon resolved to send Lewis Frede- 
rick again to England, and to associate with him Hippo- 
lytus von Colli and B. von Buwinckhausen, who set out 
on their journey on the 8th of March. Letters were like- 
wise despatched by the Duke of Wirtemberg and the 
Elector Palatine to the King of England, as well as to 
Cecil, recommending the Ambassadors and the business 
with which they were entrusted to their favourable con- 
sideration. The Prince, on his arrival at the Hague, 
addressed a letter, T 4 T April, to James, explaining the ob- 
ject of his mission — being " affairs which concern the 
public good and the preservation of our true religion ;" 
and he sends in advance the bearer, his chamberlain, wait- 
ing for his Majesty's gracious resolution. Pie writes 
also on the same day to Cecil, begging his assistance. 

The Journal expresses in brief entries the proceed- 
ings in London of the Ambassadors, the chief point of 
whose legation (as Win wood, iii. 147, writes to the Earl 
of Salisbury from the Hague) was to induce his Majesty 
to declare himself to be of the union contracted amongst 
the Princes in the late Assembly at Hall. The letters 
which Henry IV. wrote to La Boderie his ambassador 
in England, display the anxiety he felt as to this negotia- 
tion ; and on the 1st of May, 1 the Ambassador commu- 

1 A?nbassades de M. de la Boderie en Angleterre y 1606-1611 ; torn. v. 
pp. 131, 203, 221, &C. 

Introduction. cxvii 

nicates to his royal master some particulars of the audience 
which the Prince of Wirtemberg — whom he describes 
u as not one of the most fluent speakers in the world" — 
had received of King James. But it was at the same 
time rumoured in France that the Prince had some 
design " de faire l'amour en Angleterre." The letters 
printed in Win wood likewise show the tardy progress 
of this business, which seems to have fallen mainly 
into the hands of Cecil. There were discontents and 
grievances displayed both on the part of the Ambassadors 
and of the King. James was drowning the cares of his 
disagreement with the Parliament 1 at his hunting-seats 
in Norfolk and Cambridgeshire. The wicked and un- 
fortunate murder of Henry IV. (May T 4 T ), by which the 
affairs of France were turned upside down, had even its 
baneful influence and had created quite a panic in Eng- 
land. La Boderie was told by the Prince of Wirtem- 
berg, who was with the King when the news arrived of 
Henry's assassination, that James " became whiter than 
his shirt." James was at length induced to aid the Pro- 
testant Princes by sending 4000 troops to be employed 
in their service, under Sir Edward Cecil. The Ambas- 
sadors of the States were dismissed. Sir Thomas Edmondes 
was despatched to France to learn the state of affairs there, 

1 See "The Parliamentary Debates in 1610," edited by Mr. S. R, 
Gardiner for the Camden Society in 1862. 

cxviii Introduction. 

and to further, if possible, their resolutions for the suc- 
cour of Cleves. It was also arranged that Buwinckhausen 
should accompany him, in order to urge a continuance 
of assistance from the French. Buwinckhausen came 
back to London to report to James, and to make new 
conditions on behalf of the league proposed by the 
Prince of Wirtemberg. On September 20th, James 
sends a letter to the Duke of Wirtemberg, informing 
him that he had empowered his Ambassador Winwood 
to proceed to the Assembly at Cologne, to assist there, 
" on our part, to the common peace and establishment 
of the possession of Juliers and Cleves. " These feeble 
warnings of hostility were to be rapidly succeeded by 
troubles of fearful magnitude, which eventually fell into 
the vortex of the war that for thirty years desolated the 
whole of Germany. 

The journal of Prince Lewis Frederick's English 
tour is written in a simple, matter-of-fact style, in 
French, and contains many interesting allusions to places 
and persons visited by the Wirtemberg travellers during 
their brief sojourn in this country. One entry is of 
especial importance. Under the date of Monday, April 
30th, 16 10, the Secretary records that the party went to 
the Globe Theatre to see Othello (" Le More de Venise") 
acted. No more is told, and we have to regret the 
practice of these old travellers stopping short at the 
very point where our interest has been aroused by the 

Introduction. cxix 

meagre though often startling information afforded by 
them. Othello was entered in the Stationers' Registers, 
October 6, 1621. The first quarto, dated 1622, is entitled 
" The Tragoedy of Othello, the Moore of Venice. As it 
hath beene diuerse times acted at the Globe, and at the 
Black-Friers, by his Maiesties Seruants." Malone at 
first assigned its composition to 1 6 1 1 , but subsequently 
altered it to 1604, which date seems to be confirmed by 
an entry in the " Extracts from the Accounts of the 
Revels at Court," edited by Mr. P. Cunningham for the 
Shakespeare Society. Mr. Staunton remarks (iii. 645), 
that " Mr. Collier cites an extract from The Egerton 
Papers, to show that Othello was acted for the enter- 
tainment of Queen Elizabeth at the residence of Lord 
Ellesmere (then Sir Thomas Egerton, Lord Keeper), at 
Harefield, on the 6th of August, 1 602 ; but the suspicion 
long entertained that the Shakespearian documents in 
that collection are modern fabrications, 1 having now 
deepened almost into certainty, the extract in question 
is of no historical value." 

Bishop Hacket, in his Life of Lord Keeper Williams, 2 
relates an amusing anecdote in reference to the visit of 
Prince Lewis Frederick to Cambridge in 16 10. (See 

1 See also Mr. Hamilton's "Inquiry," i860, and Dr. Ingleby's 
" Complete View of the Shakspere Controversy," 1861, p. 264. 

2 Scrinia reserata^ fol. Lond. 1693, part i, p. 20. 

cxx Introduction. 

p. 62.) Williams was at this time Proctor of the 
University. The Bishop says : — 

" Soon after Christmass, the Kings Majesty commanded the Heads 
of the University to give entertainment, such as might be prepared of a 
sudden, to a German Prince and his train. It was the Duke of Witten- 
berg. I cannot err in that I suppose ; for we of the younger sort were 
taught to know him by that name, and his stile at every word was his 
Excellency. The Duke was singularly learned for one of that eminency 
and illustrious blood. Therefore it was thought meet to receive him in 
the Publick Schools with a disputation in Philosophy, performed by the 
most expert Professors of it, who were ready we were sure at the 
shortest warning. I must do right to him that was the first Opponent, 
that he charged the Respondent bravely with arguments of the best ar- 
tillery. It was Mr. Wrenn of Pembrooke Hall, now the Reverend and 
afflicted Bishop of Ely . . . who after twelve years of imprisonment in 
the Tower, continues still in that cruel durance. Mr. Proctour Wil- 
liams was the President or Moderator at this learned act, who by dis- 
cretion, as well as other sufficiency, outstript them all. For, as the 
Apostle of the Gentiles says : c He was made all things to all men? so 
the Proctor manag'd his part before this Prince alia Tudesca ; to Dutch- 
men [/.£. Germans] he became a Dutch philosopher, for all his conceptions 
he confirm'd by quotations out of Julius Pacius, Goclenius, Keckerman 
and others that had been professors within the districts of the German 
Principalities, which was so unexpressibly acceptable to the Duke of 
Wittenberg and his retinue, that they kept him in their company so 
long as they stay'd in Cambridge, and would never part with him ; and 
in fine, carried him in their caroaches to Newmarket^ and acquainted 
the King what credit he had done to their country Philosophers." 

This Prince, by a compact with his brothers in 16 17, 
received the county of Mompelgard 1 , and was enabled, 

1 Mompelgard, alias Montbeliard, in the department of Doubs, 

Introduction. cxxi 

by establishing mines and ironworks, to increase his 
revenues considerably. After the death of his brother, 
John Frederick, Duke of Wirtemberg, in 1628, he be- 
came regent and administrator, and strenuously espoused 
the cause of the Evangelical religion in those parts. He 
died in 1631. 1 

The remainder of the group of foreigners whose Pic- 
tures of England we have included in our volume, 
represent, as already mentioned, for the greater part 
German travellers, whose narratives are extant in print. 
As notices have already been given, introductory to these 
narratives, it would be superfluous to reproduce them 
here. Many notes from these and other visits to our 
country by foreigners have been likewise used for sup- 
plying illustration to certain special portions of our col- 
lection ; in particular, the relation of England by the 
Venetian Ambassador, Marc' Antonio Correr (16 10), 
during a portion of the reign of James I, may be referred 
to as not having been before applied, we believe, to an 

belonged for a considerable time to the Dukes of Burgundy. In 141 9 it 
passed to a branch of the House of Wirtemberg. In 1793 the Duke 
of Wirtemberg, sovereign Prince of Montbeliard, renounced it in favour 
of France by the treaty of peace of an IV. The town has a strong 
castle, and is famous for its watch manufacture. 

1 Pregitzer, " Wirttembergischer Cedern-Baum," fol. Stuttgart, 


ex xii Introduction . 

historical purpose. We have also availed ourselves of a 
poetical Itinerary, written in German by Prince Lewis 
of Anhalt-Cothen, who came to England in 1596. At 
the age of seventeen this Prince travelled with his tutors 
through the Netherlands, England, France, and Italy, 
and subsequently visited Malta, returning after an ab- 
sence of several years. He wrote an account of these 
peregrinations in German verse, which was printed by 
Beckman in his " Accessiones Historian Anhaltinae," 
folio, 17 1 6, p. 165, &c. He tells us he went on two 
occasions to Greenwich, on Sunday, to see the "wise 
Elizabeth" go to church : — 

" Wir speissten mittags dar, und sahn zur Kirchen gehn, 
Die weis' Elisabeth." 

He remained in England from June 22nd to July 
27th, travelling chiefly on horseback. The Prince 
of Anhalt was the first President of the " Fruit-bear- 
ing Society" {Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft), or Order 
of Palms — a society of poets and scholars, formed for 
the purpose of extricating the German language from 
the confusion occasioned by its being encumbered with 
so many foreign words and phrases. (See page 149.) 
During the thirty years' war he took the part of the 
King of Sweden, and died in 1650. He wrote several 
poems, &c. l 

1 Schmidt, "Anhalt'sches Schriftsteller-Lexikon," 1830 ; Sagittarius, 
" Hist. Principum Anhaltinorum," 1686, p. 206, &c. 

Introduction. cxxiii 

In Nichols's " Progresses" of Elizabeth and of James, 
frequent mention is made of the visits of foreign princes 
and personages of distinction ; these notices have been 
extracted from Stowe and others, but we have found no 
reference to any of those persons who are included in 
our collection, except Hentzner, whose valuable Journal 
was first made known to our forefathers upwards of a 
century ago by Horace Walpole. The German tutor's 
description of the great Queen in advanced age is cer- 
tainly the best and the most minute that we possess, and 
it has been frequently quoted ; but the original edition 
of the translation, which is the only one to be depended 
upon for accuracy, and which we have used for our 
work, with occasional corrections, is scarce and high- 
priced, the impression having been limited to 220 copies. 

It is worthy of remark that, at the period we are 
treating of, there were foreigners of education settled in 
England — "strangers and sojourners" — who held situa- 
tions of confidence and trust with many of our principal 
nobility. Levinus Munck, a native of Brabant, may be 
referred to as an instance of this fact, and his career has 
been already described [Note 103). Another, and a 
more celebrated person, was the German poet, Georg 
Rudolph Weckherlin, who was resident in this country 
during a period of forty years. From his poems, and a 
work written by him in English in 1 6 1 6, we are able to 

cxxiv Introduction. 

glean many curious allusions to English people and cus- 
toms, not hitherto made known in connection with his 
biography. Weckherlin was born at Stuttgart in 1584. 
He studied law at Tubingen, and busied himself with 
poetry and works of general literature. At a later period 
(1606 and 1607), following the custom of the times, he 
travelled into France as Secretary to a Wirtemberg Am- 
bassador ; and it is probable that he accompanied one of 
these ambassadors (von Buwinckhausen) to England. 
He himself tells us 1 that he had resided three years in 
England, which we may date from the end of 1607. 
Shortly after the death of his father in 16 10, he returned 
to Germany, and was appointed Secretary and Poet Lau- 
reate to the Duke of Wirtemberg. He left his fatherland 
apparently soon after the battle of Prague (1620), and 
followed for a short time the fortunes, or rather the mis- 
fortunes, of Frederick and Elizabeth of Bohemia. Sub- 
sequently he came to London, where he obtained a 
post in the German Chancery, which was established 

1 Preface to his " Triumphall Shews at Stutgart," 1616. In 16 19, 
Weckherlin published at Stuttgart a poem in English, entitled, " A 
Panegyricke to the Lord Hays [James Hay], Viscount of Doncaster, 
His Majesties of Great Brittaine Ambassadour in Germanie, sung by 
the Rhine. Printed at Stutgart by John Wyr'ich Rosslin" in 4to. A 
copy of this work, which is of the greatest rarity, was sold at Bright's 
sale in 1845, for ^5 l2s - ^d- It was unknown toConz, who published 
an elaborate memoir of Weckherlin in 1803. 

Introduction. cxxv 

on the recommendation of the Elector Palatine, during 
the thirty years' war, for the purpose of conducting 
more readily the affairs of the alliance with Protestant 
Germany. Here he appears to have enjoyed consider- 
able reputation, and was employed both by James I. 
and Charles I. in missions to Scotland, Ireland, and 
other parts. In the " Calendars of State Papers," we 
find him, in 1628, Secretary to Lord Conway ; in 1629- 
163 1, Secretary to Viscount Dorchester (Dudley Carle- 
ton) ; and in 1633-4, Mr. "Wakerley" is named Sec- 
retary to Sir John Coke. On February 20, 1631, he 
presents a petition to the King, in which he trusts his 
Majesty will vouchsafe him some gracious acknowledg- 
ment of his services, lest he undo himself and his family 
thereby. Meanwhile he is enforced to crave some " re- 
freshing in this hard time." He therefore prays for a 
patent in reversion, for thirty-one years, for printing 
certain books named, whereby he may get some small 
recompense, as the footman did, by letting the same grant 
to the Stationers' Company. His request was granted, 
for in Rymer (viii. pt. 3, p. 170), is printed a Special 
License and Privilege under Writ of Privy Seal, April 
5, 1 63 1, to "George Rodolphe Weckherlin, esquire — 
to print or cause to be printed, utter, sell or sett forth 
to sale theis Bookes particularly mentioned, i. e. Catonis 
Disticha ; Pub. Terentii Comedie, Esopi Fabule, Pub. 
Virgilii Maronis Opera, Ciceronis Opera, Ovidii Opera, 

cxxvi Introduction. 

Corderii Colloquia, Pueriles Sentencie & Confabulationes, 
Lud. Vivis Colloquia, Egloge Mantuani & Epistole Sturmii, 
for the term of 31 years, in consideration of the good 
and faithfull service of the said George Rodolphe 
Weckherlin heretofore done unto us." In 1642 he was 
employed by Charles I. in more serious and weighty 
matters, for we find him receiving as much as .£20 " for 
a forraine dispatch." (Ashburnham's Narrative, vol 2. 
Appendix xxvi.) 

The work above alluded to as written in English by 
Weckherlin in 16 16, is a literary curiosity, and is exces- 
sively rare. Had it been known to Mrs. Green, that 
agreeable writer would doubtless have derived from its 
pages numerous embellishments for a portion of her 
painstaking and interesting memoir of the Princess Eli- 
zabeth. As it touches upon some English habits and 
manners of the age, and still further shows the connection 
between the Wirtemberg and English courts, we shall 
make a few extracts from it. Weckherlin says in his 
Preface, " my skill was meane in this skilfull English 
tongue ;" but no apology was needed on this score, for 
indeed the composition is a very remarkable example of 
correct English for the time, and the Stuttgart printer 
deserves an award of praise also for typographical accu- 
racy. The occasion which called forth the work was 
the christening of the eldest son of the reigning Duke of 
Wirtemberg, in March, 16 16, and it describes, according 

Introduction. cxxvii 

to the title, the " Triumphall Shews set forth lately at 
Stutgart. Written first in German, and now in Eng- 
lish, by G. Rodolfe Weckherlin, Secretarie to the Duke 
of Wirtemberg. Stutgart, Printed by John Wyrich 
Resslin," 1616, Svo. 1 

The author dedicates his book to the Princess Eliza- 
beth, wife of the Prince Palatine Frederick. " Your 
blessed presence (he says) was the chiefe cause of the 
shews." This is followed by a Poem, commencing: — 

" Faire Princesse, glorie of this season, 

The truth of your praise (vertues price) 

Doth so farre passe all humane reason, 

That he, whose hand would enterprise 
T* augment your fame by his deserving quill, 
Must either have much rashnesse or much skill," Sec. 

He addresses the " Gentle reader " as follows : — 

" Behold here a small booke written in English by a German, and 
printed in Germanic Therefore if thou art too daintie a reader, I doe 
intreat thee, to seeke somewhere els fit food, to bee pleased withall, 
as, I know, there is greater store of in England, then in any other 

1 A folio volume of Plates illustrating this Pageant at Stuttgart 
[10th to 17th March, 1616], is in the British Museum. It is entitled, 
" Reprsesentatio der Furstlichen Aufzug und Ritterspil, &c, Georgius 
Thonauwer, Inventor: — Matthaeus Merian, Basil, fecit." The letter- 
press description in the same volume is entitled, " WarhafTte Relation 
. . . Fiirstlicher Kind Tauff, &c. Durch Philopatrida Charitinum 
[i. e. Johann Augustin Assum] — Getruckt bey Johann Weyrich 
Rosslin und Johann Alexander Cellio, m.dc.xvi." 

cxxviii Introduction. 

countrie. As for me, beeing fully acquainted with mine incapacitie, 
I willingly would crave pardon for this rude relation, if I did set it forth 
by boldnesse. But to obey the commandement of my Soveraigne (his 
Highnesse of Wirtemberg), / was glad to find out all my best English, I 
had learned within three yeares, I lived in England. Therefore I pray 
thee, to take it in good part, and so, as I doe meane it, though I doe 
not say, well : and kindly to reforme by thy judicious reading the 
faults either of the erring author, or of the unwitting Printer, who, 
good man, never in his life saw, nor perhaps will see more English 
together. Thus I shall indevor the more, to honour in German the 
gallant English Nation, whereof (verely) I make more account, then I 
can utter (though with truth) without getting the name of a flatterer. 
Farewell.' ' 

After the dinner which followed the christening (p. 7), the second 
company played " musicke according to the English manner with 
cornets and sack-botts." After supper there was a mask — " when 
there came forward with sound of music foure hudge great, but also 
well formed heads, and there came out of the first head but one player 
on the lute allone, in a red suit, allmost like an English shipman. To 
the sound of his lute came forth after him a gentleman, that did 
represent th' English nation. His hat was white embrodered with 
silver, with a white feather, beeing the fashion of his habit, that was of 
white silver cloth, as English Lords were woonted to use some twentie 
yeares agone. He daunced a galliard after th' English manner ; and as 
soone as he was neare the Princes, a wild Scottishman daunced out 
from that same head, at the sound of a drumme, another Scottishman 
played on. Now the Englishman seeing him come against him, began 
to daunce likewise after his fashion, and was the one on this, and 
th' other on that side, when they did see come out of that same head an 
Irish harper, to whose play followed an other Irishman, that by his 
dauncing caused the two first to imitate his sport too." 

Running at the ring is described at p. 16. On a later day there 
was a comical " turney by tub-headed adventurers." The last chapter 
treats of the " Hunting and fire-worke." " My Prince (adds Week- 

Introduction. cxxix 

herlin) gave some tokens of the great affection he beareth to strangers, 
to the English nobilitie. " 

Weckherlin wrote numerous poems, mostly lyrical, 
some of which are highly praised, especially the drink- 
ing, love, and war songs ; some of his later poems are 
vulgar and coarse. He is looked upon as the prototype of 
Opitz, but it seems to be allowed that he has exercised 
little influence on Germany. In 1641 he published at 
Amsterdam a collected edition of his poems (Gaistliche 
und Weltliche Gedichte), the preface to which is subscribed 
" Gegeben an dem Koniglichen Hofe in Engelland den 
letzten Tag Herbstmonats, 1639" (given at the royal 
Court in England the last day of September, 1639). A 
more complete edition appeared also at Amsterdam in 
1648, the Preface being dated " zu Londen in Engelland, 
1647." A few of his poems are translations from the 
English ; as the beautiful piece, ascribed to Raleigh, 
commencing, " Go soul, the bodies guest," &c. called 
here the Lie {Die Lugin). One of his odes is addressed 
to Sir Henry Wotton (ed. 1648, p. 451). A Drinking 
Ode (p. 532) contains the following verse: — 

" 1st Engelland schon ohn Weinwachs, 
Hat man doch gute wein darinnen, 
Und mancher drincket als ein Sachs, 
Wan er die schlacht gern wolt gewinnen : 

Drinck mir ein glass des besten zu, 
Mit welchem die Insuln prachtieren : 
Then lett us drinck, Pie drinck to you, 
Kan ein wein disen surpassieren ?" 

cxxx Introduction. 

Which may be rendered : — 

" Though England hath no vineyards fair, 
Good store of wine she hath alway, 
And the jolly toper drinketh there, 
As a Saxon drinketh for the fray. 

Bring a flask of the best, that we drink too 
The wine that maketh the islands glad, 

' Then lett us drinck, Pie drinck to you,' 
Can better wine than this be had ?" 

In the second Amsterdam edition (p. 8 1 9) there is an 
Epigram on the tragical death of Abraham Dort (Van 
Dort, or more correctly Vanderdort), the Keeper of King 
Charles Fs Cabinet, Pictures, Jewels, and Rarities, and the 
compiler of the Catalogue of the famous royal collection 
of pictures, which was published by Walpole. The 
latter, in his " Anecdotes of Painting in England," has 
related the story how Vanderdort, on being unable to 
find a miniature of the Parable of the Lost Sheep, 
painted by Gibson, when the King asked to see it, took 
the matter so much to heart that he went home and 
hanged himself! The date of this melancholy catastrophe 
is not stated by Walpole, but Weckherlin has supplied it 
in his punning lines upon the "poor fellow Dort" — this 
word "dort" having the meaning of there, or yonder : — 

" Von Abraham Dort, Konigl. Mt. zu Gross Britannien Gemahlden 
bewahrern, sich selbs erhenckend, 1 640. 

" Nachdem der arme Bub von Dort 

Sein ampt recht zu thun sich bekrancket, 

Introduction. cxxxi 

Hat er sich hie an disem Ort 

Nach den Gemahlden selbs gehencket : 

Hat also er Dort gleiches glick 

Als die Gemahlde hie empfangen. 

Dan Dort sah man manch schones stuck, 

Hie aber Dort selbs schandlich hangen." 

" On Abraham Dort, Keeper of the Pictures of his Majesty the King 
of Great Britain, hanging himself 1640. 

" Anxious to do his duty well, 

Van Dort there, conscientious elf, 
From hanging up his pictures, fell 
One day to hanging up himself — 
No more the pictures need complain 
That Dort there hung them up so sadly, 
For here there shows his art again, 
In hanging up himself as badly." 

After Vanderdort's death, his executors discovered and 
restored the miniature, so that, as Sanderson in his Gra- 
phice, 1658, p. 14, remarks, the lost sheep was found. 

Weckherlin was married, and a poem in his collection 
is addressed to his only daughter, Elizabeth Trumbull, 
who was the first wife of William Trumbull, Esq. of 
Easthamstead, Berkshire, son of the Agent for James I. 
and Charles I. in the Low Countries. She was mother 
to the noted Sir William Trumbull, the friend of Pope. 

All the biographies we have consulted of Weckherlin, 
including the elaborate one written by Conz, assign the 
year 1651 as the date of his death, which took place in 
London. But this date may be corrected by the 

cxxxii Introduction. 

inscription on Faithorne's fine portrait of the poet, 
which he engraved after a painting by My tens, reading 
as follows : — 

" Georgius Rodolphus Weckherlin, an , aet. 50. Natus 
14 Sept. 1584: Denatus 13 Feb. 1653. JEt. 69. " On 
the top of the oval are his arms — a beehive. 

Having now emptied our budget of antiquarian gossip 
touching travelling of yore by Foreigners into dear old 
England, it is time that we take leave of those " aliens 
and strangers" who have honoured our native land with 
their presence. Let us, therefore, while acknowledging 
our gratitude for any instruction or entertainment they 
may have afforded us, part in good fellowship with each 
and all of them. Their earthly pilgrimages have been 
long ago accomplished ; they are all gone to that "undis- 
covered country, from whose bourn no traveller returns/' 
It is the Pilgrim's progress ever ! a warning to all of us 
to bear continually in our minds the solemn caution — 

" Let no man slight his mortality!" 





'^^ fig^Xy*^ 


:< A True and Faithful Narrative of the Bathing Excursion,* which his 
serene Highness Frederick, Duke of Wirtemberg, Count Mumppel- 
gart, Knight of the Garter, made a few years ago to the far-famed 
Kingdom of England ; as it was noted down daily in the most 
concise manner possible at his hlghness's gracious command by his 
private Secretary (Jacob Rathgeb), who accompanied him." 

Printed at Tubingen, by Erhardus Cellius, anno 1602. 

N the morning of the 7th of August, 1592, 
the wind being favorable, the Master of the 
vessel, an honest, civil and experienced man, 
ordered the anchors to be hauled up on deck, 
and all the sails (seven in number) to be 
unfurled ; by this means and the good breeze 
we made such progress, that in the afternoon we got out of 
the river [Ems] into the open sea. Not being accustomed to 
the sea, we were seized with horrible vomitings, and most of 
our party (with the exception of his Highness) became so dread- 
fully ill that they thought they were dying, and often wished 
themselves back again on shore. 1 We proceeded steadily under 

a " Badenfahrt." — See Remarks in Introduction. 

4 England as seen by Foreigners. 

this fair wind all that night and the next day the 8th of August; 
but then the last night we had a very violent and terrific gale : a — 
the wind shifted and blew right on our side, by which we were 
placed in the greatest danger, especially as there were four-and- 
twenty horses coupled together standing below in the hold, 
for when the ship gave a lurch by a gust of wind, the horses 
immediately fell over each other in a heap, and consequently 
nearly capsized the vessel : in short, many found it no laughing 
matter, but thought that they should die ; nevertheless the 
merciful God graciously looked down with fatherly eyes upon 
us, so that on the morning of the 9th of August, towards mid- 
day, we arrived happily and well near Dover, which is an English 
sea-port, lying opposite to Calais; and we had sailed over the 
spot where a few years before the mighty Spanish Armada was 
attacked, beaten, and scattered by the English fleet, for we saw 
[the wrecks of] all those ships lying on the beach. 

When we came in sight of the land and of the port above men- 
tioned, we rejoiced heartily ; but that indeed did not set us free, 
for when we were about some thousand paces from the port, 
the Master ordered the anchors to be cast, and gave those on 
shore a signal to fetch us off in small boats, because he did 
not want to go into the harbour, but to set sail immediately for 
France and Rochelle. Thereupon several Englishmen soon came 
with boats, and scudded over the impetuous waves in order to 
put us and our luggage on shore ; as indeed it came to pass, for 
after the Master had been paid the stipulated charge, we all 
proceeded towards land, and some of our party were in terror 
at seeing themselves in such little boats among such awful 

a " Ein sehr grosse ungestiimme und erschrockliche Fortuna." 

England as seen by Foreigners. 5 

mountains of salt water ; but the Almighty assisted us, so that 
we reached the English sea-port of Dover without any accident. 
Now you must know that in England it is only the city of 
London that is enclosed 3 [by walls] ; all the other places are open. 

Dover is a tolerably large and pleasant place and an important Dover. 
port of the kingdom of England, 2 lying close to the English sea, 
as already said, right opposite to Calais, — which place his 
Highness likewise saw, for the weather was very fine and clear — 
at a distance of four hours' sail. Dover is very well fortified ; 
many large cannon were then lying piled up in the harbour, and 
it therefore could not easily be taken by force : besides which, 
not far off, several English ships of war ride at anchor to pro- 
tect it. The mountains in the vicinity are not very high, but 
quite white like chalk, so that they are seen at a distance. Here 
the young Baron of Winnenberg, 3 who had been detained at 
Canterbury with his father [Philip] the Ambassador of the 
Elector Palatine, waiting for a good wind, visited and dined 
with his Highness. 

After that his Highness took post horses for Gravesend ; 4 the 
baggage, however, was sent on to London, — during which 
stages some of the party did not feel themselves quite at ease, b 
particularly his Highness, on account of the saddles being in 
these parts so small and covered only with bare hide or leather, 
and therefore painful and hard to ride upon, and it is difficult, 
especially for any one who is corpulent and heavy, to settle 
himself comfortably on such small saddles ; so his Highness 
brought back one with him as a specimen. 5 

a " Beschlossen." 

b In the first edition the passage is, " aber welcher die Post nicht wol befunden;" 
altered in the subsequent editions to " auff welcher Post sich ettliche nicht wol 




6 England as seen by Foreigners. 

The second stage was to Canterbury; 6 the third to Sitting- 
bourne, where his Highness slept for the first time in England. 

In the morning of the loth of August the same post carried 
us as far as Rochester ; from thence nearly half a stage forward 
to Gravesend. Here, having first dined, a small vessel was 
ordered, 7 and [we embarked] upon the river Thames, which is 
tolerably broad, and in which there are many swans; 8 these are 
so tame that you can almost touch them, but it is forbidden on 
pain of corporal punishment in any way to injure a swan, for 
Royalty has them plucked every year, in order to have their 
down for court-use. Into this river Thames there sets also 
a tide of the sea, which accordingly every six hours flows up 
and down. We then sailed towards London. Upon the left- 
hand side of the river we passed the beautiful and pleasant royal 
Palace of Greenwich, 9 where the Queen moreover is usually 
accustomed to receive and to give audience to envoys and am- 
bassadors from foreign potentates. 

In the evening of the ioth of August (Almighty God be 
praised and thanked) we arrived safe and well in London ; 
where, as his Highness was unknown, he could not at first find 
a lodging ; at length, however, we were accommodated 3 at the 
Netherlandish Postmaster's house, called here The Dutch 

Now from Emden to London, calculating sea and land, the 
distance is usually estimated at 300 English, or 100 German 

On the following day [Aug. 11] his Highness immediately 
visited at his residence the royal French Ambassador, Mons r . 

a " Seind wir in dess Niderlandifchen Poftmeifters Haufs, die Teutfche Port 
genant, inkebret" (literally, " turned in"). 

Rnglaxd as see?: bx Foreigners. 7 

de Beauvois La Xocle, 11 whom he took completely by surprise, 
for to see his Highness in this place was the last thing to be 
expected. His Highness remained with the ambassador for a 
few days in order to receive her Majesty's wishes ; in the 
mealtime he town an things. 

London is a large, excellent, and mighty city of business, 
the most important in the whole kingdom ; most of the 
inhabitants are employed in buying and selling merchandize, 
and trading in almost every corner of the world, since the river 1 ' 2 
is most useful and convenient for this purpose, considering that 
ships from France, the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, 
Hamburg, and other kingdoms, come almost up to the city, to 
which they convey goods and receive and take away others in 

It is a very populous city*, so that one can scarcely pass along 
the streets, on account of the throng. 

The inhabitants are magnificently apparelled, and are 
extremely proud and overbearing; and because the greater 
especially the tradespeople, seld c itc inter countries, but 

.in in their houses in the city attending: to their 
business, they care little for foreigners scoff and laugh 

at them; and moreover one dare not oppose them, else the 
s:ree:-b:;u ..; ;.-en:ices codec: tcretner in immense crowds 
and strike to dae right and led: unmercifully without regard 
to person; and because they are :de strongest, one is obliged to 
put up with the as well as the injury. 13 

The women have much more liberty than perhaps in anv other 
place ; they also know well how to make use of it, for they go 

: ut in exceedingly tine clothes, and give all their atte 
to their ruffs and stuffs, 14 to such a derree ir.aerud that, as I am 

8 England as seen by Foreigners. 

informed, many a one does not hesitate to wear velvet in the 
streets, which is common with them, whilst at home perhaps they 
have not a piece of dry bread. 3 All the English women are 
accustomed to wear hats upon their heads, and gowns cut after 
the old German fashion — for indeed their descent is from the 
Saxons. 15 
St. Pauls. In the city there is among others a large and remarkable 
church, called St. Paul's, where there are two choirs or churches, 
one over the other, but otherwise there is nothing of importance 
to be seen in it. 10 There are also many other churches here and 
there ; in particular three, where they preach in the French, 
Italian, and Dutch tongues. 
Royal The Exchange (La Burce) is a palace, where all kinds of 

beautiful goods are usually to be found ; and because the city is 
very large and populous, the merchants who transact business 
together appoint to meet each other at that place, of whom 
several hundreds are constantly to be met with congregated there. 17 

The sweet water is preserved in various parts of the city in 
large well-built stone cisterns [conduits], to be drawn off by 
cocks ; and the poor labourers [water-bearers] carry it on their 
shoulders to the different houses and sell it, in a peculiar kind of 
wooden vessels, broad at the bottom, but very narrow at the 
top, and bound with iron hoops. 18 

On Sunday, the 13th of August, his Highness attended 
the French service, and afterwards at mid- day partook of a 
magnificent banquet provided for him by the royal French Am- 
bassador, Monsieur Beauvois La Node, at which, besides several 

u " Vil auff Kreser unnd anders legen, dergestalt, dass, wie ich bericht, wol eine 
aufF der Gassen Sammet, der bey ihnen gemein, tragen darff, die daheimbt im 
Hauss ettwan das trucken Brot nicht gehaben mag." 

England as seen by Foreigners, 9 

English lords of consequence, the Stadian ambassador 19 was also 
present : but the wine, which comes from France (for there is no 
wine-growing in England), did not agree with his Highness/ nor 
could he bear it ; but the beer, which is of the colour of an old 
Alsace wine [hock], was so delicious, that he relished it exceed- 

ingly- 20 

Over the river at London there is a beautiful long bridge, London Bridge. 
with quite splendid, handsome, and well-built houses, which are 
occupied by merchants of consequence. 21 Upon one of the 
towers, nearly in the middle of the bridge, are stuck up about 
thirty-four heads of persons of distinction, 22 who had in former 
times been condemned and beheaded for creating riots and from 
other causes. 

On the 14th of August his Highness and suite went in Westminster 
wherries 5 to the beautiful and large royal church called West- 
minster, situated at the end, outside the city, in order to inspect 
the same. It is a very large structure, and in particular has a 
chapel within it which was built eighty years ago 23 by King 
Henry VII, arched over with carved stone, so elegantly wrought 
that its equal is not easily to be found : there are inside some 
beautiful tombs of deceased Kings and Queens, covered all 
over with gilding, and executed in a most beautiful manner. 

In front of this chapel, outside in the choir, are many other 
monuments of Kings made of marble, of all kinds of curious 
colours ; amongst others is a tomb or shrine with the following 
inscription around it : — 

a " 1st ihren F. G. nicht wol bekommen, noch denselben leiden konnen, aber 
das Bier so herlich, als in der Farb eines alten Elsesser Weins, wol zugeschlagen." 
b <; Gundeln" — gondolas. 

i o England as seen by Foreigners. 

" Omnibus insignis virtutum laudibus Heros, 
Sanctus Eduardus Confessor rex venerandus, 
Quinto die Jan. 24 moriens 1065. 
Super aethera scandit sursum corda." 

And upon another elevated monument : — 

" Segberti Regis Orientalium Sayoni [Saxonum], fundatoris hujus Ecclesi^e." 

In this choir stands also the chair in which, for several centuries 
past, all the Kings and Queens have been crowned : 25 under- 
neath lies a large stone, which is said to be the very one upon 
which the patriarch Jacob reposed when he saw the angels 
ascending and descending a ladder reaching to heaven. In the 
same choir was also shown the sword which King Edward III. 
is said to have carried and used in battle and war ; it is an 
immense blade, like a double-handed sword, so heavy that 
one can scarcely lift it, and upon it is a wolf of copper, like as 
upon the old Wolffsklingen™ together with the four letters 
I. N. R. I. In this beautiful church the English Ministers, who 
are dressed in white surplices such as the Papists wear, sang 
alternately, and the organ played. 

Now, because by this time her Majesty had received informa- 
tion of his Highness's arrival through the French ambassador, 
Monsieur de Beauvois (who was held in high esteem and favour 
by her Majesty), she immediately despatched one of her pages 
in a coach towards London, in order to fetch his Highness from 
thence, and to convey him to the residence of the court at Reading. 

His Highness, therefore, on the 16th of August, accom- 
panied by this page of honour, travelled from London in this 
coach and with several post horses towards the royal residence. 
Previously, however, his Highness had ordered an entire suit of 
black velvet to be provided for each of his pages and attendants. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 1 1 

At noon we came to Hounslow, an English village. To- Hounslow. 
wards night we reached Maidenhead, a beautiful large place or Maidenhead. 
town, but which, like all other English towns, is without walls : 
here we were met by the ambassador, Beauvois. 

On the morning of [Thursday] the 17th of August, in 
company with the said ambassador, we arrived about noon 
at Reading, where her Majesty has her court residence in Quhn Eliza- 
England, 27 and we were lodged at the house of the Mayor ™l" A 
of that place : from hence to London is barely thirty-two 
miles. Hardly had his Highness undressed and put on other 
apparel, when the Earl of Exces [Robert Devereux, Earl of 
Essex], one of the most distinguished lords in England, also one 
of the Queen's Council, Master of the Horse, and Knight of the 
royal Order called the Garter (Lachartiere), visited his Highness 
at his lodging, welcomed him in her Majesty's name, and invited 
him to take dinner in his, the Earl's, apartments. To which his 
Highness, after returning due thanks, was conveyed in a coach, 
and was feasted most sumptuously, when the Earl entertained 
his Highness with such sweet and enchanting music (which in 
all probability belonged to the Queen), that he was highly 
astonished at it. After the repast was ended, his Highness was 
again accompanied by the same distinguished lord to his 
lodging ; but early in the afternoon he was summoned by her 
Majesty and fetched by others, and was conducted to the 
Queen's own apartments. 

Her Majesty was at that time in a somewhat mean room, 
surrounded by her principal councillors and ladies in waiting, in 
court dresses. His Highness was then introduced by the French 
ambassador, and after having made a profound and dutiful 
obeisance to her Majesty, was received by her in a very friendly 

1 2 England as seen by Foreigners. 

and gracious manner, and for some length of time her Majesty 
conversed with him on various subjects, and that openly and 
aloud, so that any in the apartment might understand. His 
Highness's pages, as well as all the rest of us, were allowed to 
enter, — nay, even great English lords made way for us and put 
us forward that we might the better see the Queen — a thing 
indeed which rarely occurs to the attendants of foreign am- 

After having again made a low obeisance, his Highness went 
to his lodging; and in the afternoon of the 18th of August he 
had another audience of her Majesty, on which occasion she 
herself made and delivered an appropriate speech, in the presence 
of Monsieur de Beauvois, in the French language, which, 
together with many others, her Majesty understands and speaks 
very well ; and since, as before said, her Majesty held Monsieur 
de Beauvois in especial favour, after he had been conversing with 
her Majesty very lively and good- humoured ly, he so far pre- 
vailed upon her that she played very sweetly and skilfully on 
her instrument,' 28 the strings of which were of gold and silver. 

Yet, notwithstanding that her Majesty was at this time in her 
67th year, 3 seeing that she was chosen Queen on the 16th of No- 
vember, 1558, in the 33rd year of her age, and has thus borne 
the heavy burthen of ruling a kingdom thirty-four years, she 
need not indeed — to judge both from her person and appearance 
— yield much to a young girl of sixteen. She has a very dig- 
nified, serious, and royal look, and rules her kingdom with great 
discretion, in desirable peace, felicity, and in the fear of God. 

a This is a mistake: Elizabeth was born Sept. 7th, 1533, consequently was 
now only fifty-nine. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 1 3 

She has, by God's help and assistance, known well how to meet her 
enemies hitherto : witness that mighty Spanish Armada, 29 which 
a few years ago was scattered between Dover and Calais, and 
beaten by the English, an enemy of inferior force compared with 
it. Hence she frequently uses this motto : Si Deus fro nobis , 
quis contra nos ? a which she also did on this occasion when the 
discourse happened to turn upon that same Spanish defeat. 

After a long conversation his Highness took humble leave 
of her Majesty, and departed to his lodging, where in the evening 
he gave a sumptuous banquet and feast to the aforesaid Earl of 
Essex, the French ambassador, Beauvois, and other distin- 
guished lords of high rank. 

This place Reading is a pleasant and rather pretty town ; 
nevertheless it is like a market town, without gates or walls, 
as in fact are all other English towns, which, although they have 
walls in some parts, are neither fortified nor defenfible ; for 
what was fortified and strong has long ago been entirely razed 
and destroyed, in order that the subjects, who are naturally 
inclined to sedition, should in no case find an opportunity to 
rebel and rise up against the government. 

The lords and pages of the royal court have a stately, noble 
air, but dress more after the French fashion, only that they 
wear short cloaks, and sometimes Spanish caps, and not such 
broad hats as the French : they keep many retainers, for the 
most part portly and good-looking men who go without cloaks, 
but have only jerkins of their lord's colour and bearing his arms 
rolled up and buckled behind ; they likewise have the same 
arms upon their sleeves, so that they may be distinguished. 30 

a " If God be for us, who can be against us?" — Rom. viii. 31. 

1 4 England as seen by Foreigners. 

And they are kept very strict, for if indeed they wish to run 
away, they cannot, because no Englishman is allowed to go out 
of the kingdom without a passport ; wherefore other nations have 
a saying that " England is a paradise for women, a prison for 
servants, and a hell or purgatory for horses," 31 — for the females 
have great liberty and are almost like masters, whilst the poor 
horses are worked very hard. The country in the vicinity of 
the royal court is for the most part flat and sandy, and because 
few succeed in rinding accommodation at an inn, they erect 
tents under which they sojourn, thus presenting the appearance 
of an encampment. 

When the Queen breaks up her court, with the intention of 
visiting another place, there commonly follow more than 300 
carts {Karcli) laden with bag and baggage ; for you must know 
that in England, besides coaches, they use no waggons for the 
goods, but have only two-wheeled carts, which however are so 
large that they carry quite as much as waggons, and as many as 
five or six strong horses draw them. 32 

But since on the 1 9th of August her Majesty had left Read- 
ing with her court, his Highness, in company with the French 
ambassador, Beauvois, took his departure again towards London, 
Windsor, and in the evening arrived at Windsor, an English town twelve 
miles from Reading. 

It had pleased her Majesty to depute an old distinguished 
English lord to attend his Highness, and she had commissioned 
and directed him not only to show his Highness the splendid 
royal Castle at Windsor, but also to amuse him by the way with 
shooting and hunting red deer ; for you must know that in the 
vicinity of this same place Windsor, there are upwards of sixty 
parks which are full of game of various kinds, and they are so 

England as seen by Foreigners. 1 5 

contiguous, that in order to have a glorious and royal sport 
the animals can be driven out of one inclosure into another, and 
so on ; all which inclosures are encompassed by fence s 

And thus it happened : the huntsmen who had been ordered 
for the occasion, and who live in splendid separate lodges in 
these parks, made some capital sport for his Highness. In the 
first inclosure his Highness shot off the leg of a fallow-deer, and 
the dogs soon after caught the animal. In the second, they 
chased a stag for a long time backwards and forwards with par- 
ticularly good hounds, over an extensive and delightful plain ; 
at length his Highness shot him in front with an English cross- 
bow, and this deer the dogs finally worried and caught. In the 
third, the greyhounds chased a deer, but much too soon, for they 
caught it directly, even before it could get out into the open 
plain. These three stags were brought to Windsor and presented 
to his Highness ; one of them was taken to his lodging, and 
sent as a present to the aforesaid Mons r . de Beauvois, the French 

The next day being Sunday the 20th of August, his Highness 
was conducted by the English deputy to the magnificent and 
glorious Palace or Castle [of Windsor.] 33 

This Castle stands upon a knoll or hill ; in the outer or first 
court there is a very beautiful and immensely large church, with 
a flat even roof, covered with lead, as is common with all churches 
in this kingdom. In this church his Highness listened for more 
than an hour to the beautiful music, the usual ceremonies, and 
the English sermon. The music, especially the organ, was ex- 
quisitely played ; for at times you could hear the sound of 
cornets, flutes, then fifes and other instruments ; and there was 
likewise a little boy who sang so sweetly amongst it all, and 

1 6 England as seen by Foreigners. 

threw such a charm over the music with his little tongue/ that 
it was really wonderful to listen to him. In short, their 
ceremonies were very similar to the Papists, as above mentioned, 
with singing and all the rest. After the music, 34 which lasted a 
long time, had ended, a minister or preacher ascended the 
pulpit and preached in English ; and soon afterwards, it being 
noon, his Highness went to dinner. 

In the before-named outer court seventeen poor knights, who 
have done good service in war and battle, either by sea or land, 
have their dwellings : they have further, as a remuneration 
and benefice, in addition to their lodgings, each a hundred 
crowns a year to spend, which is given by the Queen, together 
with a suit of clothes. 

In the said church there hang on both sides the shields, helmets, 
and banners of the knights of the royal order called the Garter 
{La Chartiere), which is a highly esteemed order, and which not 
many can obtain. 35 And when a person is received into this 
order, he is, as it were, expected to make some present to these 
said old and poor knights. His Highness invited some of them 
to be his guests both at dinner and supper. 

After dinner his Highness went with the English and French 
deputies and the ambassador to the royal Castle of Windsor, in 
order to inspect it and all that was worth seeing therein. And 
in truth it is a right royal and splendid structure, built, from its 
very foundation up to the roof, entirely of freestone, notwith- 
standing that this is not very often to be met with in this 
country, and cannot be procured without enormous and incal- 

a " Es sang auch ein kleines Knablein so lieblich darein, und colorirt dermassen 
mit seinem Zunglein, dass es wundersam zuhoren." 

England as seen by Foreigners. 1 7 

culable expense ; it covers a large area, and the innermost court 
is quadrangular, of a bow-fhot in length and width ; in the midst 
of it is a curiously wrought fountain, all of lead, several fathoms 
high : in fact, all the roofs are covered entirely with lead, which 
induced his Highness 3 to cut his name in the lead upon the 
highest tower. 36 After these, we were shown very beautiful 
royal bed-hangings and tapestries of gold and fine silk ; likewise 
a genuine unicorn 37 [horn], and similar costly things, that can 
hardly be sufficiently well described. 

When his Highness had seen all these, and had spent a long 
time in doing so, he drove down to the University of that 
place [Eton College], wherein, however, there was nothing Eton College. 
particular to be seen. 

The next day, August 21st, he departed from Windsor, and 
by the way had pleasant pastime in the parks with the game : 
in one of the parks his Highness shot two fallow deer, one 
with a gun, the other with an English crossbow ; the latter deer 
we were obliged to follow a very long while, until at length a 
stray track, or blood~hound, b as they are called, by its wonderful 
quality and peculiar nature, singled out the deer from several 
hundred others, and pursued it so long, till at last the wounded 
deer was found on one side of a brook, and the dog, quite 
exhausted, on the other ; and the stag, which could go no farther, 
was taken by huntsmen, and the hound feasted with its blood. 

After this glorious sport, we partook of some cold meat in a 
fine English farm-house, and in the afternoon his Highness was 

a " Darumb ihre F. G. dero Namen auff den hochsten Thurn selbst in Bley 

b " Ein ledig lauffender Lait: oder Bluthundt." 


18 England as seen by Foreigners. 

conducted to see the grand and truly beautiful royal Palace called 

Hampton Hampton Court. 

Now this is the most splendid and most magnificent royal 
Palace of any that may be found in England — or, indeed, in 
any other kingdom. 38 It comprises ten different large courts, 
and as many separate royal or princely residences, but all con- 
nected; together with many beautiful gardens both for pleasure 
and ornament — some planted with nothing but rosemary ; 
others laid out with various other plants, which are trained, 
intertwined, and trimmed in so wonderful a manner, and in such 
extraordinary shapes, that the like could not easily be found. 39 
In short, all the apartments and rooms in this immensely large 
structure are hung with rich tapestry, of pure gold and fine silk, 
so exceedingly beautiful and royally ornamented that it would 
hardly be possible to find more magnificent things of the kind in 
any other place. In particular, there is one apartment belonging 
to the Queen, in which she is accustomed to sit in state, costly 
beyond everything ; the tapestries are garnished with gold, pearls, 
and precious stones — one tablecover alone is valued at above 
fifty thousand crowns — not to mention the royal throne, which 
is studded with very large diamonds, rubies, sapphires, and the 
like, that glitter among other precious stones and pearls as the 
sun among the stars. 

Many of the splendid large rooms are embellished with 
masterly paintings, writing-tables inlaid with mother-of-pearl, 
organs, and musical instruments, which her Majefty is particularly 
fond of. Among other things to be seen there, are life-like 
portraits of the wild man and woman whom Martin Forbisser 
[Frobisher] the English captain, took in his voyage to the New 
World, and brought alive to England. 40 

England as seen by Foreigners. 1 9 

In the middle of the first and principal court stands a 
splendid high and massy fountain, 41 with an ingenious water- 
work, by which you can, if you like, make the water play upon 
the ladies and others who are standing by, and give them a 
thorough wetting. 

Now, as we have already said, the royal castle at Windsor is 
constructed entirely of free-stone, so is this beautiful Palace 
wholly built of brick. His Highness having taken a drink in 
the garden, in company with the keeper of the Palace, who 
was a nobleman, took the road again towards London, which 
place we did not reach till quite late, when it was already 
pitch dark : the distance from Windsor to London being about 
twenty-two English miles. 

As we stayed in London the 22nd and also the 23rd of 
August, his Highness was shown the Tower of London, as well The Tower. 
as the Mint and the Armoury therein, which however is not 
indeed to be compared with the German armouries, for, although 
there are many fine cannon in it, yet they are full of dust, and 
stand about in the greatest disorder. At the top of the 
armoury there is an unspeakable number of arrows, which is a 
sufficient proof that the English used such things in battle in 
former times. In the same place his Highness was shown the 
long barrel and stock a which belonged to the last King Henry 
[VIII.], father of her present Majesty ; this he is said to have 
carried on his saddle, and it may be compared with a musket ; 
also his lance or spear, which a man has enough to do to lift. 
In this tower also, but in separate small houses made of wood, 
are kept six lions and lionesses, 42 two of them upwards of a 

a " Langes Rohr und Faustling." 

20 England as seen by Foreigners. 

hundred years old. Not far from these is also a lean, ugly 
wolf, which is the only one in England ; on this account it is 
kept by the Queen — and indeed there are no others in the 
whole kingdom, if we except Scotland, where there are a great 
number, and that kingdom is only made distinct from England 
by the water which divides them. Here it was that one of his 
Highness's subjects, Nicholas Loz von Cossdnantx (Cossevaulx), 
from the principality of Ericurt (Elicourt), presented himself to 
his Highness. He was by trade a gunsmith, and had married 
and settled in London. 

Now, as his Highness was obliged to wait some time longer 
for her Majesty's declaration and answer, in the meantime he 
proceeded, on the 25th of August, to visit the two celebrated 
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. 
Uxbridge. We first came to Uxbridge, a beautiful large market town, at 

which we slept that night ; here his Highness was shown a sheep 
with five legs. 
stokenchurch. On the 26th of August, at noon, we arrived at Stokenchurch x 
Oxford. an d m the evening at Oxford. 43 His Highness the same evening 

sent to inform the Chancellor of the University (for whom he 
had a letter) of his arrival. He, however, excused himself at 
the time, as he could not, on account of business, wait upon his 
Highness until the following morning ; but he sent two young 
doctors, who welcomed his Highness in his name and invited 
him to dinner the next day ; he accordingly went and dined 
in the principal College, where the Chancellor 44 resided. 

In the morning of the 27th of August, the Chancellor visited 
his Highness in state, preceded by four bedells — important 
personages with long silver staves, such as they carry in Switzer- 
land before the mayor or chief magistrate — welcomed his High- 

England as seen by Foreigners. 2 1 

ness with great distinction, and even before dinner* conducted 
him to view some of the colleges ; they afterwards dined 
together. In the afternoon his Highness inspected all the re- 
maining colleges, in which indeed there was nothing particular 
to notice; but if any good-natured reader takes an interest in 
those things that are to be met with in this said place, as to 
their age, by whom and also to what purpose they were founded, 
he may make himself acquainted with them in the Latin 3 and 
German languages as hereafter follows : 45 — 

cc Brief and circumstantial Account of the University of 
Oxford in England, as well as of Foundations and the Colleges 
at present appertaining to it : together with their Arms and the 
number of Students who derive their maintenance out of the 
common revenues. Dedicated to the most worshipful lord and 
father in God, John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The Oxford High School, or University as it is generally University. 
called, was founded by the pious benevolence of that devout 
King of England, Alfred (as some, and these not mean, historians 
assert), in the year 872. Others, however, trace its origin from 
the building of the city, and state that it was established by King 
Mempritius in b.c. ioi5, 4G and that King Vortigern, in a.d. 474, 
reinstituted and restored it. But let this workshop or mother 
of liberal arts and studies have been established when it may, it is 
at present without any doubt one of the most distinguished and 
renowned, alike whether you consider the magnificence of the 
stately buildings, the dignity of the students, or its pleasant and 
wholesome situation. At this date, viz. 1592 and the 34th year 

a The Latin account of Oxford is wanting in all the three editions of the 
work in the British Museum. 

22 England as see?! by Foreigners, 



of the reigfi of our most gracious Oueen Elizabeth, it comprises 
1 6 colleges and foundations, which maintain students out of the 
common revenues; and 8 halls or hostels, wherein the students 
live out of their own purses or those of their relatives or 

Alfred, the pious King of England, in a.d. 872 and in the 
2nd year of his reign, founded a gymnasium or school, which 
was called the Great Hall or University College, and appointed 
numerous learned and distinguished persons to instruct therein. 
Subsequently it almost fell into ruins, until William the arch- 
deacon [William of Durham] exerted himself in its behalf, 
established it anew, and endowed it so liberally as to enable it 
to maintain 6 persons, the senior of whom was to be the prin- 
cipal and master, and a scholar called a bible-clerk. This was 
in 1 2 17 (17 King John). 47 But this number decreased so much 
that instead of 6, it came to only 3 ; but whether this happened 
from the dearness of provisions or loss of income, or from both 
causes together, is not known. Walter Skirlaw, Archdeacon 
[Bishop] of Durham, was induced in the time of King Henry 
IV. to add 3 others, which pious example was followed by 
Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, founding 3 more, so 
that at this day there are maintained in this very ancient College 
one master, 8 fellows, and one bible-clerk. 

This College was founded by John de Balliol, [father of John 
de Balliol] King of Scotland, and named after him, in the year 
1263 (46 Hen. III). His Queen [Lady] Dervorgille, en- 
dowed it also with a yearly income ; but this* owing to the 
unhappy times, was not enjoyed many years, although the 
college had other patrons and supporters, such as [Sir] Philip 
Somerville and his wife, the Lady Ella de Longespee [Countess 

England as seen by Foreigners. 23 

of Warwick], Richard de Hunsingore, Sir William Felton, 
Hugo of Vienna [Hugh de Wychenbroke or Wyer], Mr. 
William Hammond of Guildford, who have provided this Col- 
lege with such yearly revenues as to support a master who is at 
the head of the others ; but as no certain number is fixed beyond 
those who are appointed to the College, it is permitted to increase 
or lessen them according to the extent of the income. At the 
present time there are resident there 10 fellows, 11 scholars, 
besides 2 Worcester scholars, appointed by Dr. Bell, the late 
Bishop of Worcester. 

Walter de Merton, formerly Chancellor of England and Merton. 
Councillor to King Edward I, before he became Bishop of 
Rochester founded in the year 1264 (47 Hen. III.) Merton 
College, at Maldon in the county of Surrey, where it was at 
first established, and from thence, in the year 1274 (1 Edw. 
I.), removed it to Oxford, where it now is, and endowed it with 
ample revenues. At present it has a superintendent called a 
warden ; as for the others, there is, as in the preceding college, 
no fixed number ; but it has now 23 fellows, 2 chaplains, 2 
clerks, who are supported out of the college funds. At an 
early period John Willyot, Doctor of Divinity, who was once 
of this college and subsequently Chancellor of Exeter, added 
1 2 scholars to the foundation, of whom 9 have to attend upon 
the one [9] senior fellows, who choose them ; they are therefore 
called Postmasters; — the other 3 are the servitors to all, and 
these 3 are selected by their rector, for such a person is annually 
chosen and placed over the scholars. 

Walter de Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter, founded Exeter Exeter. 
College in 13 16 (9 Edw. II.) and placed therein 13 persons, 
of whom he directed that one be chosen yearly, placed at the head 

24 England as seen by Fo?"eigners. 

of the others, and called rector. John Polyng, Bishopof Salisbury, 
and Edmund de la Beche, in 1352 appointed in addition 2 
others, to be taken from the diocese of Salisbury ; to which 
number [Sir] William Petre, in the year 1566, added not only 8 
fellows, but also by an especial act of benevolence almost doubled 
the annual income, which fell to the scholars of the old foun- 
dation, and thus placed them on an equality with those of his 
own appointment. And as formerly both old and young received 
an unequal portion, he, together with Anne his wife, his son 
John, and other benevolent persons, endowed it with a further 
sum of £200, by which the inequality was removed ; so that the 
entire number of those who belong to the college is one rector, 
22 fellows, and one bible-clerk or bible-reader. 
oriel. Edward II, King of England, was the founder of St. Mary's 
Hall, called Oriel College, in the year 1323 and 16th of his 
reign [1324]. In this, by virtue of the first foundation, a provost 
and 10 fellows were appointed, to which number Richard Dudley 
added 4; John Carpenter [Bishop of Worcester], 2 ; William 
Smyth [Bishop of Lincoln, and Founder of Brasenose College], 2. 
At the present time 1 8 fellows besides the provost are entertained 
therein. The said Dudley also originated another foundation, 
whereby 1 2 poor scholars whom the heads of the College might 
deem worthy should be assisted. Further, other benevolent 
persons of this College have contributed towards it ; as Adam 
de Brom the 1st Provost; and John Chapman, a citizen of 
London, has recently appointed a foundation of £10 annually 
to be divided equally between two students in theology of the 
College under 30 years of age. - 
quecn-s Robert de Eglesfeld, B.D., and Chaplain to Philippa the 

wife of Edward III, founded in the year 1340 (14 Edw. III.) 


England as seen by Foreigners. 25 

Queen's College; and since there was no certain number of 
persons named, an arrangement was made that many or few 
should be admitted according to the means of the College — yet 
there were never more than 1 2 fellows : their superior, who is 
at the head of all, fellows as well as scholars, is called the provost. 
Edmund Grindal, late Archbishop of Canterbury, added 1 fellow 
and 2 scholars, for whose maintenance he appointed a yearly in- 
come of £20, in addition to £100 he had in his lifetime given to 
the College. Moreover, when at the point of death he left to the 
said College, for the same purpose, besides silver plate, a quantity 
of books and £10 for the purchase of chains to be fastened to 
them. But it attained to no certain position until Queen Eliza- 
beth confirmed it by letters patent, with the sanction and approval 
of all three estates of the realm. 

William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, High Chancellor new College. 
of England, built a stately College, called New College, in the 
year 1375 (49 Edw. III.)> a an d appointed thereto a superintendent 
who is termed guardian or warden, 70 fellows and scholars, 10 
chaplains, 3 clerks, 16 choristers with a master; all to receive 
their maintenance from the revenues of the college. Likewise 
he erected in the south suburb of Winchester another noble 
College, from which the best and most proficient of the students 
were to be transferred to the New College, in the place of those 
who should leave it. There are now in this Winchester College, 
1 warden (as he is called), 10 fellows, 2 schoolmasters, and 70 
scholars, together with several others who are very handsomely 
maintained according to the intentions of the founder. 

Richard Flemming, Bishop of Lincoln, laid the foundation of Lincoln. 

a License was obtained to found the College in 1379 (3 Ric. II.) — Wood. 


All Souls. 

School and 

26 England as seen by Foreigners. 

Lincoln College in 1420 (8 Hen. V.), a and established therein a 
rector, 7 fellows, and 2 chaplains. Afterwards, viz. in 1479 
(19 Edw. IV.), Thomas Rotheram [alias Scot], who was 
also Bishop of Lincoln, finished this College, and added 5 
fellows to the previous number. John [Edward] Darby, for- 
merly a fellow of this College and afterwards Archdeacon of Stow 
in the diocese of Lincoln, in the year 1537 (29 Hen. VIII. ), b in- 
creased it by another foundation to afford maintenance for as 
many as 3 fellows; so that now it has 1 rector, 15 fellows, and 
2 chaplains. To these may also be added 4 scholars, for whose 
sustenance Joanna Trapps, the widow of a citizen and goldsmith 
of London, bequeathed an annual stipend about the year 1570 
(i2Eliz.) c 

Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury, erected in the 
year 1 437 (15 Hen. V.) d the College of All Souls, and placed on 
the foundation one warden and 40 fellows, 24 of whom were 
to receive instruction in divinity, the rest in the laws : he so 
strictly directed that this number should be kept to and neither 
increased nor diminished, that vacancies must be filled up at least 
once a year. There are, however, besides the warden and fellows, 
2 chaplains, 3 clerks, and 6 choristers or singing boys supported 
out of the provision of the founder. 

Humphrey, surnamed the Good, Duke of Gloucester, a lover 
of the liberal arts, in addition to his other manifold good deeds, 
erected a very fine and noble School for Divinity Students, and 
established in the upper part a Library, which he furnished with 
1 29 very choice books, procured from Italy at great cost. 

1427 (6 Hen. VI.)-Wood. 
In 1568.— Wood. 

b 1535. — Chalmers. 
ri 16 Hen. VI. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 27 

William of Waynfleet, Bishop of Winchester, built in the Magdalen 
year 1459 (37 Hen. VI.) a College — a magnificent structure, well 
situated, and with fine pleasant groves and walks — and dedicated 
the same to St. Magdalen. He established therein a president, 
37 fellows, 30 scholars called demies, 4 chaplains, 8 clerks, and 
1 6 choristers. After this Thomas [John] Ingledew, the founder's 
chaplain, appointed 2 fellows ; and another person by name 
[John] Forman added 1 ; thus the number of 40 fellows was 
completed. For all these as well as the others, there are supported 
out of the College revenues, two Professors of Divinity and 
Philosophy, two Grammar masters, and 1 master for the choristers. 
There are, indeed, other lecturers for the College, but as these 
are fellows of it, they need not be separately enumerated. 

In order that learning and the liberal arts might be still further Brasenose. 
encouraged, William Smyth, Bishop of Lincoln, in the year 1513 
(5 Hen. VIII.) founded the College of Brasenose. He dying, 
however, when it was barely begun, [Sir] Richard Sutton, knight, 
proceeded to complete it, and provided for a superintendent 
called the principal, with 1 2 fellows, partly with the funds of 
the before-named Smyth, but partly with his own. Afterwards 
7 more fellows, nearly all of whom had his particular founder, 
were added to the former number ; so that therefore the number 
of fellows of the said college became 19. Further, 21 scholars 
were appointed, bearing various names after those of their 
founders. Thus two were called Oglanders, after Mr. Ogle; 
6 Clemmondines, after Mr. Claymond ; and 1 3 Nowellians, 
after Mr. Alexander Nowell, the Dean of St. Paul's, a worthy 
and pious old man. 

Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester, instituted this College, Corpus Christi. 
which has 30 scholars, 2 chaplains, 2 clerks, and 2 choristers, 

28 England as seen by Foreigners. 

together with a president. By the especial generosity of Hugh 
Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, it was adorned with new buildings 
and endowed with additional revenues about the time of its 
foundation — viz. in 1516 (8 Henry VIII. late King of England, 
France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. of benign 
Christian memory.) In this, however, as in all the other Col- 
leges of this University, there are numerous servitors and servants 
maintained, who are paid by the Colleges, and whose duty it is to 
wait on the president in particular, and the whole college in general. 

Christ Church. Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal and Archbishop of York, laid the 
foundation of this magnificent College, which stands on the site 
of the Priory of St. Frideswide. But King Henry VIII. in the 
year 1546, the 38th of his reign, having, for the use and profit 
of this work splendidly and richly endowed it with Peckwater's 
Inn and Canterbury Hall, which had been founded by Simon 
Islip, Archbishop of Canterbury, gave the institution the name 
of Christ College or Church. At the present time, by virtue 
of his order, there are maintained 1 dean, 8 canons, 100 
students (20 of divinity, 20 of higher branches of philosophy, 
20 of philosophy, 20 upper pupils, 20 other pupils). Besides 
this, he founded a choir of 4 chaplains and 1 6 choristers, 8 of 
whom are men, and 8 boys. And in addition is a charity, out 
of which by the provision of our most gracious Queen Eliza- 
beth, 24 persons have £6 yearly. Finally, letters patent have 
been obtained, by virtue of which all the general servants of 
the church, together with 3 Royal Professors — viz. of 
Divinity, and of the Hebrew and Greek languages, receive a 
salary of £40. 

Trinity. Whereas Thomas of Hatfield, Bishop of Durham, originally 

founded Durham College for the monks of Durham — Sir 

England as seen by Foreigners. 29 

Thomas Pope adorned it with new buildings, and otherwise 
richly endowed it for the purpose of liberal studies, giving it 
also a new name, viz. the College of the eternal and undivided 
Trinity. This was in 1556 (4 Mary). The head of this 
College is called president, and has under him 12 fellows and 
1 2 scholars. But since Lady Pawlet, the wife [widow re- 
married] of the founder is yet living, who besides possessing 
abundant wealth is favourably disposed to the promotion of 
learning, there are good hopes that she will shortly improve and 
endow this College much more handsomely. 

Moreover, about the time of its foundation, Queen Mary Public Schools. 
erected entirely some noble and excellent Public Schools in this 
University, in which the scholars are accustomed to perform 
their public exercises. 

Whereas at first Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury, st.Jc 
founded a College to the honour of St. Bernard, Thomas 
White, knight and citizen of London, instituted it anew, 
dedicated it to St. John the Forerunner, and endowed it with 
so splendid an income as to enable it to bear nearly all the 
expenses, notwithstanding a president, 50 fellows, 3 chaplains, 
4 clerks, and 6 choristers are maintained therein. This pro- 
vision was made by the founder in the year 1557 (5 Mary). 
But the College has likewise been endowed by Mr. [Walter] 
Fish ; and Dr. [John] Case, lately a fellow of this College, has 
bequeathed to it £100. 

Hugh Price [or Ap Rice], Doctor of the Civil Law, also in Jesus. 
the year 1572 (14 Eliz.) laid the foundation of a new College 
in honour of our Lord Jesus, and provided it with a yearly 
revenue. But as the work is not yet completed, there are 
neither fellows nor scholars placed there at present. 48 



30 England as seen by Foreigners. 

Thus, then, the University of Oxford has these 16 mag- 
nificent Colleges and foundations, together with 8 other Halls 
besides, which have no particular revenues, but all are especially 
famous inns for study. And in truth it received a happy be- 
ginning under King Alfred ; but it has been brought to this 
perfection by the continued benefactions of women as well as 
men, and by the especial blessing of God, until at length it has 
reached to this most happy reign of Queen Elizabeth, and has 
become renowned throughout the whole world as a true and 
right fruitful mother of studies and of learned men. May the 
Almighty bestow his favours upon it, so that its name, having 
been famous for so many centuries, may likewise from hence- 
forth prosper and flourish more and more to its honour! 49 
Written by Simon Bibeus." 3 

Between London and Oxford the country is in some places 
very fertile, in others very boggy and mossy ; and such im- 
mense numbers of sheep are bred on it round about that it is 
astonishing. There is besides a superabundance of fine oxen 
and other good cattle. 

Now, because the dinner and viewing the Colleges occupied a 
tolerably long time, and the coachmen 5 and post horses were 
also quite tired out and could go no further, and no others 
could be procured that evening even at double the cost, his 
Highness was therefore compelled to remain there most un- 

Without reckoning the Colleges, Oxford is not much larger 
than Miimppelgart (Montbeliard) ; for the colleges cover an 

That is, the account of the Colleges at Oxford. 

In the original "die Gutschen und Postpferdte," the coaches, &c. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 3 1 

immense area ; the town, however, on account of its dilapidated 
towers and walls, appears as though it had been in former times 
a defensible, strong, and fortified place ; but this is no longer 
the case, for at present the defences are razed or falling to decay : 
for the rest, it is situated in a delightful spot, and is on account 
of the streets much prettier and more pleasant than Cambridge. 

From London to Oxford the distance is forty-two English 

As Captain Saiges a was at this time very ill with fever, 
his Highness assigned to him his groom Gerson, with whom 
the sick man rode back again to London, in order to be purged 
and cured there. His Highness, however, departed early that 
same morning, August 28th, and took the road towards Cam- 

On the road we passed through a villainous, boggy, and wild 
country, and several times missed our way, because the country 
thereabouts is very little inhabited, and is nearly a waste ; and 
there is one spot in particular where the mud is so deep, that in 
my opinion it would scarcely be possible to pass with a coach in 
winter or in rainy weather. 

About mid-day we came upon a fertile country, where there 
were little low hillocks, and a fine breed of splendid large oxen, 
and countless numbers of sheep : the peasants dwell in small 
huts, and pile up their produce out of doors in heaps, and so 
high that you cannot see their houses. 

At noon his Highness dined at a pleasant village called winslow. 
Winslow, and towards dark we came to Bedford. Bedford. 

Between these two places there is for the most part a sandy 

a One of the Duke's retinue. 

32 England as seen by Foreigners. 

plain or heath, on which are a great number of wild rabbits, 
which are not in enclosures, but run free, so that you see fifty or 
sixty of them together, of all colours; but they scamper off like 
the wind into their burrows. In these parts they likewise catch 
wild-cats {Kuder) and pole- cats, and various kinds of birds of 
prey, which do much injury to the rabbits ; on this account they 
hang them on a gallows, as they do wolves, but first strip off 
their skins. 
gamlingay. On the 28th of August/ we arrived at Gamlingay, and had 
Cambridge, dinner there, and in the evening came to Cambridge, which is 
distant from Oxford fifty-five miles. This is a tolerably pleasant 
town, larger than Oxford, and the surrounding country is very 
fertile and well cultivated. 50 His Highness announced his 
arrival that same evening to the Vice Chancellor 51 of the Univer- 
sity, for whom he had a letter. He almost immediately waited 
upon his Highness and received him with due courtesy ; and as 
there was yet time, they proceeded first to see the beautiful royal 
chapel, which is most artistically built of free-stone, with an 
arched roof, and so highly ornamented that it is well worth 
seeing ; it can hardly indeed be called a chapel, but is more like 
a magnificent and beautiful church, on account of its size and 
immense extent : it has a tower at each corner ; the flat roof on 
the top is covered with lead, as are nearly all the principal 
churches in England. 

His Highness afterwards, the very same evening, inspected 
several large and beautifully-built colleges ; but those, and each 
in particular, with the names by whom, and at what period, and 

a The author seems at fault here as to the date. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 33 

to what intent they were founded, are set down in the Latin 3 
and German languages as follows : — 

" A concise and particular Account, in which not only is de- 
scribed the University of Cambridge in England, but also the 
Colleges and Foundations there at this present time, together 
with their Arms and the number of Students who derive their 
maintenance therefrom, are declared and represented. 

Dedicated to the most honourable lord, John [Whitgift], 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate and Metropolitan of all 
England, the distinguished and wise councillor of our most 
gracious Queen Elizabeth. 

Cantaber, a Spaniard, in the time of Gurguntius, the son of University. 
Belinus, King of Britain, a.m. 3588 and b.c. 375 (as affirmed 
by the principal historians), 52 established this fine and magnificent 
University of Cambridge, and provided it with learned persons : 
afterwards, Sigebert [or Sebert], King of the East Angles, in the 
year 636 restored it when it was about going to ruin again. 
At the present time, viz. 1592 (for it has formerly undergone 
many vicissitudes and misfortunes), it is under the reign of Eliza- 
beth, Queen of England and Ireland, right flourishing, and has 
a great number of students, who are maintained in 1 5 wealthy 
and stately colleges. 

And here, rather than this page should remain blank, I have felt Westminster 
it to be not inopportune if I notice the foundation of the collegiate 
church of St. Peter at Westminster, accomplished by the above- 
mentioned Queen in 1560. Thus it has come to pass that there 
are maintained on this foundation 1 dean, 12 prebendaries, 12 

a The Latin description of Cambridge is printed on a folio single sheet, and 
has the arms of the several colleges in the margin. In all probability this was 
also the form of the original. 

34 England as seen by Foreigners. 

almsmen, a schoolmaster, an under master, 40 scholars who are 
termed Queen's Scholars and in course of time will be preferred 
to the Universities, 6 ministers, 1 organist, 12 cantors, and 10 
peter house. This college was founded by Hugh de Balsham, the nth 
Bishop of Ely, in honour of St. Peter, in 1280 (9 Edw. I.) a for 
the maintenance of 1 master, 13 fellows, 2 bible-clerks, and 8 
poor scholars; this number to be increased or diminished according 
to the extent of the annual income and as provisions might be 
cheap or dear. The property of the college has however in 
course of time been improved and augmented by the generosity 
of other persons, so that 10 bible-clerks have been added to the 
number. Indeed, Edward North, a brave and pious English 
baron, founded 6 ; three were added by Mr. Henry Wilshaw, 
B.D., one was appointed by the most reverend father John 
Whitgift, lord Archbishop of Canterbury. Besides which, An- 
drew Perne, the late Dean of Ely, founded a fellowship, and to 
the other benefits conferred on this University, appointed to the 
College also 3 bible-clerks and one librarian. Furthermore, 
Lady Mary Ramsey, a mirror and pattern of a woman, ordained 
a yearly pension of £40 for the maintenance of two fellows and 
4 bible-clerks. 
Clare hall. Clare Hall was originally founded in 1326 (19 Edw. II.) by 
Richard Badew, at that time Chancellor of the University, and 
was at first called University Hall. It was afterwards surrendered 
by Walter Thaxted, Master of the said Hall (with the consent 
of Richard the founder) to the Lady Elizabeth de Burgh, 
Countess of Ulster, who, having obtained the licence of King 

The year 1257 has also been assigned as the date of foundation. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 35 

Edward III. increased the number and founded it as a college, 
called Clare Hall. At present there are maintained according 
to the purport of this foundation 10 fellows, with 3 others 
called supernumeraries, and 40 scholars, 20 of whom derive 
their support from the benevolence of the founder, the other 
20 owe it partly to the generosity of Edward Leedes, Doctor of 
Laws, and recently master of this college, and partly to the 
revenues of the Hall. It has moreover many and various kinds 
of servitors and servants, as are to be seen in the other colleges 
of this University, who are maintained at the common charge 
and expense of the colleges. 

Mary de St. Paul, wife of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pern- Pembroke 
broke, founded, with the assent of her kinsman King Edward III, 
Mary de Valentia or Pembroke Hall, in the year 1343 (17 
Edw. III.) The number of persons she did not fix, but left 
it to the master and fellows to increase or lessen it at their dis- 
cretion. At this time 1 master, 17 fellows, and 6 bible-clerks 
live there, and this is agreeably to the old foundation. Sub- 
sequently others followed, so that the college became more 
wealthy. Edmund Grindal, recently Archbishop of Canterbury, 
added one fellow and 2 scholars, and likewise augmented their 
library and funds, appointing also a salary for the professor of 
Greek. So also other scholars were added : one by Jane the 
wife of Richard Coxe, Bishop of Ely, and 7 by Thomas Watts, 
D.D., besides a gift of books valued at £40. Mr. Mar- 
shall, who was once the servitor of the above-mentioned arch- 
bishop, has founded one. In addition, 4 others may yet be 
counted, who receive their maintenance out of the revenues of 
the new building, called le Ostle. 

This College, which is usually called the foundation of St. Corpus Christi. 

36 England as seen by Foreigners. 

Benedict [Benet] from the adjoining church, was founded and 
erected by the brethren of the gilds of Corpus Christi and of 
the Virgin Mary at Cambridge, (Henry, Duke of Lancaster 
being at that time alderman of this gild of Corpus Christi,) and 
it took the name of the College of Corpus Christi and the Blessed 
Mary in the year 1344 (18 Edw. III.) The number of persons 
who were to be admitted to the College was not fixed, but was 
regulated according to its revenues. At present there are main- 
tained from the income of the College (which income is increased 
by the liberality of others), 1 master, 12 fellows, 30 scholars, 
besides inferior servants, of whom 15 scholars and 2 fellows 
were appointed by Matthew Parker, lately Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, who was educated in this college ; he also bequeathed 
thereto silver- gilt plate, besides being a great benefactor to the 
college. All the rest have their maintenance partly from the 
first foundation, and partly acquired from the kindness of others. 
Trinity Hall. This College was originally nothing but a hostel for students 
who lived at their own expense ; it was acquired by John 
Crowden [or Craudene], then Prior of Ely, as a place of study 
for his monks. Afterwards William Bateman, Bishop of Nor- 
wich, obtained it from the monks in exchange for certain rectories, 
transforming it into a college for students of the law, and de- 
dicating it to the Holy Trinity of Norwich, with a perpetual 
provision for the students. This happened in the year 1347 
(21 Edw. III. as King of England and 8 of France). The 
said college was to have maintained by virtue of the first foun- 
dation 1 master, 20 fellows, and 3 scholars ; but as the founder 
was unexpectedly overtaken by death, it had no more than 1 
master, 3 fellows, and 3 scholars left, whereas it has increased to 
such a degree by the benevolence of other persons that at present 

England as seen by Foreigners. 37 

a master, 11 fellows, ancL 8 under-scholars receive a stipend 
from the college for their daily sustenance. To these may be 
added four scholars, together with 2 others of inferior grade, 
who have been appointed thereto by Matthew [Parker], Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Gabriel Dun, Henry Harvey, and 
Humphrey Busby. 

Edmund de Gonvile, in the year 1348 (22 Edw. III.), Gonvile and 
founded this college for a master and 4 fellows, named it Gon- 
ville Hall, and dedicated it to the Annunciation of the Blessed 
Mary. But being at the point of death, he bequeathed to the 
before-named William Bateman a large sum of money for com- 
pleting the said College already commenced ; in which, however, 
notwithstanding in his time there were only 1 warden and 3 
fellows (and there is no knowing what became of the 4th), yet 
by the bounty of other persons and the assistance of various 
patrons, it became so much benefited both in money and 
revenues, that 6 fellows and 1 1 scholars were added to the 
former number. So, likewise, John Caius, a physician, in the 
year 1557, not only added a new building, but placed therein 3 
fellows and 20 scholars, and directed it to be named Gonville 
and Caius Hall or College. More scholars were afterwards 
appointed ; 4 were founded by Joanna Trapps, a widow of 
London, 1 by Humphrey Busby, 1 by Matthew [Parker], 
Archbishop of Canterbury, together with a donation of silver 
plate and books; 1 by Richard Willison, and 12 scholars, 6 
fellows, and one chaplain by Jocosa (Joyce) Frankland. 

King Henry VI, a very pious Prince, erected this College in king's College. 
the year 1441 (19th of his reign), for a rector and 12 fellows or 
scholars, and named it the College of St. Nicholas of Cambridge. 
Two years afterwards he changed both its form and name, and 

38 E7igland as seen by Foreigners. 

directed it to be called, King's, St. Mary's, and St. Nicholas 
College, appointing thereto 1 provost, 70 fellows, 10 priests, 6 
clerks, and 16 choristers. It is, however, at the present day 
known by the name of King's College, and has a provost, 
70 scholars, 3 chaplains, 6 clerks, 16 choristers, 16 servitors to 
the College, and 13 to the senior fellows, together with 3 poor 
scholars. The Chapel which he built in this College is justly 
esteemed one of the most beautiful structures in the world. It has 
been much enlarged by the generosity of Henry VII. and VIII. 

Eton College. Besides this College, Henry VI. erected one at Eton, and 
appointed thereto 1 president, 8 fellows and choristers, and 60 
grammar scholars, who were to be preferred in process of time 
to this King's College. 

queen's Col- Margaret of Anjou, the wife of King Henry VI, founded 

this College under royal auspices and dedicated it to St. Margaret 
and St. Bernard in the year 1448 (26 Hen. VI.) But, as fortune 
was averse so that she did not see the completion of it, Elizabeth, 
wife of King Edward IV. (the true founder of this College), 
was moved by devotion and the noble appearance of the work, 
to continue it and perfect it herself, viz. in the year 1465 (5 
Edw. IV.) Marmaduke Lumley, Bishop of Lincoln, gave 
much assistance towards its just perfection by presenting it with 
books and £200 in money. Likewise Richard, Duke of 
Gloucester [afterwards Richard III.], and Andrew Ducket, who 
was formerly a master of this College, were great benefactors ; 
after which the College has been of late so much favoured by 
illustrious persons of both sexes, that it can now support 1 
master, 19 fellows, 22 scholars, and 8 bible-clerks, in addition 
to 2 professors of arithmetic and geometry, and 2 fellows who 
were appointed thereto by Sir Thomas Smith. 


England as seen by Foreigners. 39 

Robert Woodlark, professor of Theology and sometime provost cathartne 
of King's College, and Chancellor of the University of Cam- 
bridge, erected a College from the two houses which he pos- 
sessed in Mill Street, not far from Queers College, and by joining 
two others for the purpose in the same street, founded a Hall 
thereon for one master and 3 or more fellows. This was 
named St. Catharine's Hall. Afterwards, Edward IV, for him- 
self, his heirs and successors, by letters patent ratified and con- 
firmed it for ever in the year 1475 anc ^ 15th of his reign. Others 
have followed the example of this generous founder, and have 
endowed this College so liberally that it now supports 1 master, 
6 fellows, and one bible-clerk. 

John Alcock, Bishop of Ely, having obtained license of King Jesus College. 
Henry VII, converted St. Radegund's Priory into a College, 
and appointed, as a perpetual memorial of his foundation, i 
master, 6 fellows, and 6 scholars, and directed it to be named 
Jesus and St. Radegund's College in 1502 (18 Hen. VII. ) a 
The generosity of this founder has afforded an example to others, 
who have contributed to the College both by estates and money, 
so that now there are maintained 1 master, 16 fellows, and 22 
scholars from the general fund. Moreover there is in this, as in 
most other Colleges of this University, a large number of other 
kinds of students, for some are of quality and of noble birth, 
and. are called Fellow Commoners ; some are pensioners ; others 
are termed sizars and under-sizars, all of whom live at their own 
or friends' expense ; but since there is no certain or fixed number, 
I conceive it would be needless for me in this place to mention 

a The charter of foundation is dated 1496. — Dyer. 

40 England as seen by Foreigners. 

Christ's Col- 

St. John's Col- 

King Henry VII. confirmed the translation of this College of 
God's House to that of Christ's College, which his mother 
Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby, had instituted in 
the year 1505 (21 Hen. VII.) At first Henry VI. founded 
this College of God's House as a Grammar School, and appointed 
thereto a proctor and 4 fellows ; it then maintained on the 
foundation 1 master, 1 2 fellows, 47 scholars, besides 6 servitors, 
who attend to the wants of the master in particular and to the 
whole College in general. Edward VI. added to it one fellow 
and 3 scholars ; then Sir Walter Mild may, a man of praiseworthy 
memory, left an annual stipend ; Edmund Grindal, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, bequeathed a legacy, so that therefore this College, 
by the benevolence of those named and of others, is so much 
increased that at the present time it has 1 master, 13 fellows, 
55 scholars, besides 6 under-scholars who receive 40 shillings 
yearly, and 6 others 20s. per annum. 

Margaret, Countess of Richmond, grandmother of King 
Henry VIII, founded in the year 1 508 the College of St. John 
the Evangelist, in place of the Priory of the Canons of St. John 
the Evangelist, which formerly stood on this spot. She, how- 
ever, having died before she had finished this her foundation, 
committed the work to certain persons whom she named her 
executors, who faithfully discharged the trust and appointed a 
master, 50 fellows, and 50 scholars; but unfortunately this number 
afterwards decreased to about 32 fellows and 27 scholars. Yet it 
has acquired other true benefactors, so that it can now maintain 
1 master, 54 fellows, 70 scholars, and 9 sizars, besides professors 
and chaplains founded by Mr. Ambrose Cave and others. And 
recently 6 other scholars have entered there, viz. 2 founded by 
Lady Mildred Burghley, 1 by Frances Jermin, and 3 by Henry 

Rn gland as seen by Foreigners. 41 

Billingsley, an alderman of London ; Lord Burghley, treasurer 
of England, has likewise assigned a yearly pension of £30 in 
perpetuity to the benefit of this College. 

The College of St. Magdalen, at first called by the Duke of Magdalen 
Buckingham [Edward Stafford] Buckingham Hall, was erected CoLLEGE - 
by him in the year 15 19 (11 Hen. VIII.), as a College for 
students in the place of the hostel of the monks. But when 
Thomas [Lord] Audley, Chancellor of England, obtained the 
authority of the King and Parliament in 1 549 to regulate and 
endow this College, he called it St. Magdalen's College. At 
his premature decease, however, much to the detriment and loss 
of the College, there were left only 1 master, 5 fellows, i 
scholar, and 3 servitors. At length, about 1582, Sir Christopher 
Wray, Knight and Lord Chief Justice of England, was induced 
to complete this important work outright at great expense, and 
to erect a handsome forecourt thereto for the reception of 3 
additional fellows and 6 scholars. Edmund Grindal, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, also added 1 scholar, and Mr. Roberts, of 
Norfolk, 3 others ; since which Mr. Spenloffe, of Lincoln, has 
assigned lands of the annual value of &\o for the maintenance of 
1 fellow, 2 scholars, and 1 preacher. 

King Henry VIII, on the 19th of December, 1546, the 38th Trinity 
and last year of his reign, converted King's Hall, St. Michael's 
House, and Phiswick's hostel into a College, which he dedicated 
to the Holy and Undivided Trinity, appointed thereto 1 master, 
60 fellows, 40 scholars, and 20 poor scholars, and endowed it 
with estates and revenues of the yearly value of £1300, besides 
the possessions which it formerly enjoyed. Queen Mary added 
about 20 scholars, 10 choristers with their master, 4 chaplains, 
13 poor scholars, and 2 undersizars, and gave so much landed 


42 England as seen by Foreigners, 



property as to produce £338 annually. Thomas Allen, 
Rector of the Church of Stevenage, added 2 scholars, with the 
maintenance of 3 grammar scholars, and 4 poor students, and 
property yielding an income of ,£75 per annum. Frances Jermyn, 
the sister of Sir Robert Jermyn, founded a scholarship, with a 
yearly income of £7 10s. An annual sum of £120, the gift of 
the founder, is paid by this College to 3 public Professors of 
Divinity, Hebrew, and Greek, each receiving £40. 

Sir Walter Mildmay, late Chancellor of the Exchequer and 
Councillor to our gracious Queen Elizabeth, founded in the 
year 1584 (26 Eliz.), in the Preachers' Street, on the site of the 
Monastery of the Friars Preachers [Black Friars, or Dominicans], 
the College of Emmanuel, to the glory of the Immortal God, 
for 1 master, 3 fellows, and 4 scholars. Nine fellows were sub- 
sequently added ; 4 indeed by the founder, 1 by Sir Robert 
Jermyn, from whom much is still expected, 1 by Sir Francis 
Hastings, and 1 by Mr. [Robert] Taylor, 1 by Sir Thomas 
Skinner, and 1 by Mr. [Nicholas] Fuller. By the kindness of 
others — too many, however, for me to enumerate here — 30 
scholars have also since been added; moreover there are 10 poor 
scholars, who are maintained partly by the schoolmaster and 
town of Bungay in the county of Suffolk, and partly out of the 
college revenues ; so that at the present day this College com- 
prises 1 master, 12 fellows, 34 scholars, and 10 students of 
inferior grade. 

Here might be set down many other noteworthy things con- 
cerning this University, if they were not already treated of by 
Master Caius in a special history. But I cannot in honour 
avoid adding that at this time a new College for 1 master, 10 
fellows, and 20 scholars has been undertaken by order of Lady 

England as seen by Foreigners. 43 

Frances, Countess of Sussex, who, in 1588/ most generously 
bequeathed £5000 for the purpose, and named it the College of 
Lady Frances Sidney-Sussex. 

But all this that I have briefly written respecting the origin of 
our Universities and Colleges and have put in print (in order 
that the generosity of so many praiseworthy persons should not 
be forgotten), I have not unreasonably wished to dedicate par- 
ticularly to your Holiness, since you have not only shown your- 
self an excellent Patron to myself privately, but also a Maecenas 
to both Universities publicly, as well as to all students in general. 
Your Honour's most respectful servant, Symon Bibeus." 

His Highness invited the Vice-Chancellor and other doctors 
to supper, and the Chancellor sent for and presented them with 
some splendid wine out of his own cellar. 

The following morning, the 29th of August, his Highness 
inspected the rest of the Colleges, as well as the old ruined and 
decayed palace or castle, which lies upon an eminence or small 
mount, in a large open tract of country, outside the town ; it 
has the appearance of having been in former times a very 
strong place of defence, but now it is only used for keeping 
prisoners in some of the vaults. 

Now as the before- named Vice-Chancel lor was engaged on 
particular business, and had excused himself from dining with 
his Highness, he took his leave ; and his Highness after having 
partaken of a meal, departed for Ware, a fine large market- 
town, where he passed the night. 53 

On the morning of the 30th of August his Highness pro- 

a The Charter of foundation of Sidney-Sussex College bears date 1593. — 



44 England as seen by Foreigners. 

ceeded towards London, and on the way he went to see the mag- 
Theobalds nificent palace Theobalds, belonging to the Lord High Treasurer 
of England, which is reckoned one of the most beautiful houses 
in England, as in truth it is. 

First of all his Highness inspected the handsome and delight- 
ful hall, which is so ornamental and artistic that its equal is not 
easily to be met with ; for, besides other embellishments in it, 
there is a very high rock, of all colours, made of real stones, 
out of which gushes a splendid fountain that falls into a large 
circular bowl or basin, supported by two savages. This hall 
has no pillars ; it is about sixty feet in length and upwards of 
thirty wide. 

The ceiling or upper floor is very artistically constructed : it 
contains the twelve signs of the zodiac, so that at night you can 
see distinctly the stars proper to each ; on the same stage the sun 
performs its course, which is without doubt contrived by some 
concealed ingenious mechanism. On each side of the hall are 
six trees, having the natural bark so artfully joined, with 
birds' nests and leaves as well as fruit upon them, all managed 
in such a manner that you could not distinguish between the 
natural and these artificial trees ; and, as far as I could see, there 
was no difference at all, for when the steward of the house 
opened the windows, which looked upon the beautiful pleasure- 
garden, birds flew into the hall, perched themselves upon the 
trees, and began to sing. In a word, this hall is so elegantly 
adorned with paintings and otherwise that it is right royal, and 
well worth the seeing. 54 

There are also many other spacious halls and fine galleries in 
this splendid palace, with very artistic paintings and correct 
landscapes of all the most important and remarkable towns in 


England as seen by Foreigners. 45 

Christendom, as well as tables of inlaid- work and marble of various 
colours, all of the richest and most magnificent description. 

In another hall is depicted the kingdom of England, with all 
its cities, towns and villages, mountains and rivers ; as also the 
armorial bearings and domains of every esquire, lord, knight, 
and noble who possess lands and retainers to whatever extent. 
In short, all the apartments and rooms are adorned with beautiful 
tapestries and the like to such a degree that no king need be 
ashamed to dwell there. 

Some rooms in particular have very beautiful and costly ceil- 
ings, which are skilfully wrought in joiner's work and elegantly 
coloured, as may be seen in the annexed sketch, the ground of 
which is prettily ornamented with blue colours, but the roses and 
other ornaments are gilded. 

The garden is close adjoining and of immense extent, and as 
the palace is really most magnificent, so likewise in proportion 
is no expense spared on the garden ; in a summer-house there, 
is a table made of a solid piece of black touchstone (Probier- 
steiri)> fourteen spans long, seven wide, and one span thick. 

After viewing all this, as well as the stables, in which were 
kept many fine horses, his Highness dined in the adjacent vil- 
lage, and invited the steward of the palace as his guest. 55 — A 

We returned to London safe and well that night, and the dis- 
tance from London to Oxford is forty-four English miles, from 
Oxford to Cambridge fifty-five miles, and from thence to London 
fifty English miles. 

On the 1st of September his Highness was shown in London 
the English dogs, a of which there were about 1 20, all kept in 
the same enclosure, but each in a separate kennel. 

a " Die Englische Docken." 

46 England as seen by Foreigners. 

Bear and Bull In order to gratify his Highness, and at his desire, two bears 


and a bull were baited ; 5f> at such times you can perceive the breed 
and mettle of the dogs, for although they receive serious injuries 
from the bears, are caught by the horns of the bull, and tossed 
into the air so as frequently to fall down again upon the horns, 
they do not give in, [but fasten on the bull so firmly] that one 
is obliged to pull them back by the tails, and force open their 
jaws. 3 Four dogs at once were set on the bull ; they, however, 
could not gain any advantage over him, for he so artfully con- 
trived to ward off their attacks that they could not well get at 
him ; on the contrary, the bull served them very scurvily by 
striking and butting at them. 

The 2nd of September the royal French ambassador, Beauvois, 
invited his Highness to a stately banquet at his residence, a 
beautiful country house, distant from London about two English 
miles, 57 at which the renowned general of the English forces in 
the Low Countries, Moritz, b and his brother the colonel, 58 were 
present. At night his Highness returned to London. 

Before his Highness's departure, the Earl of Essex (Exests), 
Master of the Horse, made his Highness a present of a handsome 
horse, which he accepted and accordingly took back with him. 

On Sunday, the 3rd of September, his Highness sent before- 
hand his servants, namely, Gerson the groom, Johann de Char- 
mot the tailor, with a single-horse vehicle and lackey, as well as 
the baggage and horses, on board a Hamburg ship called the 
Red Lion, with orders for them to go to Hamburg, and thence 

a " Lassen sie doch nicht nach, sender man muss sie mit gewalt hindersich 
ziehen, und ihnen die Meuler aufFbrechen." 
b Sir John and Sir Edward Norris. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 47 

to proceed by land, by short stages, to Franckfort, and there to 
await his Highness's arrival. The name of the captain of this 
ship was Mathis Wrede, of Hamburg. 

The same day, after dinner, his Highness visited and inspected Palace at 
the royal Palace and the adjacent gardens of London : in this St. Jamks's 
palace are very many beautiful and variously painted and orna- pARK# 
mented halls and splendid rooms, as it is in itself a magnificent 
and royal house pleasantly situated by the water-side. 

On the 4th of September having at length received the re- 
quisite passport, which was as follows : — 

" Theras this noblman Connte Mombeliard is to passe ouer 
Contrye us England in to the lowe Contryes, Thise Schalbe to 
wil and command you in heer Maj te . name for such, and is heer 
plensure to see him fournissed With post horses in his trauail to 
the sen side, and ther to soecke up such schippinge as schalbe fit 
for his transportations, he pay nothing for the same, forwich tis 
schalbe your sufficient warranti soo see that you faile noth therof 
at your perilles, From Bifleete, 59 the 2. uf September 1592. 

Yur Friend 

C. Howard. 3 
(Locus Sigilli.) 

To al Justices of pence Maiors Bayliffes and al other her 
Ma te . officiers. in especial to my owne officiers of te admyral- 

His Highness, therefore, having thus obtained the desired per- 
mission, and intending now to take his departure from London 
homewards, in the name of God went on board a small vessel 
which was about to sail for Gravesend, where the large ship 

a The Lord High Admiral. 


England as seen by Foreigners, 

that was bound for Flushing (Fliessingeri), in Zealand, was lying, 
completely equipped for sailing, and only waiting for a favour- 
able wind. 

Captain Saige, who was ill in London, remained behind, for 
he was not able to endure the fatigue of travelling by sea and 
land on account of his weakness. 3 

Now when his Highness had got into the channel, the waves 
were very high and boisterous, and we saw a great many large 
black fishes called sea-hogs (porpoises), which are from eight to 
ten feet long, and rise high out of the water. His Highness 
shot at one of them, and the sailors told us that it was a sure 
sign of rough and stormy weather, 5 which indeed we soon after- 
wards, with the utmost danger of our lives, only too fully ex- 
perienced and found to be true. 60 

Gravesend. The said 4th of September we arrived well and safe at Graves- 

end, which is distant from London twenty-two English miles. 
His Highness having dined, and finding that the wind was 
adverse, and that the sailors did not intend to depart that evening, 

Rochester and in the meanwhile rode with post-horses to Rochester, 01 in order 

Chatham. ri/^v > i • r 1 • i • 

to see some or the Queen s ships or war at that time lying in 
the harbour there ; but on the road such a violent wind arose as 
nearly to upset us, horses and all, and at the same time made 
the waves so turbulent that no one could without the greatest 
danger approach the ships of war. Fortunately the officers 
conducted his Highness to the shore, along which were ranged 
not less than forty ships of war ; some were armed, others 
getting ready for sea ; in particular we noticed the large ship 
called the English Lion, which caused immense damage to the 


Einer grossen ungestiimme und Fortunae." 

England as seen by Foreigners. 49 

mighty Spanish Armada a few years before. As the great 

ship, in which the renowned English Captain Drake (Drack), as 

is commonly reported, sailed round the world and had lately 

returned from the island of Dominica, 3 was at this time repairing 

on shore and refitting, his Highness went on board to inspect 

it ; it is indeed a very large and strongly built ship, of several 

hundred lasts, b exceedingly fit to undertake so protracted and 

dangerous a voyage, and well able to bear much buffeting; the 

cabins and armouries are in fine order, as in a well-built castle ; 

in the middle, where the largest cannon are placed, it is eighteen 

good paces wide ; what its length must be in proportion may be 

easily judged. 6 ' 2 Afterwards his Highness rode back again to 

Gravesend, the night being as dark as pitch, and the wind high 

and boisterous ; he slept there that night. On the road, however, 

an Englishman, with a drawn sword in his hand, came upon 

us unawares, and ran after us as fast as he could ; perhaps he 

expected to find other persons, for it is very probable that he 

had an ambush, as that particular part of the road d is not the Gad's hill. 

most safe. 63 

Now, as we have seen and gained some knowledge of the king- 
dom of England, and have started on our homeward voyage, we 
may here make some observations on its peculiarities, so far as is 
warranted by his Highness's experience during his brief stay here. 

In the first place it is impossible to give a correct estimate of 

a " Eben damaln als er in der Insel Dominica gewesen." 

b A shipping last is eighty cubic feet, equal to two tons English ship measure. 

c '* Mag wol ein Buffleiden." 

d " AufF dem Wege aber ist unversehens ein Engellender mit blosser Wehr 
starck hinder uns her gerent, unnd villeicht vermeint andere Leut anzutrefFen, dan 
wol zuvermuten, dz er ein hinderhalt gehabt, weil es der Enden nicht zum 

50 England as seen by Foreigners. 

the population of this kingdom ; but this we have clearly under- 
stood from distinguished English lords, who conversed with his 
Highness on the subject, and mentioned, among other things, 
that in case of a war with an enemy wishing to subdue England 
entirely, that enemy would have to make up his mind to fight 
eight pitched battles and to confront from thirty to forty 
thousand men in each. 

The soldiers, moreover, are excellent, but they do not willingly 
go on foreign service. 3 When soldiers are wanted, and idlers are 
seen lounging about, they give them money, and then they are 
bound to serve whether they like it or not; or should they 
[desert and] be caught, their business is soon settled ; b for because, 
as above mentioned, this kingdom is an island, and encompassed 
on every side by water, so that no one can enter or depart 
except in ships, orders have been issued in all ports or havens, 
that no Englishman shall leave it without a licence. 

As regards cold weather and thunderstorms we ought to remark 
that the winter sets in with snow in December, and lasts till 
February, but the snow does not lie long, for the climate is warm. 

Many witches are found there, who frequently do much 
mischief by means of hail and tempests. 04 

Of game, it has great store of fallow-deer of various colours, 
as well in the woods as in enclosed parks ; likewise red deer, 
stags, and other game, though few and small ; but no wild boars 
nor wolves are met with in this island, and no roes ; but there are 
foxes and hares, vast numbers of rabbits or coneys, which are 

a " Ziehen aber nicht gern hinauss." 

b " 1st ihr Process schon gemacht." — It is all over with them. 
" Vil Hexen vverden darinnen gefunden, und befchicht ofrtermahln, durch 
Hagel unnd ander Ungewitter grosser Schaden." 

England as seen by Foreigners, 51 

every where to be found in enclosed gardens, as well as in the 
open fields and woods ; these make their escape from the 
gardens. 65 

Of tame quadrupeds it has beautiful oxen and cows, although 
not so big as the Burgundy cattle, but they have very large 
horns, are low and heavy, and for the most part black ; there is 
abundance of sheep and wethers in all parts and places, which 
graze by themselves winter and summer without shepherds ; but 
when it snows or freezes hard they are driven into yards and fed 
with fodder, otherwise they do not go into the stables either in 
summer or winter. 

Sheep-shearing takes place only once, viz. in the month of 
June ; the heaviest wethers weigh sixty pounds, others from forty 
to fifty pounds ; they bear at the most no more than six, others 
four to five pounds of wool ; one of the best wethers (notwith- 
standing that they are very abundant) sells for about twenty 
shillings, that is, ten French francs or five thalers ; the inferior 
sort about ten shillings, or five francs ; and the worst about six 
or eight English shillings. The skin of the best wether and sheep 
is worth about twelve pence, that is, four and a half German 
batzen ; the worst about eight pence, or three batzen ; a pound 
of wool about twelve pence, or four and a half batzen. 

Horses are abundant, yet, although low and small, they are 
very fleet ; a the riding horses are geldings, and are generally 
excellent. The Queen has forbidden any horse 66 to be exported 
out of the kingdom without a licence. 5 

There are immense numbers of swine, which are larger than 
in any other country. 

a " Die doch nidertrachtig und klein, aber gantz geng." b " Ohne passport." 

52 England as seen by Foreigners. 

Of tame and wild fowl, there are swans in great numbers, 
herons, ducks, pheasants, partridges, quails, turtle-doves, and 
wild doves. 

Of agricultural produce it has very fine corn, rye, barley, oats, 
beans, hops, vegetables, apples, pears of various sorts, red and 
blue plums, cherries, (which however do not become ripe before 
June,) but no peaches except what are grown in gardens. 

There is no wine-growing in this kingdom ; but if you want 
wine you can purchase the best and most delicious sorts, of 
various nations, and that on account of the great facility which 
the sea affords them for barter with other countries. 

Oysters 3 are in great plenty, and are better and larger than 
in Italy; 07 they are cried in all parts of the streets. They sell 
also cod, b plaice, small white river fish, pike, carp, trout, lobsters 
and crawfish, and in fine all kinds of sea fish, which are sold 
like meat in other parts, both fresh and salted. 

As regards the currency, the kings and queens of England have 
rightly had gold and silver coins struck for payment. A double 
rose-noble is worth thirty-two English shillings, that is, eighteen 
French francs, or eight thalers or rix-dollars ; a rose-noble, half as 
much. An angel, having on it the knight St. George [St. Michael 
and the dragon], is worth ten shillings, or five francs, or three 
German florins ; an Hungarian ducat, worth six shillings and 
eight pence, is equal to two florins ; a French crown, or crown of 
the sun [ecu dor au soleil'] = six shillings, or twenty-seven batzen, 
as in France; a Spanish pistole just as much. Of silver coins, 
which the Queen has had struck of pure good silver, a shilling is 
equal to four and a half batzen ; half-a-shilling, to two batzen 

a " Fischvverck von Ostrien." b " Bolchen, Blatteisslin." 

England as seen by Foreigners, 


•one kreutzer. Twelve pennies go for a shilling, or two for 
three kreutzers. 

But since other authors have written in divers places much 
and minutely concerning the manners, customs, and other note- 
worthy matters, which have occurred for many years past in 
this mighty kingdom, there is no need of further enlargement in 
this place. And this is all that can be related of what his High- 
ness has been able to see and to learn in the course of his hasty 






(British Museum. Add. MS. 20,001.) 




teoax *Q 


" A Relation of the Journey which I, in company with his Serene High- 
ness the Duke Lewis Frederick of Wirtemberg, have with God's help 
undertaken and happily accomplished, through part of the Rhine 
country, Holland, Zealand, England, Scotland/ Friesland, likewise 
part of Germany; and which has been briefly penned in the French 


1 6 10. March 16. 

EFT Stuttgart (Stuckart) 

April 1 2, Flushing— a fine maritime and mer- Flushin< 
cantile town, which is garrisoned by the English ; 
the governor of the fortress, whose name is Mr. 
Brune [Sir William Browne], 68 accompanied his Excellency and 
gave him a collation. At five o'clock in the evening the wind 
became fair, when we immediately embarked, and with God's 
help crossed the sea so prosperously that by five o'clock in the 

* The title is written in German on the outside cover of the manuscript ; 
there is, however, nothing of Scotland in the Journal.— See Remarks in the Intro- 

58 England as seen by Foreigners. 

gravesend. evening of the 1 3th (Friday) we arrived at Gravesend. The 
Ambassadors of the States came here also at the same time. 
On quitting the small boat, Mr. Leucnor [Sir Lewis Lewkenor], 
his Majesty's Master of the Ceremonies, received his Excel- 

Saturday, 14th. After dinner his Majesty sent My Lord 
Willoughby, 69 accompanied by twenty gentlemen well equipped, 
to receive his Excellency in his name, who straightway con- 
ducted us in the royal barges up to London to the inn called 
the Black Eagle* 
London. Sunday, 15th. 

Monday, 16th. His Majesty sent four coaches to fetch his 
Excellency, in order to give him audience in the great hall of 
the Palace. His Majesty was seated under a canopy of cloth 
of gold, b together with the Queen, the Prince [Henry], the 
Duke of York [Prince Charles, afterwards Charles I.], the 
Princess [Elizabeth], 70 Madame Arabella, 71 and the Prince of 
Brunswick ; 72 a great number of earls and lords of England — all 
Knights of the Garter — were standing round the throne ; T the 
other parts of the room were quite filled with nobles and ladies. 

Tuesday, 17th. Mons. de la Boderie, 73 ambassador of the 
most Christian King [Henry IV.], came to pay a visit to his 
Excellency. After that we went out of the city to see a 

Wednesday, 1 8th. The Prince of Brunswick called to see 
his Excellency at nine o'clock in the morning ; after dinner, his 
Excellency went to the second audience, to make propositions 
concerning the business of the Embassy. 

a " Au logis de l'Aigle noir." b " Soubz ung des de toille dor." 

England as seen by "Foreigners. 59 

Thursday, 19th. The Ambassador of Venice came to see 
his Excellency at nine o'clock in the morning ; he is styled the 
most illustrious Cornao. 74 

Friday, 20th. The Ambassadors of the States of the United 
Provinces came to visit his Excellency at nine o'clock in the 
morning ; their names were Messrs. Berch, Verius, Barnfelt, 
Albertus Joachimi, 75 and Carron, resident ambassador for the 
States. After dinner, the Queen sent two of her coaches for 
the purpose of giving an audience to his Excellency, who 
received great honour from her Majesty. 

Saturday, 21st. His Excellency went to see the Prince of 
Wales [Henry], 76 and the Prince of Brunswick, who were living 
together (comme logez ensemble) ; after having discoursed a Jong 
time in the presence-chamber, waiting for the rain to cease, they 
determined meanwhile to run at the ring, which ended to the 
honour of the Princes of Wales, of Brunswick, and of Wirtem- 
berg — at that time ambassador for the Protestant Princes. 

Sunday, 22nd. His Majesty, the Prince, his Excellency, and 
the Prince of Brunswick dined together. In the evening the 
Prince with fifteen Knights, having assumed their robes of 
the Order, entered the chapel to hear vespers, and to commence 
the ceremonies of the morrow. After coming from the chapel, 
the Prince supped by himself in the great hall, and all the 
other Knights in another, every one according to rank, two and 
two ; his Majesty supped alone ; and the Princes of Brunswick 
and of Wirtemberg were entertained in a separate chamber. 
After rising from table they went to see the Prince at his table, 
and all the other Knights. 

Monday, 23rd. St. George's Day, which his Majesty cele- 
brated with the accustomed ceremonies in the chapel, and 

60 England as seen by Foreigners. 

procession in the Court, he himself and the Prince [Henry] 
dining in public and with great state ; the above-mentioned 
Knights also together, in the same order as on the preceding 
day ; the Princes of Brunswick and of Wirtemberg were, as 
before, served apart ; on leaving the table they went to see his 
Majesty, 77 who was quite four hours at table, owing to the 
number of the courses and the various ceremonies that were 
observed. After which the Ambassadors of France and of the 
States presented themselves likewise at his Majesty's table. In 
the evening, after supper, the two Princes of Brunswick and of 
Wirtemberg again saw his Majesty at table, who, standing up 
and with head uncovered, drank to his Excellency the health of 
the Princes of the Union. When his Majesty had risen from 
table, the two Princes of Brunswick and of Wirtemberg, with all 
the Knights of the Order, conducted him to his chamber, 
where his Majesty wishing them good night dismissed them. 

Tuesday, 24th. His Majesty set out from Westminster at 
four o'clock in the afternoon, to go a hunting in the county of 
Northampton [Norfolk], eighty leagues [miles] from London. 78 

Wednesday, 25th. His Excellency returned the visit of the 
Ambassadors of Venice and of the States at nine o'clock in the 
morning ; after dinner he went to see the resident Ambassador 
of the States, Mr. Carron, 79 [Caron] who lives out of the city, 
opposite Westminster, in a very fine house of his own, well fur- 
nished, and with beautiful gardens round about : it is called 
South Lambeth (Sudlambet). On repassing through the suburb 
of Water Lambeth {Wat ter lamb et')^ where the Archbishop of 
Canterbury resides, his Excellency met at the Thames ferry 80 
the Prince, and the Prince of Brunswick, with whom he crossed 
the water and went to see the tombs of the Kings at West- 
minster. 81 

England as seen by Foreigners. 61 

Thursday, 26th. His Excellency having dined, paid a visit to 
the Duke of Brunswick ; after which he went to see the baiting 
of bears and bulls, and monkeys that ride on horseback very 
welJ, although they have not seen the first masters of Rome, 
Naples, and Paris. 

Friday, 27th. MM. de Colli 82 and Buwinckhausen S3 went for 
the first time to the King's Council to make their propositions. 

Saturday, 28th. The Queen sent to his Excellency at two 
o'clock in the afternoon, in order to take her leave before going 
to the Palace of Greenwich {Chasteau de Grinwichts), where 
her Majesty went to take the air, accompanied by the Prince, 
the Princess, and the Prince of Brunswick. 

Sunday, 29th. His Excellency invited to dinner the Ambas- 
sadors of France and of the States, with Messrs. Carrew and 
Edmondes, when they drank in good earnest the healths of the 
Kings and Princes. 

Monday, 30th. His Excellency went to the Globe , the usual 
place for acting Plays ; the history of the Moor of Venice 
[ c Othello '] was represented there. 3 

Tuesday, May 1st, 16 10. His Excellency went to Eltham eltham. 
Park to see the perpetual motion ; the inventor's name was 
Cornelius Trebel [Drebbel], 84 a native of Alkmaar, a very fair 
and handsome man, and of very gentle manners, altogether 
different from such-like characters ; we also saw there virginals 
which played of themselves. 

Wednesday, 2nd. The Prince of Brunswick dined with his 
Excellency ; he came with a goodly company of gentlemen of his 
country and Scotch servants of his Majesty. 

a " Lundi, 30. S. E. alia au Globe lieu ordinaire ou Ton joue les Commedies, 
y fiat represente Phistoire du More de Venise." — See Remarks in the Introduction. 


12 miles. 

Ware, 8 miles. 

13 miles. 

10 miles. 
Saturday, 5 th. 
Sunday, 6th. 

62 England as seen by Foreigners. 

Thursday, 3rd. At eight o'clock his Excellency went to St. 
James's Park to run at the ring with the Prince ; and after 
breakfasting with the Prince of Brunswick, he went to see the 
royal House of Nonesuch/ 5 and that of Beddington, 86 belonging 
to Mr. Francis Carro [Carew]. There is here one of the most 
pleasant and ornamental gardens in England, with many beau- 
tiful streams ; in the house is to be seen a handsome cabinet/ 
the walls of which are of branched work of wood gilded, 
enriched with beautiful pieces of marble with the floor of the 
same : over the door of the cabinet there is to be noticed a 
small wax figure, which I take to be the emblem of the house. 5 

Friday, 4th. The day on which the most christian and 
august King Henry IV. was wickedly murdered in his coach in 
the city of Paris, near the Innocents. 

A very fine royal House and beautiful garden. It was built 
by the High Treasurer, father of the present High Treasurer. 

A town where we lodged at the Stag. I slept in a bed of 
swans' down, eight feet wide. c 

A market town where his Majesty has a hunting seat on 
account of the surrounding country, which is the best in all 
England for hare -hunting, in which his Majesty takes extreme 
pleasure. 87 

A city and famous University, where there are eighteen fine 
Colleges, among which that of Trinity — which resembles a 
superb princely house or royal palace — is the most beautiful. 
It was founded by King Edward, the third of that name ; at 

s /. e. closet, or small chamber. 

b " II y a une petite figure de Cire a remarquer que ie tien pour le wortzeycben 
de la Maison." 

c " Je fus couche dans ung lict de plume de eigne qui avoit huict pieds de 
largeur." See Note 53. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 63 

this time more than 300 scholars were resident within it. The 
second is that of St. John, where they are as many ; it was 
founded by Margaret, Countess of Richmond, the mother of King 
Henry VII, whose portrait is to be seen in the chapel of the 
college : during her lifetime she resided there for the space of 
six months. His Excellency also saw Sidney, Christ, Emmanuel, 
Queen's and King Henry VI. 's [King's] Colleges, in the last of 
which there is without doubt one of the most beautiful chapels 
in Europe, as well for the purity of the Gothic work as for the 
height of the vaulted roof, and that there are no pillars ; it is 
100 paces long, and on each side are twelve large arcades, the 
windows of which are all coloured. Under that monarch the 
kingdom of France was lost ; his coat of arms is supported by a 
dragon and a greyhound : the walls of the chapel are adorned 
with the devices of York and of Lancaster and with fleur-de-lis, 
all crowned. At this time there were more than 2000 scholars 
in the said Colleges. The person who showed them to his 
Excellency was Mr. Richard Tomson, a native of Antwerp. 88 

A village where his Majesty has likewise a hunting seat, 89 for Newmarket, 
the same reason as at Royston — to course the hare. 90 

A town and abode of the ancient Saxon Kings, as the old Thetford, 

D 16 miles. 

ruins of the castles there prove to us. l As soon as his Excel- Monday, 7 th. 
lency had arrived, his Majesty sent My Lord Hay 92 to say that Tuesday ' 8th ' 
he was very welcome. The next morning his Excellency went to 
wait on the King, with whom he entered into the church, it being 
the day which his Majesty observes without fail, viz. that of 
his deliverance from the assassination plotted by the Earls of 
Gowry. 93 After his Excellency had dined with his Majesty, the 
Duke of Lennox, who had come on a visit before dinner, 
conducted him to the hunt, when they coursed the hare, flew a 
hawk, and caught dotterels 94 — birds which are taken in a strange 


1 6 miles. 
i 8 miles. 

Audley End. 

20 miles. 

12 miles. 

64 • England as seen by Foreigners. 

manner, as we saw, and which may be better told by word of 
mouth than in writing. His Excellency afterwards supped 
with his Majesty ; and upon rising from table they went in a 
coach to the river, where they saw cormorants 95 — birds which, 
at a sign given by the master who has trained them, plunge under 
the water and catch eels and other fish, and which at another 
signal are made to give them up and disgorge them alive — a 
thing very marvellous to behold. On all subjects his Majesty 
discoursed in a wise and admirable manner. 3 And before his 
Majesty went to the church, the more than sad news, alas! 
reached us of the horrible and execrable murder of the most 
Christian King 96 [Henry IV, of France]. 

Wednesday, 9th. His Majesty conducted his Excellency to 
the hare- hunt, after returning from which and dining together ? 
his Majesty took his leave on departing for London, and his 
Excellency did the same. 

His Excellency partook of a collation on his way. 

A town belonging to the Earl of Suffolk, High Chamberlain 
of England, from which his eldest son takes the title of Baron 
[Howard de Walden]. 

A quarter of a league hence is the superb house of Audley 
End, 97 which is said to be the finest in England, belonging to 
the said Earl : it is not yet finished, and has cost 100,000 
pounds sterling, and it is supposed that the remainder will not 
come to less, which will be a million [?] of gold. 

Thursday, 10th. His Majesty arrived at the Palace at the 
same hour. 

Friday, nth. His Excellency went at nine o'clock in the 

a " Sur toute chose estoit les sages discours de sa Ma te tres admirables. : 

England as seen by Foreigners. 65 

morning to visit the Ambassador of France, to condole with 
him on the death of the most Christian King his master. 

Saturday, 12th. Messrs. de Colly and Buwinckhausen went 
to the Council of his Majesty. 

Sunday, 13th. The resident Ambassador of Spain, Don 
Pedro de Suniga, 98 took leave of the King, presenting the new 
Ambassador, who was Don Blonso de Velasco." 

Monday, 14th. The States' Ambassadors dined with his 
Majesty ; and Lord Rich, 100 Mr. Moray [Sir David Murray], 
a Scotchman, who was the Prince's governor, 101 and St. Anthoine 
his riding-master, 102 dined with his Excellency. 

Tuesday, 1 5th. The Ambassadors of the States went at ten 
o'clock to take leave of his Excellency. 

Wednesday, 16th. His Excellency went to visit the States' 
Ambassadors at ten o'clock in the morning to bid adieu to 
them ; and Mr. Levinus, 103 second Secretary to his Majesty, 
went with hh Excellency. 

Thursday, 17th. The Ambassador of Venice came to see 
his Excellency. 

Friday, 18th. His Majesty sent for his Excellency to 
acquaint him with the final resolution ; the audience was given 
in his Majesty's Privy Gallery, several Knights of the Order 
being present. 

Saturday, 19th. Mr. Buwinckhausen set out for France in 
company with Mr. Edmondes, 104 who was appointed to be resi- 
dent Ambassador on the part of his Majesty. 

Sunday, 20th. The Prince of Brunswick, My Lord Hay, 
Angsrieder [Anstruther ?], and a goodly company of gentlemen 
supped with his Excellency. 

Monday, 21st. The Ambassador of Venice and the States' 



England as seen by Foreigners. 

20 miles. 

5 miles. 
Cobham Hall. 


10 miles. 
10 miles. 

Dover, 10 miles. 

Ambassador [Caron] dined with his Excellency ; after which the 
latter took leave of the Ambassador of France. 

Tuesday, 22nd. His Excellency went to Greenwich to take 
leave of the King and Queen; the latter 105 was in the garden 
with the Princess [Elizabeth] and Arabella. 

Wednesday, 23rd. His Excellency took leave of the Ambas- 
sador of Venice ; and Viscount de l'Isle, 100 Mr. Spencer Digby 
Angsrietter, 107 and a gentleman of the Queen's chamber supped 
with his Excellency. 

Thursday, 24th. After dinner his Excellency took leave of 
the Prince, and of the Princes of York and Brunswick ; and at 
six o'clock in the evening the Ambassadors of France and of 
Venice came to take their leave. 

Friday, 25th. His Excellency set out from London to sleep 
at Gravesend, where in the evening he took leave of the Sieur 
Jacques Sandalas. 108 

Saturday, 26th. His Excellency inspected the King's ships, 
and in the morning he went to see Cobham Hall, which is very 
fine, but bewailing the absence of its master. 109 

A market and post town. 

Sunday, 27th. An archiepiscopal city, with a very beautiful 
church, where are to be seen the tombs of King Henry IV, and 
of Cardinals Pole and Chastillon. On the road we met the Dukes 
of Pomerania. 110 

Monday, 28th. A town, castle, and seaport. We saw again 
the vessels which took us to Dieppe on Nov. 23rd, 1608, in 
the greatest possible danger and tempest. 

Tuesday, 29th. His Excellency embarked at ten o'clock 
in the morning, the sea being calm and the weather fair. 

Total of miles travelled in England, 215 : which, reckoning 
5 English miles to 1 German league =43 German leagues. 



1558— 1612. 





The Author was an Antwerp merchant, who settled in London, and resided 
here during the entire reign of the Queen. In 1575, in company with his 
cousin, Abraham Ortelius, the celebrated geographer, he travelled through the 
whole of England and Ireland. In 1583 he was appointed Dutch Consul 
{hoofdmari) for England, which office he held till his death in 161 2. His 
" History of the Netherlands" (written in Dutch; 1599; ^HJ 1636, &c), 
is deservedly esteemed a masterpiece ; the Author carefully collected his mate- 
rials from every authentic source, and has produced a very valuable book to be 
consulted with profit by every student of the history of the period. The 
following are extracts translated from this work. Van Meteren was buried in the 
church of St. Dionys Backchurch, London, and a monument was erected to his 
memory. The church was destroyed in the great fire of 1666. 

HE English are a clever, handsome, and well-made 
people, but, like all islanders, of a weak and tender 
nature. They are generally fair, like all northern 
nations, and especially the women, who know very 
well how to protect the complexion of their faces against the 
power of the sun with hats (hoeyen) and veils, and their hands 

jo England as seen by Foreigners, 

with gloves — even the very peasants there, as the ladies of the 
Court do in the Netherlands and in Germany. 

The people are bold, courageous, ardent, and cruel in war, 
fiery in attack (vyerich int aengrijpen), and having little fear of 
death ; they are not vindictive, but very inconstant, rash, vain- 
glorious, light, and deceiving, and very suspicious, especially of 
foreigners, whom they despise. They are full of courtly and 
affected manners and words, which they take for gentility, 
civility, and wisdom. They are eloquent (welsprekende) and 
very hospitable ; they feed well and delicately, and eat a great 
deal of meat (seer veel vleesch) ; and as the Germans pass the 
bounds of sobriety in drinking, these do the same in eating, 111 for 
which the fertility of the country affords them sufficient means, 
although in general the fruits have not such strength and virtue 
as in France or the Netherlands for the want of hot sun. Even 
the grass, as the herbalists say, is not so nourishing, whereby 
the meat is in consequence softer and not so firm, although 
they have a great abundance of it ; but it is well-tasted enough. 

The people are not so laborious and industrious as the 
Netherlanders or French, as they lead for the most part an indo- 
lent life (een ledich leven leydende) like the Spaniards ; the most 
toilsome, difficult, and skilful works are chiefly performed by 
foreigners, as among the idle Spaniards. They have a great 
many sheep which bear fine wool, of which for these 200 
years they have learnt to make fine cloth. They keep many lazy 
servants, and also many wild animals for their pleasure, rather 
than trouble themselves to cultivate the land. The island which 
they inhabit is very large, and abounds with fish ; they have like- 
wise the best harbours in Christendom. They are also rich in 
ships ; nevertheless they do not catch as many fish as they require, 

England as seen by Foreigners. 7 1 

so that they are obliged to buy more from their neighbours ; 
but they do catch a great quantity of herrings, for which they 
have been in the habit of fishing for several years past, and so 
have taken annually from ten to fourteen hundred lasts, which 
for the most part they dry, and of which they send away every 
year more than five or six hundred lasts to Italy and elsewhere. 

The English dress in elegant, light, and costly garments, but 
they are very inconstant and desirous of novelties, changing 
their fashions every year, both men and women. When they 
go abroad riding or travelling, they don their best clothes (soo 
doen sy haer beste cleederen aeri), contrary to the practice of other 
nations. Their garments are usually coloured and of a light stuff, 
and they have not many of them like as they have in the Low 
Countries, since they change so easily ; nor so much furniture 
or unnecessary house ornaments. 

The English language is broken German {de Enghelsche 
sprake is gebroken Duyts), mixed with French and British 
terms, and words, and pronunciation, from which they have 
also gained a lighter pronunciation, not speaking out of the 
heart as the Germans, but only prattling with the tongue. 3 Where 
they have no significant words, they make use of Latin, and 
sometimes of German and Flemish words. In Cornwall — 
England's furthest boundary westward — and in Wales, they 
speak the old British language, which they call in their own 
language Cymraeg, and which the English call Welsh, as the 
Germans do. (Van Meteren, Nederlandtsche Historie ; edition 
of 1614, fo. 262.) 

a " Niet uytter herten als de Duytschen sprekende, maer alleenlijck mette 
tonghe prattelende." 

j 2 England as seen by Foreigners. 

Wives in England are entirely in the power of their husbands, 
their lives only excepted. Therefore when they marry, they give 
up the surname of their father and of the family from which they 
are descended, and take the surname of their husbands, except in 
the case of duchesses, countesses and baronesses, who, when 
they marry gentlemen of inferior degree, retain their first name 
and title, which, for the ambition of the said ladies, is rather 
allowed than commended. But although the women there are 
entirely in the power of their husbands except for their lives, yet 
they are not kept so strictly as they are in Spain or elsewhere. 
Nor are they shut up, but they have the free management 
of the house or housekeeping, after the fashion of those of 
the Netherlands and others their neighbours. They go to 
market to buy what they like best to eat. They are well- 
dressed, fond of taking it easy, and commonly leave the care of 
household matters and drudgery to their servants. They sit 
before their doors, decked out in fine clothes, in order to see 
and be seen by the passers-by. a In all banquets and feasts they 
are shown the greatest honour ; they are placed at the upper 
end of the table, where they are the first served ; at the lower 
end they help the men. All the rest of their time they employ 
in walking and riding, in playing at cards or otherwise, in 
visiting their friends and keeping company, conversing with 
their equals (whom they term gosseps) and their neighbours, and 
making merry with them at child-births, christenings, church- 
ings {kerckganghen) y and funerals ; and all this with the permis- 
sion and knowledge of their husbands, as such is the custom. 

a " Sy sitten verciert voor haer Deuren, om de voorbygaenders te besien, ofte 
van die besien te worden." 

England as seen by Foreigners. 73 

Although the husbands often recommend to them the pains, 
industry, and care of the German or Dutch women, who do what 
the men ought to do both in the house and in the shops, for which 
services in England men are employed, nevertheless the women 
usually persist in retaining their customs. This is why England 
is called the Paradise of married women. 3 The girls who are 
not yet married are kept much more rigorously and strictly 
than in the Low Countries. 

The women are beautiful, fair, well-dressed and modest, 5 
which is seen there more than elsewhere, as they go about the 
streets without any covering either of huke or mantle (huycke), 
hood, veil, or the like. Married women only wear a hat both 
in the street and in the house ; those unmarried go without a 
hat, although ladies of distinction have lately learnt to cover 
their faces with silken masks or vizards, and feathers, — for 
indeed they change very easily, and that every year, to the 
astonishment of many. 112 (Van Meteren, Nederl. Bistorie ; 
edit. 16 14, fo. 258.) 

a See Note 3 1 . 

b " Het Vrouwenvolck isser schoon, wit, ende verciert ende manierlijck." 







The author was a Dutch physician, of Zierikzee, in Zealand, where he prac- 
tised during upwards of forty years. After the death of his wife, he exchanged 
the medical for the ecclesiastical profession — the cure of bodies for the cure of 
souls — and became a canon of St. Livinus at his native place, where he died in 
1568, aged sixty-three. (Paquot. Hist. litt. des Pays-Bas, i. 91.) The descrip- 
tion of England given below is extracted from a rare little volume, in black 
letter, published at London in 1 581, and entitled, " The Touchstone of Com- 
plexions. Generallye appliable, expedient and profitable for all such as be 
desirous and carefull of theyr bodyly health. . . . Fyrst wrytten in Latine 
by Levine Lemnie, and now Englished by Thomas Newton." The translator 
dedicates it to Sir William Brooke, Knight, Baron of Cobham, and Lord Warden 
of the Cinque Ports — and dates from * Butley in Chesshyre, 22nd Sept. 1576.' 
The original Latin work was published at Antwerp in 1561, under the title of 
" Levini Lemnii, medici Zirizaei, de habitu et constitutione corporis, quam 
Graeci Kpaaiv, Triviales Complexionem vocant, libri duo." — It was frequently 
reprinted. Lemnius wrote several other works, chiefly on medical subjects, 
some of which have been translated into English. His Latin is remarkable for 
its purity and elegance. Tom Coryat, in his Crudities, 161 1, p. 649, calls 
Lemnius an "admirable sweete scholler, a worthy ornament of Learning." 

OT long agone/ traveylinge into that flourishinge 
Ilande, partly to see the fashions of that wealthy 
Country, wyth men of fame and worthinesse so 
bruited and renowmed, and partely to visite 

" ^Estate superiore," i. e. the preceding summer. 

78 England as seen by Foreigners. 

William Lemnie, in whose company and weldoing I greatly 
rejoyce (as a father can not but doe) and take singuler conten- 
tation inwardly ; even at my first arrivall at Dover, and so 
along my journey toward London, which I dispatched partely 
uppon horsebacke and partely by water, I sawe and noted many 
thinges able to ravishe and allure any man in the worlde, with 
desyre to travayle and see that so noble a countrey. For 
beeinge broughte by D. [/. e. Doctor] Lemnie (a skilfull 
Physicion and well thought of there for his , knowledge and 
experience) into the company of honourable and worshipfull 
personages, every Gentleman and other woorthy person shewed 
unto mee (being a straunger borne and one that never had 
beene there before) all pointes of most frendly curtesy ; and 
taking mee first by the hand, lovingly embraced and bad mee 
ryght hartely welcome. For they be people very civil and wel 
affected to men well stricken in yeares, and to such as beare 
any countenaunce and estimation of lerninge, which thing 
they that halfe suspect and have not had the full triall of the 
maners and fashions of this countrey, will skarcely bee 
perswaded to beleeve. 

Therefore, franckely to utter what I thincke of the incredible 
curtesie and frendlines in speache and affability used in this 
famous realme, I muste needes confesse it doth surmount and 
carye away the pricke and price of al others. And beside this, 
the neate cleanlines, the exquisite finenesse, the pleasaunte and 
delightfull furniture in every poynt for household, wonderfully 
rejoysed mee ; their chambers and parlours strawed over with 
sweete herbes refreshed mee ; their nosegay es finely enter- 
mingled wyth sundry sortes of fragraunte floures in their 
bedchambers and privy roomes, with comfortable smell cheered 

England as seen by Foreigners. 79 

mee up and entirelye delyghted all my sences. And this do I 
thinck to be the cause that Englishmen, lyving by such hole- 
some and exquisite meate, and in so holesome and healthfull 
ayre be so freshe and cleane coloured : their faces, eyes and 
countenaunce carying with it and representing a portly grace 
and comelynes, geveth out evident tokens of an honest mind ; 
in language very smoth and allective, but yet seasoned and 
tempered within the limits and bonds of moderation, not 
bumbasted with any unseemely termes or infarced with any 
clawing flatteries or allurementes. At their tables althoughe 
they be very sumptuous, and love to have good fare, yet 
neyther use they to overcharge themselves with excesse of 
drincke, neyther thereto greatly provoke and urge others, but 
suffer every man to drincke in such measure as best pleaseth 
hymselfe, whych drinck being eyther Ale or Beere, most 
pleasaunte in tast and holesomely relised, they fetch not from 
foreine places, but have it amonge themselves brewed. As 
touching theyr populous and great haunted cities, the fruit- 
fulnes of their ground and soile, their lively springs and mighty 
ryvers, their great heards and flockes of cattell, their mysteries 
and art of weaving and clothmaking, their skilfulnes in 
shooting, it is needlesse heere to discourse — seeing the multi- 
tude of marchaunts exercisinge the traffique and arte of mar- 
chaundize among them, and ambassadoures also sente thyther 
from forrayne Prynces, are able aboundantly to testifye that 
nothing needeful and expedient for mans use and commodity 
lacketh in that most noble Ilande. (The Touchstone of Com- 
plexions, fo. 47.) 

Neere approaching to them \i. e. the Italians] in quality 
(but yet somewhat differing) are Englishmen : who being of 

8o England as seen by Foreigners. 

heate more weake and lesse boylinge (as the which is well enter- 
medled, overcome and qualefyed by moistnes) are of stature 
comely and proportionable, and of body lusty and wel com- 
plexioned. But to the studies of humanity not so greatly 
given, and in exquisite artes not so well furnished. But if 
they hold on theyr course as they beginne, I meane, to apply 
theyr mindes to worthy and excellent matters, theyr dexterity for 
the attaynment of any notable atchieuaunce surpasseth, and theyr 
forwardnes to any artes or mysteries, is foud to be right apt 
and inclynable. And because they haue somwhat thick spyrits, 
slenderly perfused with heate, they will stomacke a matter 
vehemently, and a long time lodge an inward grudge in their 
hearts, wherby it happeneth that when theyr rage is up, they 
will not easily be pacified, neither can theyr high and hauty 
stomackes lightly be conquered, otherwise then by submission, 
and yeelding to theyr mynde and appetite. (Fo. i8.) a 

The better to qualefie and mitigate this heate [in Cf soultery 
hoate weather," or "dogge-dayes"], it shalbe very good to sprinckle 
on the pavements and coole the floores of our houses or cham- 
bers with springing water, and then to strew them over with 
sedge, and to trimme up our parlours with greene boughes, 
freshe herbes or vine leaves ; which thing although in the Low 
Country it be usually frequented, yet no nation more decently, 
more trimmely, nor more sightly then they doe in Englande. 
(Fo. 47.) 

a The marginal note against the above passage is, " Englishmen and Scottes 
have great stomacks and angry." 








The Author was a Doctor of Laws, born at Leissnig in Saxony, in 1550. 
He w r as Burgomaster of his native place, and died 1602. He wrote, among 
other works, " De Peregrinatione et Agro Neapolitano libri II." Argentorati 
(Strasburg), 1574, sm. 8vo. In the following year an English ■ translation 
appeared at London, with the title of " The Traveller of lerome Turler," &c. 
from which our extracts are taken. 

T page 25, the Author remarks : " As the arte 
of printing is as much frequented in England as 
in Germanie and Fraunce, in Ireland it is nothing 
so, and yet Ireland lyeth neere unto England, 
and under obedience to y e same Queene. The Englishmen ar 
excellent archers, but the Irishmen bee better, and more experte 
in swimming, excellinge all other nacions of Europe in running 
and diving under water." 

In speaking of the churches at Naples and of the principal 
monuments therein, he remarks (p. 175): "Truly these four 
tumbes are the most principall of all that ever I sawe either in 
Italye, or Fraunce, or Germanie, or in England ; for as for Spayne, 
I was never there. But amongst al that are seene in any of these 
above named regions, made of brasse or copper, in my judge- 

84 England as seen by Foreigners. 

ment, the Tumbe of Kinge Henrie the Seventh King of 
Englande surpasseth the residew, whiche standeth in the Abbey 
of Westminster nigh to the Citie of London, with an inscrip- 
tion in Latine verses [on the frieze of the monument : — 

1 Septimus hie situs est Henricus, gloria Regum 
Cunctorum, ipsius qui tempestate fuerunt. 
Ingenio atque opibus, gestarum et nomine rerum, 
Accessere quibus natune dona benigna? : 
Frontis honos, facies augusta, Heroica forma : 
Junctaque ei suavis Conjux, perpulchra, pudica, 
£t facunda fuit, fcelices prole parentes, 
Henricum quibus Octavum terra Anglia debes.'] l 

Which may thus bee Englished : — 

* Kinge Henrie the seventh heere lieth in this place, 
The glorie of all Kinges that lived at his age 
In wit and wealth, and deedes of noble grace. 
To whom befell the gifts of nature for vauntage. 
A princclie countenaunce, a favour grave and sage, 
A comly personage, and bewtie heroicall : 
And ech poinct of venustie ioyned therwithall. 

Unto him was coupled in wedlock's pleasant band 

An amiable Spouse in beautie right divine, 

Bashful] and verteous, and like a frutefull land 

Plentifull of children, sprong forth of princely line. 

Right happie parentes their issue so doth shine. 

To whom, o England, these thanks thou owest of right 

That ever Henrie the 8 was borne into thy sight.' 

All the whole Toumbe is gilten over, and it shineth faire, 
being round beset with precious stones but of the meanest 
sorte ; it hath in it also many turned and carved pillers, and 
very lyke unto this are the monumentes of the Kinges of Fraunce 
in Sainct Denise churche." 

See Dart's " History of Westminster Abbey," vol. i. p. 157. 








The writer from whom the following extracts are taken was a merchant of Ulm, 
in Suabia, born 1563, died 1619. He employed several years of his youth 
(1 585-1 589) in travelling through most of the countries of Europe and a part of 
Asia. On his return he wrote an account of his peregrinations, the original 
manuscript of which, consisting of 545 folio pages, is said to be carefully pre- 
served by his descendants at Ulm. (Weyermann's " Neue Nachrichten von 
Gelehrten aus Ulm," 1829, p. 218.) The copy referred to by Weyermann, as 
being deposited in the City Library of Ulm, is no longer to be found there. A 
contemporary copy of the MS. is in the possession of Herr Nusser. 

Kiechel left Ulm, May 24, 1585. On September 8th he embarked at Flushing 
for Dover, andp roceeded towards London in the night of Saturday and Sunday, 
the 1 ith and 12th of September. He lodged at the sign of the White Bear, and 
remained in London and its neighbourhood until October 29th, when he was 
an eye-witness to the ceremony of inaugurating the Lord Mayor, Sir Wolstan 
Dixie. 113 He then set out on a trip to Scotland, returning to London, 
November 14th. On the 17th he was at Canterbury, and on the 21st he left 
England. The Baron Joseph von Hormayr published some extracts from 
Kiechel's Journal, in the u Archiv fur Geographie, Historie, Staats-und Kriegs- 
kunst" (4to. Wien, 1820), p. 267, from whence our notes are translated, but he 
has omitted to give the exact date of Kiechel's visit. For some of the above par- 
ticulars we are indebted to Herr Kohn, the Librarian of the Stadtbibliothek at Ulm. 

IECHEL saw Queen Elizabeth at Richmond. 
The yeomen of the guard by whom she was sur- 
rounded were clad in red cloth, with roses em- 
broidered in gold upon their breasts and backs. 
They were all u splendid (herrliche), tall, strong, and large men, 

88 England as seen by Foreigners. 

like half-giants (halbe Rieseri) y so that one would not easily see 
their like again." Men and women, when they passed her Majesty, 
fell on their knees, and exclaimed, with uplifted hands, Gott 
sauve the Quene. Even nobles are accustomed to kneel on one 
knee when they are conversing with her. 

He was present at the election and swearing-in of the Lord 
Mayor in the <c Tower," and also attended the procession to and 
from Westminster Abbey. The ceremonies observed on the 
occasion, which he minutely describes, are precisely the same 
as those that take place now. 

When speaking of the London stage, Kiechel says, that there 
are some peculiar (sonderbare y i. e. besondere) houses, which are 
so constructed that they have about three galleries one above 
the other. As in all his travels he only mentions the theatres 
in London, it is probable that there were then no regular play- 
houses elsewhere, or it may be that the rows of seats one above 
the other appeared remarkable in the eyes of our traveller. It 
may indeed happen, he continues, that the players take from 
fifty to sixty dollars, [£io to £12,] at a time, particularly if 
they act any thing new, when people have to pay double. And 
that they perform nearly every day in the week ; notwith- 
standing plays are forbidden on Friday and Saturday, this pro- 
hibition is not observed. 

I will here take occasion to remark that towards the end of 
the sixteenth century, it would seem that either players, or a 
greater love for mimic representations, or a certain species of 
dramatic exhibitions, had passed over from England into Ger- 
many. The celebrated Johann Valentin Andreae. mentions 
English actors in his Autobiography, 114 and Schorers printed 
Chronicle of Memmingen notices, under the year 1600, that 

England as seen by Foreigners. 89 

Englishmen had performed upon the Salzstadel there. 115 But 
even should this appellation have been at that time current as 
a general name for players, it must yet have originated from 
some historical foundation. It is quite possible that Kiechel 
may have witnessed the acting of Shakespeare, the greatest of 
dramatic poets, as a tyro on the stage. 

For hanging, the English have no regular executioner ; they 
take for this business a butcher, and whoever is called upon is 
obliged to perform it. The criminal, seated in the cart, 
has one end of a rope tied round his neck, and the other is 
fastened to the gallows ; the cart then moves on, and the con- 
demned wretch is left hanging ; friends and acquaintances pull 
at his legs, in order that he may be strangled the sooner. 

On Kiechel's departure, from England, the news arrived of a 
Spanish ship having been captured by Drake, in which it was 
said there were two millions of uncoined gold and silver in 
ingots ; 50,000 crowns in coined reals, 7000 hides, four chests 
of pearls, each containing two bushels (Biisckeln), and some 
sacks of cochineal. The whole was valued at twenty-five 
barrels of gold a (Tonnen Golds) ; it was said to be one year and 
a- half's tribute from Peru. 116 

The royal treasures and tapestries are kept only in that 
palace in which for the time being the Queen resides ; when 
she removes to another, everything is taken away, and only the 
bare walls remain standing. 

Of English manners, Kiechel remarks : cc Item, the women 
there are charming, and by nature so mighty pretty {machtig 
sch'6n)> as I have scarcely ever beheld, for they do not falsify 

a Equal to 2,500,000 dollars, or 500,000/. 

90 England as seen by Foreigners. 

(ketzern), paint or bedaub themselves as in Italy or other 
places ; but they are somewhat awkward in their style of dress 
(in der Kleidung was Plumps geheri) ; a for they dress in splendid 
stuffs, and many a one wears three cloth gowns or petticoats, 
one over the other. Item, when a foreigner or an inhabitant 
goes to a citizen's house on business, or is invited as a guest, and 
having entered therein, he is received by the master of the house, 
the lady, or the daughter, and by them welcomed (willkommen 
heissi)) — as it is termed in their language — he has even a right 
to take them by the arm and to kiss them (zu ktissen), which is 
the custom of the country, and if any one does not do so, it is 
regarded and imputed as ignorance and ill-breeding on his part : 
the same custom is also observed in the Netherlands." 117 

■ Baron von Hormayr observes here in a parenthesis : — " For which they are 
still blamed now-a-days ;" this ungallant remark was made, be it remembered, 
in the year 1820. 





BY JOHN NORDEN, Surveyor. 

From his " Description of Middlesex." 

(British Museum, Harl. MS. 570.) 





OMERSETT HOWSE, scytuate in the Strond s™ 
nere the Thamise, buylded by the late Duke of H ' 
Somerset, not fully finished, yet a most stately 
howse, and of greate receyte ; havinge cheife 
prospecte towardes the sowth. And the sweete river of the 
Thamise offereth manie pleasinge delightes, [the feyldes also 
and the ayre sweete and pleasaunt. This howse her Ma Ue hath 
disposed unto] the right honorable lorde Hunsedon, Lorde 
Chamberlayne to her Ma tie hath under her Ma tie the use therof. 3 



Comon experience teacheth that noe cytie, state, or comon 
weak be it never so glorious, can longe contynue, without some 
trade, trafrique or meane of releefe. 

a The above description was omitted in the printed edition of Norden's 
" Middlesex '' of 1593, and also in subsequent editions. The passages within 
brackets have been struck out in the manuscript. Norden's Notes have been 
introduced here as affording an appropriate illustration to the Journal of Duke 
Frederick of Wirtemberg of the same year. 

94 England as seen by Foreigners. 

This Cytie of Westminster is known to have noe generall 
trade, wherby releefe might be administred unto the people, as 
of themselves, yet doe they live, and manie of them welthely. 
[The meanes therfore that they have are to be considered ; 
that they may be rather furthered to their content then hundred 
to their decaye.] 

The first and principall meane then, wherby their habilities 
are increased and their estates mayntaynedis her Ma t,es residence 
at Whytehall and S. Jeames, whence if her Ma ue be long 
absent, they beginn to complayne of penury and want, of a 
harde and miserable worlde. And therfore do the people in 
manner, in generall, seeme [but rather of custom than of devo- 
tion perchaunce] to powre fourth daylie peticions in their comon 
conference, that it might please God to send her Ma t,e to one of 
theis places. Havinge her highnes presence they rejoyce, they 
tryumph, they flourishe, and they thryve, some by victualinge, 
some by lodginge courtyers, some by one meanes, some by 
another; they are all glad, and fare well. And noe dowbt but 
they coulde wishe in their hartes that Whytehall were her 
Ma tie8 comon abode. But alas, what then shoulde other 
places that stand upon lyke termes doe ? Therfore hath her 
highnes a gratious consideration to visit theis places, alternis 
vicebus y and as it were, by turne, as muche for the comforte and 
releefe of all, as for her highnes owne pry vate pleasure. Ther- 
fore ye Cytizens of Westminster, and the reste, be not forgetfull 
of her gratious care of your comforte, and make your hartie 
peticions unto the Kinge of Kinges, to mayntayne her our 
prosperinge Quene longe, and manie yeares, and every faythfull 
heart will joyne with you, havinge also the benefit of her blessed 

England as seen by Foreigners. 95 

The 2 meane wherby this Cytie is maynteyned and the 
people releved, is, the 4 termes in the yeare, for it hath 
pleased God to establish amonge them the place wher justice, 
law, and every mannes right is (God graunt it) with equall 
ballaunce indifferently administred, wherunto greate multitudes 
of people usually flocke and resort : whose companie, althowgh 
the cytizens enjoye but the forenoones, yet yeldeth their pre- 
sence manie pence to the poore town. Ther was in the time of 
Edw. I. a discontynuance of the law in London, whence it was 
removed to Yorke, wher it contynued seven yeares, and then 
reduced to London. It hath bene so discontynued often, 
throwgh disfavour of princes, by conceyved displeasure agaynst 
the inhabitants of the place, as a punishment, which may be 
taken as a premonition to yow the inhabitants of this Cytie [of 
Westminster] that noe offence be comitted to move her Ma tie to 
conceyve evell of yow, least she forsake yow, and withdraw the 
place of the determynacion of the law from your quarter, and 
place it ellswhere. 

The 3 and last meane is that great and generall convention 
and consultation of all the estates of the lande, the high courte 
of Parliament [when it pleaseth her Ma" e to cause the same to 
be sumoned] w ch causeth a great assembly both of the nobilitie 
and inferiour persons to give attendaunce within this Cytie, w ch 
is noe small releefe unto the same w ch also wee reed, hath bene 
helde at dyvers other places within this realme. And maye be 
at her Ma ties pleasure also removed hence. 

Theis are the moste principall meanes wherby this Cytie is 
maynteyned and wheron it dependeth, w cl1 beinge but discon- 
tynued weakeneth the samej but were they taken away, it could 
not but perish. Lamentable is the time present, wherin even 

96 England as seen by Foreigners. 

now the judgements of God seeme to be hotly incensed agaynste 
the cyties both of London and Westminster, for he hath sent 
fourth his worde of displeasure and caused the ayre to be pesti- 
lently infected ; wherthrowgh great mortalitie ensueth : which 
banisheth manie from the Cyties that were inhabitants, and pre- 
venteth the cominge of others, to the great hindraunce of the 
people. But which more is, and to the more mayn discom- 
fiture and hindraunce of states of theis Cyties, this present 
Michas terme, the most beneficiall of all . the reste, is removed 
from Westminster to Hertforde, to the great decaye of the 
comen state of the poore inhabitants of Westminster. But this 
corruption seemeth in manner generally dispersed in manie 
quarters of the realme w ch showeth the corruption of our 
conversations to be generall, not only of Westminster, but of 
east, west, north, and south ; all have corrupted their wayes, and 
a more gentle correction the Lorde can not lay upon us ; it is in 
love, to call us to reformation, and without spedy and hartye 
repentaunce, we shall lykewise perish. 3 
Westminster Westminster Hall is known to manie, a terror to a multi- 
tude and a golden myne to some : a hundred clowted shoose 
in euerye shire will shake me up if I wryte awrye of this, for 
they know tis a great howse, they find it a chargeable howse, 
and they love little, for the most parte, to visit this howse. 

This stately buyldinge, a buyldinge of great maiestye, having 
the name of Westminster Hall, as some and the most .doe 
imagine of the greatnes of the hall so farr excedinge in magni- 
tude all other halls. [But I rather gather that it was so called 
before the resort nor dowbt of contynuall concourse of the 

a This doleful description of the Westminster of 1592 differs somewhat from, 
and is more extended than, that printed in the following year. 


England as seen by Foreigners. 97 

people therunto for the determinacion of causes at the severall 
courts therin helde]. We know that a hall thowgh it be one 
member of the howse, and that the principall, yet the whole 
howse oftentimes beareth the name of hall, as Whyte hall, New 
hall, Copte hall, and infinite moe ; so I gather that this whole 
howse of the new pallace hath the name of Westminster Hall, 
in regarde it was Aula Regis, a princes courte, a royall and 
kingly howse. But of the founder there is varietie amonge 
wryters. 3 

Ther is adjoininge unto this famous temple, in the easte henry vii. 
ende therof a Chappell erected by H. 7, the bewtie and curious 
contriued worke wherof, passeth my sky 11 at lardge to sett 
down, so sumptuous, so curious, and so full of exquisite arte it 
is, both within and without. And which is not least to be con- 
sidered, the foundacion is most artificially proportioned, and it 
showeth most exquisyte inuencion and skill, in the M r buylder : 
for the foundacion is the guyde to extruct a formall and artifi- 
cill worke. Out Gf this curious foundacion groweth (as Lealand 
sayth) Or his miraculum — the wounder of the worlde, in regarde 
of the most curious and artificiall workemanship therof; where- 
fore I dare not wade too farr in discrybing the bewtie and 
forme therof, least my sences and skyll faylinge me, I be 
forced to retire w lh out performinge what I began. Only thus 
much I dare aduenture to reporte, that whoso beholdeth the 
exteriour partes, w tb due concideracion of euerye matter of sin- 
guler arte, will confesse it to be a worke, wherof (be he neuer 
so wise or elloquent) he can not sufficiently demonstrate euerye 
perticuler poynt of bewtie, that therin may be noted. But 

a Omitted in the printed editions. 

98 England as seen by Foreigners. 

beholding w th judgement, the body and internall glorie, he shall 
finde it so admirable both in the vautinge on the roofe, in 
regarde of the curiosetie of the work, as also in the proportion ; 
and the walls, wyndowes and the rest so exquisytly performed, 
that he will deeme it to be the only rare worke in the worlde, 
and as Lealande say th the wounder of the worlde. This mirror 
of art and architecture], is not only in it selfe bewtifull, but it 
is also bewtifled w th manie rare and glorious monuments and 
curious sepulcres of Kinges and Quenes, amonge whome the 
founder lyeth, H. 7, under a most royall toombe framed and 
artificially formed wholy of brasse, richlye layde over w th golde, 
w ch now seemeth somthing to have lost the bewtie. 3 
Old palace at Ther is nere this famous Chappell [Henry Vllth's] a place 
called the Olde Pallace y w ch was somtime the pallace of a Kinge, 
thowgh now browght to y e grounde, and greene grasse grow 
wher it stood. . . . This place w ch now carieth the name of the 
Olde Pallace, showeth it selfe to have bene, in times paste, full 
of buyldinges. Ther are apparant tokens in a wall yet stand- 
inge, that ther were manie vautes, sellers, and such like offices 
in that place w ch now is a playne feylde; ther are yet certeyne 
towres standinge, adioyning unto the Colledge wall, w ch seeme to 
have bene parcell of that Pallace ; manye buyldinges have bene 
towardes the mill and upon the Thames syde, extendinge as farr 
as St. Stephenes Chappell, the olde buyldinges, ioyninge unto the 
same belonged unto this olde pallace, w ch was consumed w th fire 
in the time of Edwarde the Confessor. 

a In the printed edition of 1593, the description of Henry the VII. 's Chapel 
occupies only eight lines ; and that of the Old Palace which follows, three lines 

England as seen by Foreigners. 99 

Growinge now by order to make vew of her Ma ts [Majesty's] Whitehall 

howses, the first, from this former new pallace, y* offereth it selfe 
in vew is the glorious Whyte hall, a regall mancion scytuate 
upon the Thamise [nere Charing] bewtefull and lardge, adorned 
w th manie fayre galleries, stately furnished w th moste artificiall 
and dilectable pictures, tables, and such like princely orna- 
ments. [A most lardge and princely garden full of pleasaunt 
walks and other delightes, an orcharde also replenished w th like 
pleasures thowgh the place more solitarye.] 

From the Pallace is a verye statlye passage to the Thamise 
for her Ma tie to take bardge, to passe at her pleasure the plea- 
sant streame. A passage not inferiour to the former, leadeth 
also into the Parke called by the name of S* Jeames parke, but 
it aunswereth as fitlye unto this Whyte hall, much might be 
spoken of the ellegancye of this howse ; it resteth to show by 
whom it was buylded. 

It is sayde ther was a beginninge by Cardynall Woulsey. But 
the famous Kinge Hen. the 8, browght it by great expence unto 
this princely forme, and erected also the 2 new gates leadinge 
to Kingstreete in Westminster : gates full of bewtie and state ; 
he caused also to be erected for recreacion, the Tennyes Courtes, 
the bowling allyes, cockpittes, and other places of exercise, nere 
this princely hall, [as the Tylt rayle for the mayntenaunce and 
exercise of martial feates. And manie have bene the triumphant 
showes, most glorious to all beholders, which have bene in her 
Ma ties dayes, whose gratious eyes, God voutsaufe to beholde w th 
comforte manie more. So shall her manie thowsand thowsande 
poor subjectes triumphe in her princely presence.] 3 

a Norden was satisfied with one line and a-half for this description in his 
printed work. 


ioo England as seen by Foreigners. 

St. James's Not farr from this glorious hall, another of her highnes 


howses, descryeth it selfe, of a quadrate forme, erected of brick, 
the exterior shape vvherof althowgh it appeare w ,h out . anie 
sumptuous or superfluous devises ; yet is the plott verie princely, 
and the same w th arte contrived, v/ithin and without. [Itstandeth 
from other buyldinges, about i furlonge, saving a ferme howse 
opposite agaynste the north gate. But the scytuacion is pleasant, 
indued with a good ayre and pleasant prospects, on the east 
London orTereth it self in vew ; in the sowth the stately buyld- 
inges of Westminster, w ,h the pleasant parke and the delightes 
therof; on the north the grene feeldes. It was buylded by 
Kinge Hen. the 8.] 

Not farr from this place was founde the bone of a man of 
an admirable magnitude of late yeares, by a man laboringe in a 
gravel pitt, as it is reported, the vew wherof I have desired, but 
it is broken and spoyled [as they saye.] a 
The Deanery In the south side of S. Peters Church [the Abbey], annexed 
unto the walls of the same, the Deane of Westminster, now 


D. Goodman, hath his mansion howse, wherunto adjoyneth . 
fayre cloysters, lardge lodginges, pleasaunt walkes, and manie 
auncient buyldinges, w ch in time paste have bene helde in great 
price in regarde of the delightes they dyd administer unto the 
abbott, munks and fryers, whoe were removed thence about 
the time of H[enry] 7, and a Deane established w th certeyne 
Hyde Park. Hyde parke substancially impayled with a fayre lodge and 

princelye standes therin. It is a stately parke and full of fayre 
game. The right honorab. Lo. Hunsdon, Lorde Chamblayne 
to her M tie M[aste]r of the game. 

a Omitted in the printed editions. 







This interesting Journal was penned by Paul Hentzner, a native of Branden- 
burg, a jurist by profession, and counsellor to Duke Charles of Miinsterberg and 
Oels. He was a man possessed of great and various attainments, and in August 
and September of the above-mentioned year visited this country as companion or 
travelling tutor to Christoph Rehdiger, a young nobleman of Silesia. Some 
Bohemians — one of whom was the celebrated Slawata — joined company in seeing 
the sights in England, and the party would seem to have journeyed on horseback. 
The author died in 1623. The first edition of the original Latin Itinerary of 
Germany, France, &c. appeared at Nuremberg in 161 2, in 4to. Horace Walpole 
printed in 1757, for private circulation, the portion relating to England, with an 
English translation — omitting however the dates of visit. Although this is gene- 
rally quoted as Walpole's translation, it was made by Richard Bentley, the son of 
the celebrated Master of Trinity. This version we have used for the extracts 
which follow, and have revised, enlarged, and annotated the same, while other 
extracts, descriptive of places visited by Hentzner, are distributed among the Notes 
at the end of our volume. 


JJ5^5|LIZABETH, the reigning Queen of England, was Queen 
iaS jg^ born at the Royal Palace of Greenwich, and here g^Lnwich! 
IJrlsW sne generally resides, particularly in summer, for 
G^^&gZm Jm the delightfulness of its situation. We were ad- 

mitted by an order, which Mr. Rogers (Daniel Rogerius) had 

104 - England as seen by Foreigners. 

procured from the Lord Chamberlain, into the Presence-Chamber 
hung with rich tapestry, and the floor, after the English fashion, 
strewed with hay, a through which the Queen commonly passes 
in her way to chapel. At the door stood a gentleman dressed in 
velvet, with a gold chain, whose office was to introduce to the 
Queen any person of distinction that came to wait on her. 
It was Sunday [Sept. 6, n. s.], when there is usually the greatest 
attendance of nobility. In the same hall were the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, the Bishop of London, a great number of Counsellors 
of State, Officers of the Crown, and Gentlemen, who waited the 
Queen's coming out, which she did from her own apartment 
when it was time to go to prayers, attended in the following 
manner : — 

First went Gentlemen, Barons, Earls, Knights of the Garter, 
all richly dressed and bareheaded ; next came the Lord High 
Chancellor of England, bearing the seals in a red silk purse, be- 
tween two, one of whom carried the royal sceptre, the other the 
sword of state in a red scabbard, studded with golden fleur-de- 
lis, the point upwards ; next came the Queen, in the 65th year 
of her age (as we were told), very majestic ; her face oblong, fair 
but wrinkled ; her eyes small, yet black and pleasant ; her nose 
a little hooked, her lips narrow, and her teeth black, (a defect 
the English seem subject to, from their too great use of sugar) ; b 
she had in her ears two pearls with very rich drops ; her hair 
was of an auburn colour, but false (crinem fulvutn, sed facti- 
tium) ; 118 upon her head she had a small crown, reported to be 
made of some of the gold of the celebrated Luneburg table ; 119 
her bosom was uncovered, as all the English ladies have it till 

a " Foeno." He probably means rushes. — Walpole. b See Note 20. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 105 

they marry ; and she had on a necklace of exceeding fine jewels ; 
her hands were slender, her fingers rather long, and her stature 
neither tall nor low ; her air was stately, her manner of speaking 
mild and obliging. That day she was dressed in white silk, 
bordered with pearls of the size of beans, and over it a mantle of 
black silk shot with silver threads; her train was very long, the 
end of it borne by a marchioness ; instead of a chain, she had an 
oblong collar of gold and jewels. As she went along in all this 
state and magnificence, she spoke very graciously, first to one, 
then to another (whether foreign ministers, or those who attend 
for different reasons), in English, French, and Italian ; for 
besides being well skilled in Greek, Latin, and the languages I 
have mentioned, she is mistress of Spanish, Scotch, and Dutch 
(Belgicum). Whoever speaks to her, it is kneeling ; now and 
then she raises some with her hand. While we were there, 
William Slawata, 120 a Bohemian baron, had letters to present to 
her; and she, after pulling off her glove, gave him her right 
hand to kiss, sparkling with rings and jewels— a mark of par- 
ticular favour. Wherever she turned her face as she was 
going along, everybody fell down on their knees. The ladies 
of the court followed next to her, very handsome and well- 
shaped, and for the most part dressed in white. She was 
guarded on each side by the gentlemen pensioners, fifty in 
number, with gilt halberds. In the ante-chapel, next the 
hall where we were, petitions were presented to her, and she 
received them most graciously, which occasioned the acclamation 
of God save the £>uene Elizabeth ! 121 She answered it with / 
thancke you myn good peupel. In the chapel was excellent music ; 
as soon as it and the service were over, which scarcely exceeded 
half-an-hour, the Queen returned in the same state and order, 


1 06 England as seen by Foreigners. 

and prepared to go to dinner. But while she was still at 
prayers, we saw her table set out with the following solemnity : — 
A gentleman entered the room bearing a rod, and along with 
him another who had a table-cloth, which after they had both 
knelt three times, with the utmost veneration, he spread upon 
the table, and after kneeling again, they both retired. Then 
came two others, one with the rod again, the other with a salt- 
cellar, a plate and bread ; when they had knelt as the others 
had done, and placed what was brought upon the table, they too 
retired with the same ceremonies performed by the first. At 
last came an unmarried lady of extraordinary beauty (we were 
told that she was a countess) and along with her a married one, 
bearing a tasting-knife ; the former was dressed in white silk, 
who, when she had prostrated herself three times, in the most 
graceful manner approached the table and rubbed the plates 
with bread and salt with as much awe as if the Queen had been 
present. When they had waited there a little while, the yeomen 
of the guard entered, bareheaded, clothed in scarlet, with a 
golden rose upon their backs, bringing in at each turn a course 
of twenty-four dishes, served in silver most of it gilt ; these dishes 
were received by a gentleman in the same order as they were 
brought and placed upon the table, while the lady-taster gave 
to each of the guard a mouthful to eat of the particular dish he 
had brought, for fear of any poison. During the time that this 
guard, which consists of the tallest and stoutest men that can be 
found in all England, 100 in number, being carefully selected 
for this service, were bringing dinner, twelve trumpets and two 
kettle-drums made the hall ring for half-an-hour together. 
At the end of all this ceremonial, a number of unmarried ladies 
appeared, who with particular solemnity lifted the meat off the 

England as seen by Foreigners, 107 

table, and conveyed it into the Queen's inner and more private 
chamber, where after she had chosen for herself, the rest goes to 
the ladies of the Court. The Queen dines and sups alone 
with very few attendants ; and it is very seldom that any body, 
foreigner or native, is admitted at that time, and then only at 
the intercession of some distinguished personage. 122 

Near this palace is the Queen's park, stocked with various 
wild animals. Such parks are common throughout England, 
belonging to those that are distinguished either for their rank 
or riches. In the middle of this is an old square tower, called 
Mirefleur^ supposed to be that mentioned in the Romance of 
Amadis de Gaula ; and joining to it a plain, where knights and 
other gentlemen use to meet at set times and holidays to exercise 
on horseback. 

It is worthy of observation, that every year upon St. Bartho- Bartholomew 
lomew's Day, when the Fair is held, it is usual for the Mayor, my Lord 
attended by the twelve principal Aldermen, to walk into a 
neighbouring field, dressed in his scarlet gown, and about his 
neck a golden chain, to which is hung a Golden Fleece, and be- 
sides, that particular ornament [the collar of SS], which dis- 
tinguishes the most noble Order of the Garter. During the year 
of his magistracy, he is obliged to live so magnificently that 
foreigner or native, without any expense, is free, if he can find a 
chair empty, to dine at his table, where there is always the 
greatest plenty. When the Mayor goes out of the precincts of 
the City, a sceptre, a sword, and a cap are borne before him, and 
he is followed by the principal Aldermen in scarlet gowns, with 
gold chains ; himself and they on horseback. Upon their arrival 
at a place appointed for that purpose, where a tent is pitched, 
the mob begin to wrestle before them, two at a time ; the con- 




i 08 England as seen by Foreigners. 

querors receive rewards from the Mayor. After this is over, a 
parcel of live rabbits are turned loose among the crowd, which 
boys chase with great noise. While we were at this show, one 
of our company, Tobias Salander, Doctor of Physic, had his 
pocket picked of his purse, with nine crowns {ecus du soleil), 
which without doubt was so cleverly taken from him by an 
Englishman who always kept very close to him, that the Doctor 
did not in the least perceive it. 123 

A village : this was the first place where we observed that the 
beds at inns were made by the waiters. 

This palace, abounding in magnificence, was built by Henry 
I, to which he joined a very large park, enclosed with a stone 
wall ; according to John Rosse, the first park in England. In 
this very palace the present reigning Queen Elizabeth, before 
she was confined to the Tower, was kept prisoner by her sister 
Mary : while she was detained here, in the utmost peril of her 
life, she wrote with a piece of charcoal the following English 
verses, composed by herself, upon a window-shutter: 1 " 1 — 

Oh fortune thy Wresting wavering 

Hath franght with Cares my troubled 

Whese witnes this present prisonn late, 
Could beare mhere once was Ioy sloune 

Thon causedst the gniltle to be losed, 
Frombandes wehre innocents wehre 

And consed the gniltles, te be reserned. 
And freed these that death had Vvell 


O Fortune! how thy restless wavering 
Hath fraught with cares my troubled 
wit ! [Fate 

Witness this present prison whither 
Hath borne me, and the joys I quit. 
Thou causedest the guilty to be loosed 
From bands, wherewith are innocents 
inclosed ; 
Causing the guiltless to be strait re- 
And freeing those that death had 
well deserved : 

England as seen by Foreigners. 109 

Butt allhereni canbe nothing Vvronghle, But by her envy can be nothing 

So God send to my foes althey have wrought, 

tonghle. So God send to my foes all they 

Elisabethe the Prisonner. nave thought. 

1555. a.d. Elizabeth Prisoner. 

All that remains of Rosamond Clifford's tomb of stone, the 
letters of which are almost worn out, is the line — 

"* * * * Adorent, 

Utque tibi detur requies Rosamunda precamur. , ' 

The rhyming epitaph was probably the performance of some 
monk: — 

" Hie jacet in tumba Rosa mundi non Rosamunda, 
Non redolet sed olet, quae redolere solet." 

The soil is fruitful and abounds with cattle, which inclines Description of 
the inhabitants rather to feeding than ploughing, so that near a manners' 
third part of the land is left uncultivated for grazing. The 
climate is most temperate at all times, and the air never heavy, 
consequently maladies are scarcer, and less physic is used there 
than anywhere else. There are but few rivers. Though the 
soil is productive, it bears no wine ; but that want is supplied 
from abroad by the best kinds, as of Orleans, Gascon, Rhenish, 
and Spanish. The general drink is ale, which is prepared from 
barley, and is excellently well tasted, but strong and intoxicating 
(cerevisia . . . qua facile eos inebriaf). There are many hills 
without one tree or any spring, which produce a very short and 
tender grass, and supply plenty of food to sheep ; upon these 
wander numerous flocks extremely white, and whether from the 
temperature of the air or goodness of the earth, bearing softer 



1 1 o England as seen by Foreigners. 

and finer fleeces than those of any other country. This is the 
true Golden Fleece, in which consist the chief riches of the inha- 
bitants, great sums of money being brought into the island by 
merchants, chiefly for that article of trade. The dogs here are 
particularly good. It has mines of gold, silver and tin (of which 
all manner of table utensils are made, in brightness equal to silver, 
and used all over Europe), of lead, and of iron, but not much 
of the latter. The horses are small but swift. Glass-houses 
are in plenty here. 

The English are grave like the Germans, lovers of show ; 
followed wherever they go by whole troops of servants, who 
wear their masters' arms in silver fastened to their left arms, 
and are not undeservedly ridiculed for wearing tails hanging 
down their backs. They excel in dancing and music, for they 
are active and lively, though of a thicker make than the French ; 
they cut their hair close on the middle of the head, letting it 
grow on either side ; they are good sailors and better pirates, 
cunning, treacherous, and thievish ; above 300 are said to be 
hanged annually at London ; beheading with them is less in- 
famous than hanging ; they give the wall as the place of 
honour ; hawking is the common sport with the gentry. They 
are more polite in eating than the French, consuming less bread 
but more meat, which they roast in perfection ; they put a 
great deal of sugar in their drink ; their beds are covered with 
tapestry, even those of farmers ; they are often molested with 
the scurvy, said to have first crept into England with the Nor- 
man Conquest ; their houses are commonly of two stories 3 
except in London, where they are of three and four, though but 
seldom of four ; they are built of wood, those of the richer sort 
with bricks, their roofs are low, and where the owner has 

England as seen by Foreigners, 

i ii 

money, covered with lead. They are powerful in the field, 
successful against their enemies, impatient of anything like sla- 
very ; vastly fond of great noises that fill the ear, such as the firing 
of cannon, drums, and the ringing of bells, so that in London 
it is common for a number of them that have got a glass in 
their heads {qui se inebriaverint) to go up into some belfry, and 
ring the bells for hours together, for the sake of exercise. If 
they see a foreigner very well made, or particularly handsome, 
they will say, " It is a pity he is not an Englishman" {dolor e 
dicunt quod non sit homo Anglicus, vulgo Englishmen). 125 

September 14th. As we were returning to our inn [at Harvest-home. 
Windsor], we happened to meet some country people cele- 
brating their Harvest-home {spicilegia sua celebr antes) ; their last 
load of corn they crown with flowers, having besides an image 
richly dressed, by which perhaps they would signify Ceres ; this 
they keep moving about, while men and women, men and maid- 
servants, riding through the streets in the cart, shout as loud as 
they can till they arrive at the barn. The farmers here do not 
bind up their corn in sheaves, as they do with us, but directly 
they have reaped or mowed it, put it into carts and convey it 
into their barns. 

There is a certain sect in England called Puritans. These, puritans 
according to the doctrine of the Church of Geneva, reject all 
ceremonies anciently held, and admit of neither organs nor epitaphs 
in their places of worship, and entirely abhor all difference of 
rank among ecclesiastics, such as bishops, abbots, &c. They were 
first named Puritans by the Jesuit Sanders. They do not live 
separate, but mix with those of the Church of England in the 

We came to Canterbury on foot. Being tired, we refreshed a n alarm 

near Dover. 

1 1 2 England as seen by Foreigners, 

ourselves with a mouthful of bread and some ale, and immedi- 
ately mounted post-horses, and arrived about two or three 
hours after nightfall at Dover. In our way to it, which was 
rough and dangerous enough, the following accident happened 
to us. Our guide or postillion {dux vise, vulgo postilion) a 
youth, was before with two of our company, about the distance 
of a musket-shot, we by not following quick enough had lost 
sight of our friends ; we came afterwards to where the road 
divided, on the right it was down hill and marshy, on the left 
was a small hill ; whilst we stopped here in doubt, and consulted 
which of the roads we should take, we saw all on a sudden on 
our right-hand some horsemen, their stature, dress, and horses 
exactly resembling those of our friends; glad of having found 
them again, we determined to set on after them ; but it hap- 
pened through God's mercy,, that though we called to them, they 
did not answer us, but kept on down the marshy road, at such 
a rate that their horses' feet struck fire at every stroke, which 
made us with reason begin to suspect that they were robbers, 
having had warning of such, or rather that they were nocturnal 
spectres, which as we were afterwards told, are frequently 
seen in those places ; there were likewise a great many Jack-w'- 
a-lanthorns (ignes fatui), so that we were quite seized with horror 
and amazement. But fortunately for us, our guide soon after 
sounded his horn, and we following the noise, turned down the 
left-hand road, and arrived safe to our companions ; who, when 
we had asked them if they had not seen the horsemen who had 
gone by us ? answered, not a soul. Our opinions, according to 
custom, were various upon this matter ; but whatever the thing 
was, we were without doubt in imminent danger, from which 
that we escaped the glory is to be ascribed to God alone. 


England as seen by Foreigners. 1 1 3 

We take ship for Calais (Sept. 24). In our company were departure and 
the noble Lord Wilhelm Slawata, a Bohemian baron, with his engmsV ' 
servant Corfutius Rudth, a noble Dane, Wilhelm and Adolphus 
ab Eynatten, brothers, from Juliers, and Henricus Hoen their 
relation. Before we set sail from hence [i.e. Dover], each of us 
was obliged to give his name, the reason of his visit to England, 
and the place to which he was going. This having been done, 
and permission to depart obtained, our valises (yallisite) and 
trunks were opened by those who are appointed for this object, 
and most diligently examined for the sake of discovering English 
money, for no one is allowed to carry out of England more 
than tQti English pounds. Whatever surplus there may be, 
it is taken away and paid into the royal Exchequer. 1 ' 26 






ON SUNDAY, AUG. 19, l604- a 

Juan Fernandez de Velasco, Duke de Frias, and Constable of Castile, was the 
Ambassador empowered by Philip III. to negotiate and conclude a peace 
between this country and Spain. At the time of the Constable's arrival at 
Somerset House, where he was lodged, (Aug. ~) f b King James was seventy miles 
away from London, engaged in his favourite diversion of hunting, and he was 
reluctantly compelled to hasten his return to the capital, in order to attend to the 
important business in hand. On Sunday Aug. ff. the ceremony of swearing to 
the Peace took place in the Chapel at Whitehall ; after which ensued the 

a We have introduced here an etching representing a banquet given at York 
House, the residence of the Duke of Buckingham, on Nov. 18, 1623, in 
honour of Don Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador who had 
accompanied Prince Charles from Spain, Don Carlos Coloma, and Don Diego 
Mexia ; his Majesty and the Prince appearing as the entertainers. The original 
engraving occurs upon a single folio sheet of letter-press printed at Madrid in 
1624, descriptive of the "singular favors" conferred upon the former ambassador 
by James I. In the intervening period between the banquet given to the Con- 
stable of Castile and that represented in the etching, no material change either in 
custom or costume would have been likely to take place ; the editor has therefore 
thought that the illustration would be both appropriate and acceptable. 

b The 10th of Aug. in England — the difference between the old and new 
styles being ten days at this period. 

1 1 8 England as seen by Foreigners. 

banquet-scene, which we have translated from the very rare contemporary 
Spanish pamphlet in the British Museum (once in King James's own library) 
entitled : " Relacion de la Jornada del exc mo Condestable de Castilla, a las pazes 
entre Hespana y Inglaterra," &c. printed by Plantin at Antwerp (Anveres) in 
1604, 4to. An abstract of this interesting work was made by the late Mr. 
Konig and used by Sir H. Ellis (" Original Letters;" 2nd Ser. vol. 3. p. 207, &c), 
but in this there are some remarkable mistakes, particularly concerning the 
Princess Elizabeth, upon whose birthday, on the Sunday above mentioned, the 
court- feast, the ball, and the sports herein described, were celebrated. 

HE Audience Chamber was elegantly furnished, 
having a buffet of several stages, filled with various 
pieces of ancient and modern gilt plate of exquisite 
workmanship. A railing was placed on each side 
of the room in order to prevent the crowd from approaching 
too near the table. At the right hand upon entering was 
another buffet, containing rich vessels of gold, agate and other 
precious stones. The table might be about five yards in length, 
and more than one yard broad. The dishes were brought in by 
gentlemen and servants of the King, who were accompanied by 
the Lord Chamberlain, and before placing them on the table 
they made four or five obeisances. The Earls of Pembroke 
(Panbrue) and of Southampton 3 officiated as gentlemen-ushers. 
Their Majesties with the Prince [Henry] entered after the Con- 
stable and the others, and placed themselves at their throne, and 
all stood in a line to hear the grace said ; the Constable being at 
the King's side and the Count de Villamediana 127 on the Queen's. 
Their Majesties washed their hands in the same basin, the Lord 
Treasurer handing the towel to the King, and the High Admiral 

a Shakespeare's friends and patrons. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 1 1 9 

to the Queen. The Prince washed in another basin, in which water 
was also taken to the Constable, who was waited upon by the 
same gentlemen. They took their seats in the following manner : 
their Majesties sat at the head of the table, at a distance from 
each other, under the canopy of state, the Queen being on the 
right hand, on chairs of brocade with cushions ; and at her side, 
a little apart, sat the Constable, on a tabouret of brocade with a 
high cushion of the same, and on the side of the King the 
Prince was seated in like manner. On the opposite side of the 
table and on the right sat Count Villamediana, and next to him 
the Senator Rovida opposite the Constable; and on the same 
side with the Senator, nearly fronting the Prince, were seated the 
President Richardot and the Audiencier ; a space in front being 
left vacant owing to the absence of the Count d'Arembergue, 
who was prevented by the gout from attending. The principal 
noblemen of the kingdom were likewise at the table, in particular 
the Duke of Lennox ; the Earl of Arundel ; the Earl of Suffolk, 
lord chamberlain ; the Earl of Dorset, lord treasurer ; the Earl 
of Nottingham (Nortinan)> high admiral ; the Earls of Devon- 
shire (JDensier), of Southampton and of Pembroke ; the Earl of 
Northumberland ; the Earl of Worcester (Huester), master of the 
horse ; the Earls of Shrewsbury (Sosfrren), of Sussex, of Derby 
(de Arbe)> and of Essex, and the Lord Chancellor — all being 
Knights of the Garter ; also Barons Cecil and Wotton (Otton), 
and the Lord Kinloss {9$uinglos)> a privy councillor ; Sir Thomas 
Erskine (Esquin) y captain of the guard ; Sir John Ramsay {Juan 
Ranse) and James Lindsay (Jay me Linzel), Scotchmen ; and 
other barons and gentlemen of quality. There was plenty of in- 
strumental music, and the banquet was sumptuous and profuse. 
The first thing the King did was to send the Constable a melon 

120 England as seen by Foreigners. 

and half a dozen of oranges on a very green branch, telling him 
that they were the fruit of Spain transplanted into England ; to 
which the latter, kissing his hand, replied that he valued the gift 
more as coming from his Majesty than as being the fruit of his 
own country ; he then divided the melon with their Majesties, 
and Don Blasco de Aragon handed the plate to the Queen, who 
politely and graciously acknowledged the attention. Soon after- 
wards the King stood up, and with his head uncovered drank to 
the Constable the health of their Spanish Majesties, and may the 
peace be happy and perpetual ! The Constable pledged him in 
like manner, and replied that he entertained the same hope and 
that from the peace the greatest advantages might result to both 
crowns and to Christendom. The toast was then drunk by the 
Count Villamediana and the others present, to the delight and 
applause of their Majesties. Immediately afterwards, the Con- 
stable, seeing that another opportunity might not be afforded 
him, rose and drank to the King the health of the Queen from 
the lid of a cup of agate of extraordinary beauty and richness, 
set with diamonds and rubies, praying his Majesty would con- 
descend to drink the toast from the cup, which he did accordingly, 
and ordered it to be passed round to the Prince and the others ; 
and the Constable directed that the cup should remain in his 
Majesty's buffet. At this period the peopled shouted out : 
Peace , peac e, peace ! God save the King ! God save the King ! 
God save the King ! and a king at arms presented himself before 
the table, and after the drums, trumpets, and other instruments 
had sounded, with a loud voice said in English : — c that the 
kingdom returned many thanks to his Majesty for having 
concluded with the King of Spain so advantageous a peace, and 
he prayed to God that it might endure for many ages, and his 

England as seen by Foreigners, 


subjects hoped that his Majesty would endeavour with all his 
might to maintain it, so that they might enjoy from it tranquillity 
and repose, and that security and advantage might result to all 
his people ; and therefore they prayed him to allow the same to 
be published in the kingdoms and dominions of his Majesty.' 
The King gave permission accordingly and the peace was forth- 
with proclaimed in that city, the proclamation being repeated at 
every fifty paces. 

The Constable rose a second time, and drank to the Queen 
the health of the King from a very beautiful dragon-shaped cup 
of crystal garnished with gold, drinking from the cover, and the 
Queen standing up gave the pledge from the cup itself, Don Blasco 
de Aragon performing on this occasion the office of cupbearer as 
also interpreter to what was spoken by the Constable and the 
Queen, on whose [i. e. the Queen's] buffet he ordered that the 
cup should remain. After this, the King drank to the President 
Richardot and the Audiencier the health of their Highnesses 
[the Archdukes] saying in French how much he esteemed them, 
and how desirous he was to live on terms of the strictest amity 
with them. Soon afterwards the King sent to the Constable an 
important message (un gran recaudo) by the Earl of Northampton, 
telling him that this was a happy day for him, since he had 
made peace on it, and it was the anniversary of his children's 
birthdays, the Princess Elizabeth (Isabella) being four years' 
old, 128 and therefore he hoped from her name that she might be 
the means of preserving the kingdoms of Spain and England in 
friendship and union, unlike that other hostile Elizabeth (otra 
Isabella enemiga) who had caused so much mischief: hence he 
gave the Constable permission to drink the health of his children. 
His Excellency drank the toast accordingly, and in reply aptly 

122 England as seen by Foreigners. 

quoted those lines of Sannazaro on the birth of the Virgin, in 
which, describing how our Lady had repaired the evil which Eve 
brought upon the world, he says : — 

" Curnque caput fuerit tantorumque una malorum 
Fcemina principium, lacrimasque et funera terris 
Intulerit, nunc auxilium ferat ipsa, modumque 
Qua licet afflictis imponat fcemina rebus." 

The King now for the fourth time drank to the Constable 
the health of the Princess of Spain, 129 and took this opportunity 
to reiterate his desire for the inviolability and durability of the 
peace which had been established in spite of knaves and malignant 
persons. The Constable made proper acknowledgments for this 
message, and asserted that it would be so, and that he hoped 
this union would produce important results, to the advantage of 
God's service, their Majesties' kingdoms and Christendom. The 
banquet now proceeded ; at length, after other healths and mes- 
sages from the King and Queen, it was brought to a conclusion, 
having lasted about three hours. The cloth having been re- 
moved, every one immediately rose up ; the table was placed 
upon the ground, 2 and their Majesties standing upon it, pro- 
ceeded to wash their hands, which is stated to be an ancient 
ceremony. The Constable invited Count Villamediana to wash 
in his basin, and the other Commissioners washed in others. 
Their Majesties then withdrew to their apartment, and the 
Constable and Count were conducted to a handsome gallery, 
adorned with various paintings, where they remained more than 

a Meaning probably, removed from the dais. " Pusieron la mesa en el suelo, 
y los Reyes, de pies sobre ella para Javarse las manos, como lo hizieron ; que 
dizen ser ceremonia antigua." 

England as seen by Foreigners. 1 2 3 

an hour. In the meantime dancing had begun in the said 
[Audience] Chamber, and the Constable and Count were in- 
formed in the name of their Majesties that they were then 
waiting for them to go and see it. Accordingly they proceeded 
thither in company of their Majesties, who seated themselves 
beneath the canopy of state, and the Constable took his place 
close to the King's chair ; next to him sat the Count Villame- 
diana, and then the other Commissioners in a row. There 
were present at this ball more than fifty ladies of honour, very 
richly and elegantly dressed, and extremely beautiful, besides 
many others who, with the noblemen and gentlemen that were 
present at the dinner, were already engaged in dancing. After 
a little while the Prince [Henry] was commanded by his parents 
to dance a galliard, and they pointed out to him the lady who 
was to be his partner ; and this he did with much sprightliness 
and modesty, cutting several capers in the course of the dance 
{con algunas cabriolas). The Earl of Southampton then led out 
the Queen, and three other gentlemen their several partners, 
who all joined in dancing a Brando. In another, her Majesty 
danced with the Duke of Lennox. After this they began a 
galliard, which in Italy is called planton; 130 and in it a lady led out 
the Prince, who then led out another lady whom their Majesties 
pointed out to him. After this a Brando was danced, and that 
being over, the Prince stood up to dance a correnta, which he 
did very gracefully. The Earl of Southampton was now again 
the Queen's partner, and they went through the correnta like- 
wise. Hereupon the ball ended, and all then took their places 
at the windows of the room which looked out upon a square, 
where a platform was raised, and a vast crowd had assembled 
to see the King's bears fight with greyhounds (leBreles). 131 This 

i 24 England as seen by Foreigners. 

afforded great amusement. Presently a bull, tied to the end of 
a rope, was fiercely baited by dogs. After this certain tumblers 
came who danced upon a rope, and performed various foats of 
agility and skill on horseback. With this ended the entertain- 
ment and the day, and their Majesties now retired, being 
accompanied by the Constable and the other noblemen to their 
apartment, before entering which, many compliments passed on 
both sides, and their Majesties and the Prince shook hands with 
the Constable and the Count ; and the other Spanish cavaliers 
kissed hands and took their departure. The Constable and the 
others upon quitting the ball-room were accompanied by the 
Lord Chamberlain to the farthest room, and by the Earl of 
Devonshire and other gentlemen to their coaches ; more than 
fifty halberdiers lighting them with torches {con achas) until they 
reached home, where as many others were awaiting their arrival. 
Being fatigued, the Constable and the Count supped that night 
in private, and the others at the ordinary table. 

Monday, the 30th. The Constable awoke with a slight attack 
of lumbago {un poco de mal de hijadd). 


CIRCA l6o6. 


CIRCA 1606. 


The author was a Swiss historian and pastor, born at Basle, 1579, died 1627. 
He studied antiquities in France, and was Professor at Nismes. (Leu s Hel- 
vetiscbes Lexicon.} He travelled into England, and returned to his native 
country about 1608. He published at Basle in 16 10, 8vo. " Frantzosische und 
Englische Schatzkammer," &c. The notices u Of the beautiful and powerful 
Kingdom of England" occupy pp. 235 — 264 of this work. 

T is so populous (he says), that the king can bring 
into the field 100,000 foot, and 20,000 horse- 
men. 132 In former times, the kings of England 
regularly maintained ships of war by the hundred ; 
but at the present day any considerable number of these, such 
as some seventy or eighty, are not seen without the greatest 
astonishment. However, the English say for certain, that they 
employ daily above 2000 ships on the sea. Speaking of West- 
minster Abbey, he says, iC Since I was in England, a magnificent 
monument has been erected to Queen Elizabeth." In front of 
St. Paul's Church, he cc saw a Jesuit [Henry Garnet ?], sixty- 

128 England as seen by Foreigners. 

three years of age — an eloquent and daring man — quartered on 
account of treason and the gunpowder plot." 3 The author was 
invited to dine with " Milord Maier" through Doctor Medusius, 
in company with Herr Eckenstein and H. Meyer. 
Richmond. Henry VII. died here. His blood, which he ordered to be 

sprinkled on the wall, is still to be seen in the room wherein he 
died. 133 Many old written and printed books are in the Palace. 
Also a large circular mirror, in which King Henry VII. by 
means of magic saw what was passing everywhere both by sea 
and land. The secret passages used by this king were first 
discovered under Queen Elizabeth. Theobalds is called by 
Grasser " Dieboltz." 

a Garnet was executed in St. Paul's Churchyard, May 3rd, 1606. He was 
born about the year 1554. — Jardine's Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot. 



CIRCA l6lO. 




CIRCA l6lO. 


The author of this description was a native of Thuringia, and Doctor of Laws 
at Basle. Under the name of Jodocus Sincerus, he published his travels, in 161 6, 
entitled, " Itinerarium Galliae," &c, Lugduni (Lyons), i6mo. It became a 
favourite guide-book to those countries which the author had visited, and seems 
to have held its ground for about half-a-century, as there are editions 1627, 1649 
(with plates), 1655 and 1656. The following extracts are translated from his 
" Itineris Anglici brevissima delineatio," at p. 362 of the earliest edition of the 
above-mentioned work. 

NE hundred sheep and twelve cows constantly feed Dover. 
in the grassy court-yard of the Castle. Henry 
VIII's great cannon noticed. The water was 
drawn up from the very deep well by an ass and a 
mule. Riding post from Dover to Canterbury costs three 
English shillings ; from Canterbury to Sittingbourne the same ; 
from Sittingbourne to Rochester about two shillings and six- 
pence ; from thence to Gravesend, one shilling and sixpence. 
Just before coming to Sittingbourne you will see a robber Smwc- 
hanging on a tree ; he treacherously killed the messenger 
sent from the Elector Palatine to the King of England ; the 
body was so surrounded by chains and rings that it would be 






132 England as seen by Foreigners. 

likely to last a long time. The inn-keeper at Sittingbourne is a 
Scotchman, a very good man, and knows Latin. 

Rochester is a handsome city, close by which is the Medway, 
where is to be seen the royal fleet of stupendous magnitude ; 
some very large ships older than the three-score and ten of 
man's age. Pray take the trouble to see the ship Prince, also 
the Elizabeth Jonas, the White Bear, the Honour, the 'Triumph, 
which are lying here. 

The author recommends the c Flushing ' at Gravesend if you 
want to be comfortable : mine host is a Belgian, and a capital 
fellow. 134 There is a boat to London. Here you must see the 
very elegant bridge of nineteen arches 3 with the houses upon it. 
He describes the ceremony of washing the feet of as many poor 
persons as the King is old, performed by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury in the King's name. At the same time the King 
touches those afflicted with the evil. On Tuesday in Easter week 
there is a solemn procession of the Mayor and Aldermen to 
the church (in templum, i. e. St. Paul's). In this is seen 
Linacre's monument. A fine view of the city is beheld from 
the lofty tower. Westminster Abbey : here you must observe 
the two monuments of Elizabeth and Mary Stuart. A printed 
book of the monuments 15 is sold by the verger. The poor are 
fed here every Sunday ; while the sermon is being delivered, the 
food is laid out on an oblong wooden table. One of the curiosi- 
ties is the stone on which Abraham \jic\ rested ; the chair or 
throne bears an inscription. The exterior of Whitehall Palace 
is not very magnificent. In the new building is the spacious 
hall where the Knights of the Garter are accustomed to banquet. 

a There - were twenty arches, including the drawbridge. 

b Camden's "Reges, &c. Westmonast. sepulti," 1600, 1603, 1606. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 1 33 

In the library is kept a little book written by Queen Elizabeth, 
in French, and dedicated to her father, Henry VIII. In the 
garden adjoining are kept wild and tame beasts from India ; 
also foreign fowl. In the same garden is a building for horse- 
exercise in case of rain. The Parliament House : allusion to 
the powder plot. Not far from hence, towards the open fields 
(versus campos) is the Prince's house (La Maison du Prince) y St. James's 
a pleasant and splendid residence, formerly an abbey. The 
street or square of the Prince contains some handsome houses. 
Inside the Tower is the armoury. In Caesar's Tower you may The tower. 
see the guns taken at Cadiz. The Mint in the Tower : only 
gold and silver money coined. The lions and leopards, eagle 
and wolf. The Exchange is a magnificent palace ; in the area 
the merchants meet twice a day. The theatres (Theatra Comce- Theatres. 
dorurri) in which bears and bulls fight with dogs ; also cock- 
fighting. The colleges and schools [meaning the Inns of 
Court] cc tho the medel tempel ; " pretty grounds by the banks 
of the river Thames. Magnificent palaces on the right bank. 
Once every month execution of those condemned to be hanged 
takes place ; some are placed in a cart and driven under the 
gallows ; when they have all got the halters about their necks, 
the cart moves on, and they are left hanging. Those who are Travelling. 
desirous of visiting the entire kingdom hire interpreters, of 
whom there are many who make it a profession. Not a few 
Germans have complained of the deceit of these fellows ; we 
employed (he says) a most excellent youth named Frederick, a 
native of Hesse Cassel, who may be heard of at the sign of the 
Black Bell (ad insigne campanx nigra) Cf tho the blac bel," which 
is recommended as a good economical establishment. Travellers 
generally go on horseback ; sometimes in coaches, which are 




134 England as seen by Foreigners. 

too dear ; sometimes in boats as far as Richmond, Nonesuch, 
Hampton Court, Windsor, and Oxford. 

The most curious thing to be seen is Henry VIPs Library ; 
here is also his glass, in which they tell us he could see every- 
thing passing in the world ; it was broken at his death. The 
Genealogy of the Kings of England from Adam. Henry VII's 
inkstand, and his bed-chamber sprinkled with his blood. 3 

Chapel and Hall ; the vaulted roof of Irish wood will . bear 
nothing poisonous, consequently not even spiders. A musical 
instrument made of glass ; many beautiful pictures in the gal- 
leries, one of our Saviour, with an inscription testifying that the 
Sultan [Bajazet] had sent this to the Pope [Innocent VIII. ] to 
liberate his brother from captivity. 135 The bed-rooms orna- 
mented with tapestry and bedsteads. In the Queen's bed- 
chamber is the picture of Venus, above which is written Cf Imago 
Amoris;" on the forehead, <f procul et prope;" on the crown, 
<c Mors et Vita ; " [at the feet, " Hyems et i^stas ; "] b and beneath 
all, <c In hac poesi flgurantur proprietates Amoris." 

The most eminent of all is the Paradise Room ; it captivates 
the eyes of all who enter, by the dazzling of pearls of alljdnds. 
It is strange that the keeper of this room is so sordid that you 
must bargain with him beforehand about his fee ; yet from his 
dress he appears a grand gentleman. Nonesuch we could not 
see, but it is a very pleasant place ; the grounds are highly 
praised. At Windsor : here is to be seen a unicorn's horn, 
nine spans long. Oxford : there are sixteen colleges — one called 

a Seepages 128 and 172. 

b The words in brackets are supplied from Eisenberg's Itinerary, 161 4. See 
post, p. 173. 

c " Cum tamen ex habitu quantivis pretii videatur." 

England as seen by Foreigners. 135 

Queen's College is most hospitable ; if students see strangers, 
they welcome them, and pledge their healths in college beer out 
of a large horn; a this attentive politeness deserves another kind 
of praise than the unbridled insolence shown in other colleges 
by students who, by making attacks upon passengers, are rather 
deserving of the name of robbers. In New College is a library 
well provided with printed books and manuscripts. At Wood- Woodstock. 
stock, Queen Elizabeth was imprisoned ; her verses are still 
on the window there. Bedford is a pleasant town. Cambridge : Cambridge. 
Trinity College is very splendid. Library in King's College. 
The chapel of this college is of extraordinary artifice, hardly to 
be described. Audley Inn (Adeliri), three hours distant, lately audley end. 
begun by an English nobleman [the Earl of Suffolk], and a 
good part built ; when finished, no other palace in the kingdom 
will compare with it. Theobalds Palace, very pleasant ; in the Theobalds 
gardens a genealogy of the Earls of Salisbury ; also a marble table 
near which are placed statues of the twelve Roman Emperors. 
Pass through two halls, in one are forty trees representing the 
counties of England ; in another are painted the large cities of 
Europe. A chimney-piece, 136 on which is inscribed in French 
the history of Joannes de Sitschitz and Guil. Fanacham. 5 You 
should return to London by the river, and in the passage 
notice the fragments of the ship in which Francis Drake sailed 
round the globe. Observe also the Palace of Greenwich, cele- 
brated for the birth of Elizabeth, and her frequent residence. I 
and my companions could not be admitted on account of the 
Queen [Anne of Denmark] being there. 

a Shown at the South Kensington Loan Exhibition in 1862. See Cat. No. 

b " Caminus etiam cum historia Joannis de Sitschitz et Guil. Fanacham GalHce 








HY doe the rude vulgar so hastily post in a 

To gaze at trifles, and toyes not worthy the 

viewing ? 

And thinke them happy, when may be shew'd for a penny 
The Fleet-streete Mandrakes, that heauenly Motion of Eltham," 
Westminster monuments, and Guildhall huge Corinasus, 
That home of Windsor (of an Unicorne very likely,) 5 
The caue of Merlin, the skirts of old Tom a Lincolne, 
King Johns sword at Linne, with the cup the Fraternity drinke in, 
The Tombe of Beauchampe, and sword of Sir Guy a Warwicke : 
The great long Dutchman, and roaring Marget a Barwicke, 

See note 84. 

See page 17 and note 3J. 

140 England as seen by Foreigners. 

The Mummied Princes, and Caesars wine yet i' Douer, 
Saint James his Ginney Hens, the Cassavvarway a moreouer, 
The Beauer i' the Parke (strange beast as ere any man saw) 
Downe-shearing willowes with teeth as sharpe as a hand- saw. 
The Lance of John a Gaunt, and Brandons still i' the Tower : b 
The fall of Niniue, with Norwich built in an hower. 
King Henries slip-shoes, the sword of valiant Edward. 
The Couentry Boares-shield, and fire-workes seen but to bedward. 
Drakes ship at Detford, d King Richards bed-sted i' Leyster, 
The White Hall whale-bones, the siluer Bason i' Chester ; 
The liue-caught Dog-fish, the Wolfe and Harry the Lyon, 
Hunks of the Beare-garden to be feared, if he be nigh on. 
All these are nothing, were a thousand more to be scanned, 
(Coryate) vnto thy shooes e so artificially tanned : 
That through thicke and thinne, made thee so famous a Trotter. 
Etc., etc. 137 

a " An East Indian bird at Saint James in the keeping of Mr. Walker, that 
will carry no coales, but eate them as whot as you will." 
b See note 42. 
c See page 1 o. 
d See note 62. 
e See the Introduction, page xv. 






N the month of June, 161 1, an unsuccessful suitor 
for the hand of Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of 
James I, appeared at the English Court in the person 
of Otto, Prince of Hesse — a youthful German 
Ccelebs in search of an English princess ; not altogether an unusual 
occurrence. 3 He was the son of the Landgrave Maurice, and had 
received, it is said, an invitation 138 to come to England from 
Henry, Prince of Wales, who was of the same age as himself. 

In Stow's Annates, fol. 1631, this visit is thus chronicled: — 
<c The 23 of June, here arrived Prince Otto, son and heire unto 
Morris Landgrave of Hesson, attended with thirtie persons, and 
accompanied with the young Count of Nassaw : this Prince 
was very honourably entertained of the King, Queene, and 
Prince of Wales : hee went unto both the Universities, and tooke 
great pleasure to behold the Kings parks and pallaces. He was 
17 yeeres of age, and demeaned himselfe in all things wery 
princely and bountifully ; he returned the third of August. The 
King honored with knighthood two of his chiefe attendants, who 

How like you the young German?" — Merchant of Venice, act i. sc. 2. 

1 44 England as seen by Foreigners. 

were Commissioners to his Majesty , viz. Otto StarchedelJ, Pre- 
sident of Hessia, and Gasper Widmarker, a Collonell ; next 
unto whom his chiefe gentleman, and director of his affaires, was 
Master Frauncis Seager, an Englishman, a sworne Counsellour 
unto Prince Morris, the father of this young Prince, and one of 
his Captaines in Ordinary." 

In the Library at Cassel is a MS. narrative of this Journey, by 
an unknown hand, some extracts from which have been intro- 
duced by Rommell in his " Geschichte von Hessen," (8vo. 
Cassel, 1837), Bd. 6, pp. 327, 328, for a knowledge of whose 
work I am indebted to Mr. Albert Cohn, of Berlin, the author 
of a very interesting volume just published, entitled "Shake- 
speare in Germany." Rommell says the MS. contains numerous 
Latin inscriptions copied from the English palaces visited by 
the travellers. Otto had his first audience of King James at 
Greenwich on the 30th of June. He received from the King a 
jewel with 120 diamonds, worth (according to Meteren) 10,000 
crowns ; from Prince Henry, four fine horses ; from other 
English noblemen, a cross-bow for shooting deer ; a buck (with 
the word Landgrave engraved on its collar), which they let 
loose, and a cormorant for catching fish. a The King con- 
versed with Otto on the bad English pronunciation of Latin 
(sounding i instead of J), b and quoted some verses from Horace. 
The Prince went to church with his Majesty to celebrate the an- 
niversary of the Gunpowder Plot, 139 and afterwards attended the 
ceremony of cc touching" several scrofulous patients [i.e. afflicted 
with the cc evil"], two bishops being also present; during the 
benediction the King laid two fingers upon them, and hung 

R See Note 95. b See the Introduction , p. xxxvi. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 145 

around the neck of each an angel [coin] with a white silk 
ribbon. Two hundred guards always marched near his carriage, 
and cleared the way with their halberds. The attendant who 
handed him drink performed this office kneeling. On being 
dubbed a knight, Starschedel answered the King in Latin, 
Widemarkter in French. Besides the Earl of Lincoln, (whom 
Queen Elizabeth had sent to Cassel 140 to be present at the 
christening of the daughter of the Landgrave Maurice, who was 
named after the Queen,) Otto met a Brandenburg ambassador, 
who presented the King during the chase with some living 
wild boars, the remainder of sixty head. Otto attended a Lord 
Mayor's feast : he sat at the side of the Lord Mayor, who was 
waited on by pages, his sword hanging against the wall ; and 
during the banquet an excellent alto sang to the instruments. 
It is mentioned incidentally that a pound of tobacco which was 
sold in several houses in London, like brandy in Hesse, cost at 
that time (161 1) 330 florins! 141 

The Prince, it would seem, also made a tour through Scotland. 
In a poem descriptive of " the Palsgraves Countrey," written 
by William Fennor, cc His Maiesties Seruant" {Descriptions, 1 6 1 6, 
4to.), Prince Otto is introduced very favourably as follows : — 

" Yong Prince of Hesson is the first must enter, 

to act his vertues on the worlds Theater ; 
Tis hard to finde a yong man on earth's center, 

that is a vertue lover and vice hater, 
Old Landsgraves glasse hath many houres to runne, 

whil'st all his vertues liveth in the Sonne." 

Otto, Prince of Hesse, died in 1 6 1 7, from the effects of a gun 
accident, two months after his second marriage. 









John Ernest, called the younger, Duke of Saxe- Weimar, was born in 1594. ^ e 
studied at Jena, and in 1613-14 travelled through France, England, and the 
Netherlands, under the name of Herr von Hornstein. An account of this journey- 
was written by J. W. Neumayr von Ramssla and printed at Leipzig, 1620, 4to. 
under the title of " Des durchlauchtigen hochgebornen Fiirsten und Herrn, Herrn 
Johann Ernsten des Jungern, Hertzogen zu Sachsen, &c, Reise in Franckreich, 
Engelland und Niederland" (reprinted at Jena, 1734, D Y J- G. Pagendarm). 
The Prince's stay in England was from Aug. 24, to Oct. 23, 16 13. A few 
years later he took a leading part in the formation of a society for the improve- 
ment of the German language, which was founded in 161 7 by his tutor and 
companion in travel Caspar von Teutleben. The society bore the name of 
" Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft," or Fruit-bearing Society, and its sittings were 
at first held at the Ducal Castle of Weimar. In 1620, being then in the service 
of the unfortunate King of Bohemia, the Prince was engaged in the battle on 
the White Mountain (usually known as the battle of Prague). Subsequently he 
entered the service of the Netherlands, and was taken prisoner by the Spaniards, 
but was soon liberated. He was wounded at Nienburg, being General Field- 
Marshal in the Danish Army. Afterwards he fought against the Emperor in 
Silesia and Hungary, and died in 1626. 

N the 17th day of September, 1613, the Royal 
Master of the Ceremonies [Sir Lewis Lewkenor] 
called upon his Highness, and very early in the 
morning of the 19th (being Sunday) they pro- 
ceeded in two coaches to the King at Theobalds (Thibault). 

1 50 England as seen by Foreigners. 

When they arrived here, his Highness was conducted through 
the presence-chamber into the ante-room adjoining, where 
numerous lords were assembled ; and in this room his Highness 
waited about half an hour. As it was now the time for divine 
service, the King made his appearance in company with the 
young Prince Charles. He was dressed in a satin robe of an 
ash colour, thickly covered with gold lace chevronwise, a and a 
rather long cloak of black cloth, lined with velvet. In his 
hat was a magnificent jewel, with three large precious stones 
one above the other, set in gold. His Highness immediately 
advanced towards the King, made a low obeisance, and addressed 
his Majesty in Latin. The Earls and Lords crowded round to 
hear what his Highness said. The King listened attentively to 
his Highness, standing all the while and holding his hat in his 
hand, and answered him likewise in Latin. His Majesty then 
proceeded to the presence-chamber, a handsome and lofty room, 
where a great number of persons had assembled for service, and 
seated himself beneath a golden canopy and behind a small table, 
on which lay a cushion and book. The young Prince stationed 
himself on the King's left hand, and next to him his Governor. 
His Highness, however, stood on his right hand, and close 
below the dais. Two Chamberlains stood also near the 
King, and next to his Majesty a Bishop, a tall dignified man, 
dressed in a black gown with white sleeves, with whom the King 
very frequently conversed during the service. The Minister, 
who stood at a window, commenced the service, delivered first 
a long prayer for the welfare of the King, the Queen, and 

a tt 

Sparrweis." This word signifies that the gold cords or lace were laid one 
over another like a v reversed ; literally, like the rafters of a building. — Beckmann. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 1 5 1 

young Prince, and also for the Elector Palatine and his wife ; 
afterwards kneeling he said the Lord's Prayer. And thus the 
service lasted about an hour and a-half. When it was con- 
cluded, his Majesty stood up, his chair was removed to the table, 
and he seated himself in it. Then immediately the Royal 
Physician brought a little girl, two boys, and a tall strapping 
youth, who were afflicted with incurable diseases (unheilbare 
Sckaden, i. e. the Evil), 142 and bade them kneel down before his 
Majesty ; and as the Physician had already examined the disease 
(which he is always obliged to do, in order that no deception 
may be practised), he then pointed out the affected part in the 
neck of the first child to his Majesty, who thereupon touched it, 
pronouncing these words : Le Roy vous touche> Dieu vous guery 
(The King touches, may God heal thee !) and then hung a rose- 
noble round the neck of the little girl with a white silk ribbon. 
He did likewise with the other three. During the performance 
of this ceremony, the above-mentioned Bishop, who stood close 
to the King, read from the Gospel of St. John, and lastly a 
prayer, whilst another clergyman knelt before him and made 
occasional responses during the prayer. Now when this was 
concluded, three lords — among whom were the Earl of Mont- 
gomery and his brother 143 — came forward at the same time, one 
bearing a golden ewer, another a basin, and the third a towel. 
They fell on their knees thrice before the King, who washed 
himself, 144 and then went with the young Prince (who, with his 
Highness, walked before his Majesty) through the ante-room 
again into his apartment. His Highness, however, remained in 
the ante-room. This ceremony of healing is understood to be 
very distasteful to the King, and it is said he would willingly 
abolish it ; but he cannot do so, because he assumes the title of 

152 England as seen by Foreigners. 

King of " France " as well ; for he does not cure as King of Eng- 
land, by whom this power is said to have been never possessed, but 
as a King of France, who ever had such a gift from God. The 
Kings of England first ventured to exercise this power when they 
upwards of two centuries and a-half ago had possession of nearly 
the whole of France, and when Henry VI. had himself crowned 
at Paris as King of France [Dec. 17, 143 1]. 

Soon afterwards, a person having a small white narrow towel 
on each shoulder, entered the room and spread the table. Every 
time that he placed anything upon the table, he made a low 
obeisance ; then several of the King's body-guard came to the 
door of the room with the dishes. The foremost of these 
called out, cc The King's dinner is coming," whereupon some 
lords went and took the dishes from them at the door (for they 
were not permitted to enter this room), and placed them on the 
table. When this was announced to his Majesty, he came with- 
out his cloak, and seated himself behind the table close to the 
wall. Then a person took his Majesty's hat from him, and the 
before-named bishop standing before the table said grace, and 
then placed himself close to the Kings right hand, his Highness 
standing on his left. It is the custom to set before his Majesty 
at first three dishes only, one of which is usually a piece of beef. 
After he has partaken of that, from eight to ten delicate dishes 
are then put before him. The carver cuts very small pieces, to 
which, at the same time, the King helps himself out of the dish 
with his own hand, and he is seldom seen to eat any bread. 
His first drink is beer, which he takes from a cup turned out 
of a peculiar kind of wood, and after that he drinks a thick 
sweet French wine called Frontignac, which is presented to him 
by a chamberlain, who kneels all the while his Majesty is 

England as seen by Foreigners. 153 

drinking ; the small table upon which the drinks are placed 
stands in the presence-chamber, from whence they are fetched. 
As a bishop is required to wait during every meal, his Majesty 
generally converses with him at table/ 45 and occasionally with 
others, as it indeed happened on the following evening, when 
the learned Isaac Casaubon, 146 who is a very little man with a 
black beard, presented himself at dinner time, and laid before 
his Majesty a sheet of paper, on which he had written something 
against Cardinal Bellarmine at Rome ; and this the King not 
only read, but during the whole meal-time discussed the merits 
of it with him, speaking in Latin and French. After the dinner 
was over, the King retired to his own room, and his Highness 
returned to his lodging, and took his dinner also. Towards 
evening he went again to court, and remained in the ante-room 
till the King had taken his supper, after which his Highness 
refreshed himself in the village. 

On the 20th, his Highness again presented himself at Court, 
and waited in the ante-room with the other lords whilst his 
Majesty took breakfast in his apartment. The King then came 
forward with the Prince, attired in a green satin dress, and 
having a gray hat upon his head ; he sat down upon a chair near 
the table, and had a pair of black boots pulled on ; on his left 
leg a blue silk ribbon hung out just above the boot, which 
denotes the Order of the Garter, and the young Prince wore 
the like. This is not merely confined to the King and Prince, 
but the lords, who are Knights of the Garter, daily wear on 
the left leg a remarkably handsome blue garter. 

The King and Prince then went down and out through the 
pleasure grounds, where horses and carriages were waiting. 
The King and young Prince seated themselves in one carriage, 


154 England as seen by Foreigners. 

his Highness took his place in the other; and thus they pro- 
ceeded to the hunt. The other earls and lords rode on horseback. 
When they came to the hunting-ground, the King, the Prince, 
and his Highness also mounted on horseback ; his Majesty had 
provided a fine palfrey for his Highness. The hunt generally 
comes off in this way : the huntsmen remain on the spot where 
the game is to be found, with twenty or thirty dogs ; if the 
King fancies any in particular among the herd, he causes his 
pleasure to be signified to the huntsmen, who forthwith proceed 
to mark the place where the animal stood ; they then lead the 
dogs thither, which are taught to follow this one animal only, and 
accordingly away they run straight upon his track ; and even 
should there be forty or fifty deer together, they do nothing to 
them, but chase only the one, and never give up till they have 
overtaken and brought it down. Meanwhile the King hurries 
incessantly after the dogs until they have caught the game. 
There is therefore no particular enjoyment in this sport. Two 
animals only were caught on this occasion : one was presented 
by the King to his Highness, which was eaten at his lodging. 
His Majesty, however, now and then uses long bows and arrows, 
and when he is disposed, he shoots a deer. 147 There are no large 
stags to be found in England, but only fallow deer. His Ma- 
jesty went out again after dinner ; as his Highness came some- 
what late to the Court, he followed after. At the wood several 
horses were in waiting, upon which they rode after the King. 

On the 2 1 st, divine service was held again in the presence- 
chamber, after which the King touched another sick person with 
the above ceremonies. When his Highness had accompanied his 
Majesty as far as his apartment, they entered the room of the 
young Prince [Charles], whom his Highness had not yet visited ; 

England as seen by Foreigners. 1 5 5 

and here they spoke French. The prince is now thirteen 
years of age, and to all appearance is not of a strong constitu- 
tion {nicht starcker Complexion). us Those who were with his 
Highness paid their respects to him likewise, and advanced to 
him one after another. Although the table was spread in the 
Prince's ante-room all 'ready before him, everything was taken 
away, and he went with his Highness into the King's ante- 
chamber, where his Highness remained, and the Prince entered 
the King's apartment. Meanwhile the King's table was also 
spread, and a plate was placed for the Prince at the upper end 
of the table. As soon as the King and Prince were seated, his 
Highness went down to dinner with the Duke of Lennox, a 
Scottish prince ; and this was the only meal his Highness took at 
Court, for although the King is accustomed to show great honour 
to German Princes, and to entertain them at banquets, himself 
partaking of the repast with them, yet this did not happen with 
his Highness, because he for particular reasons wished to remain 
incognito. 3 After dinner, his Highness again went out hunting 
with the King and the young Prince, which he did as well on the 
following day, and on the 23rd. The chase was arranged on 
the way towards London ; the King stopped on the road and had 
dinner, his Highness again joining the Duke of Lennox at table, 
and towards evening the King arrived in London. His High- 
ness sat all the time with him in the coach, and afterwards even 
accompanied him to his apartment, and then returned once more 
to his lodging at the cc Italian Ordinary" {alV Italiano Ordinario). 

a " Nicht so gar bekandt seyn wollen." He travelled under the name of Herr 
von Hornstein, as is stated above (page 149). 






IN THE YEAR 1613. 


jORTRAIT of King Edward VI. perspectively Whitehall. 
painted {prospectivisch gemahlet)}^ In front one 
cannot distinguish what it is meant for, but from 
the side the portrait is seen quite clearly. 
Portraits of Francis I. of France, and his Queen. 
The history how King Henry VIII. came to the Emperor 
Charles at Calais and Boulogne. Further, how he arrived by 
ship at Calais. These are two large tables 3 with many figures 
painted from life ; and thus a very beautiful old picture. 
A small Portrait of Louis XII. King of France. 
Julius Caesar, also small — a fine picture. 

a The above List of Pictures, &c. has been extracted and translated from the 
same Journal of the Duke of Saxe- Weimar as the preceding narrative. We have 
rendered the word " tafel " by " table " — the term often formerly used for a 
picture. Many of the Works of Art here mentioned are now at Hampton Court. 

1 60 England as seen by Foreigners. 

The Emperor Frederick III. 

The Siege of Boulogne ; on a large table. 

The Judgment of Paris, natural size ; on a large table. 

Half-length Portraits of Christian II, Elector of Saxony ; of 
the Archduke Leopold ; of the Emperor Rudolph ; of King 

The meeting of the Emperor Maximilian I, and Henry VIII, 
King of England, before Tournay ; on a large table — an old and 
beautiful picture. 

The battle before Assumcourt (Agincourt) between the said 
Henry VIII. [Hen. V.] and the King of France ; on a large 
table, which also is a beautiful picture. 

The City of Antorff [Antwerp], large. 

Lucretia, very artistically painted. 

The Battle of Gerisole [Cerisoles] between King Francis I. 
and Charles V. 

Whole-length Portrait of Henry VIII, very fine. 

A large picture showing how the Spaniards took Kynsale in 
Ireland, as well as certain skirmishes in the country. 

The Genealogy of the House of Nassau ; on a large table. 

Small and large Portraits of the Emperor Charles V, with 
regimental baton. 

The Queen of France [Mary de' Medici]. 

The country of England ; on three large tables. 

Portrait of the Duke of Parma [Alexander Farnese]. 

Portraits of several high-born ladies. 

Germany, upon a large table, painted with colours. 

Portrait of Edward VI. 

Whole-length Portraits of Henry VIII, and his father Henry 

England as seen by Foreigners. 1 6 1 

These are considered remarkably artistic, and they say that 
there is nothing like them to be seen in England. 

Portrait of Queen Elizabeth, very beautifully painted. 

Whole-length Portrait of the wife of Christian II, Elector of 

The King of Spain. 

The Siege of Malta, upon four several large tables. 

The Count of Oldenburg. 

The Queen of Scotland, who was beheaded. 

The young daughter of Henry Julius, Duke of Brunswick. 

John Frederick, Elector of Saxony. 

Henry Julius, Duke of Brunswick, and his wife. 

The Queen of France. 

The Queen of Philip III. of Spain. 

Queen Elizabeth, as she was when young. 

The Archduke Albert and his wife [Isabella]. 

All being whole-length Portraits, beautifully and artistically 

Whole-length Portrait of the father of the present Prince of 
Conde, who lives at Paris. 

Portraits of Wolfg. Musculus, Ulrich Zwingle, Rudolph 
Gualter, Bullinger, Peter Martyr, Simon Grynaeus, Conrad Pel- 
licanus, Theod. Bibliander. 

Sketches of several castles and palaces in England. 150 prince henry's 

Bacchus, Ceres, and Venus, with fawns, nearly the size of life, jame S C, s). (St ' 
very artistically painted. 

A vaulted house, wherein several are wrestling with each 
other ; perspectively rather than artistically painted upon a small 

1 62 England as seen by Foreigners. 

House (Thk 

The history of Cain and Abel, full-size, which is also an 
artistic work. 

The history of Tityus, how he lies, and the eagle picks out 
his heart ; which is also large. 

The history of Holophernes ; also large and very artistic. 

The Sacrifice of Isaac, which is also large. 

The Tower of Babel, very large, upon a table very artistically 

Henry IV, King of France. 

Count Maurice of Nassau ; a full-length Portrait. 

A Kitchen, in which are all kinds of victuals, of flesh and 
fish ; which is also a very artistic piece. 

Three long tables of Shipping. On the first, how some are 
wrecked in a great storm ; on the second, how the ships sail with 
a fair wind; on the third, how some vessels fire at each other by 
night. They are particularly fine pieces. 

The Battle before Ravenna, which is an old and a very beautiful 

Two Palaces perspectively painted on two tables, with gar- 
dens, and people who walk about in them ; very artistically 
painted in oil colours. 

Whole-length Portraits of the King of Denmark ; 

Elizabeth Queen of England ; 

The King of France ; 

Marshal Biron, who was beheaded in the Bastile at Paris ; 

The Duke of Wirtemberg and his wife ; a 

The Prince of Anhalt and his son ; 

The reigning Prince and his wife ; 

a See the Introduction. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 163 

Several Wirtemberg ladies. 

A beautiful Turkish lady. 

The present Elector of Brandenburg, in complete armour, 
with regimental baton. 

Queen Elizabeth, together with many other Queens of Theobalds. 

John Frederick, Elector of Saxony. 

Gaspar Coligny, Admiral of France, who perished with his 
brothers in the massacre at Paris in the year 1572. All whole- 
length portraits. 

Half-length Portraits of all the Turkish Emperors. 

The Labours of Hercules ; on seven small tables, very ar- 
tistically painted in oil colours. 

Don John of Austria. 

The Prince of Conde. 

The Duke of Parma. 

Count of Egmond. 

Count of Horn. 

Paintings of the principal cities in the world. 

Portraits of all the Kings of England. 

The Mother of Philip II, King of Spain. oWesuch. 

The wives of several English gentlemen. 

Portraits of many English gentlemen, and old English kings. 

Bathory, King of Poland. 

The Treasurer Cecil. 

Whole-length Portrait of Ulrich, Duke of Mecklenburg. Gs£ENW,CH 

Prince Charles [afterwards Charles I.], the King's son, in a 
coat, as he was when a little younger. 

Whole-length Portrait of the reigning Duke of Florence. 

Queen Margaret [of Valois], at Paris. 

164 England as seen by Foreigners. 

Portrait of Christian II, Duke and Elector of Saxony. 
The Duke of Lennox, and several English lords in red habits. 
William, Duke of Courland. 

Portrait of the present Princess of Conde, very finely and 
artistically painted. 

Whole-length of Henry IV, King of France, on horseback. 

Wax -works in 


In addition to the Pictures 3 are also noted a considerable 
number of curiosities of art, objects of vertu, costly tapestries, 
pretty inventions and conceits, which were then to be seen in 
the several palaces, &c. Some of these may be worth par- 
ticularizing : — 

Queen Elizabeth, in a red velvet gown, with sceptre and 

Henry VII. and his Queen. 

Henry V. also with his Queen, who came from France. 

Edward III. and his Queen, a German, and a very little person. 

The lately-deceased Prince of Wales b in a long red velvet 
dress, lined with ermine, over a red habit which he had on 
when he was ill, and with a long gilded staff in his hand. 131 

The three Graces worked with the needle and silk, on a 
small table. 

A large sea-chart of the whole world, drawn with the pen 
upon parchment. 

Palestine painted in colours on a large table. 

a It is strange that the author when visiting Hampton Court should have 
omitted to jot down any of the pictures deposited there. 
b Henry died Nov. 6, 161 2. 

England as seen by Foreigners. 165 

A Moor's head of stone, the breast of metal, said to be the 
image of Balthasar, one of the three Kings. 

Figure of Moses in metal, perfectly black, with large white 
eyes, and long hair ; the hair standing up from the forehead 
like two horns ; a short pointed beard, and looking somewhat 
gravely. This image is said to have been brought to England 
from Palestine many centuries ago. 

Christ's Passion, very beautifully painted upon glass. 

The kingdom of England drawn with the pen and coloured, 
on a large table, showing all the intestine wars [of York and 
Lancaster], besides where and at what place the battles were 

A looking-glass, containing on the top Queen Elizabeth's 
Portrait, and on the lower part of the frame these two verses : 

Hinc radios nullos ne tu mirere remitti 
Orbis honos puro speculi resplendet in orbe. 

Two large tables, on one of which was the royal race of 
Scotland, and on the other the Palatine race, beautifully done 
with the pen and the arms coloured. 

Genealogy of the present King James VI, upon a large 
circular table, done with the pen very beautifully and artistically. 

Exploits of Count Maurice engraven on copper. 

A large Bible, 152 printed upon parchment, said to be the first 
which Henry VIII. caused to be printed. 

In a small chamber where the books belonging to the Queen 
stood was a large number in Italian and French. Amongst 
others is a little volume on parchment which Queen Elizabeth 
wrote in French with her own hand for her father King 
Henry VIII. It was the Dialogus fidei of Erasmus of 
Rotterdam. 153 



i 66 England as seen by Foreigners. 

A piece of mechanism, executed by a native of Cologne. 
Underneath was a chamber-organ (ein Positiv) which played of 
itself; at the top stood twelve trumpeters blowing their horns ; a 
little figure danced and bowed before two persons sitting under 
a throne in the centre. 

A beautiful celestial Globe of brass, which when wound up 
went round of itself. Presented by the Emperor to the King. 

Parma, with its territory, in needle-work, on silk. 

The present King of England's bust, the size of life, composed 
of small stones. 

A mirror, which shows many faces when one looks into it. 

An old book, with red and black monkish characters, painted 
upon an ancient cloth, which is open, and in the middle a leaf 

A green Palm tree ; in the upper part the branches growing 
through a golden crown, and under them these words in gilt 
letters : 

Perpetuo vernans arbor regnantium in Anna, 
Fert fructum et frondes, germine laeta vivo. 

In the garden stands a Parnassus Mount. On the top is the 
Pegasus, a golden horse with wings ; with divers statues, one of 
black marble representing the River Thames, beneath which 
is this Latin distich in letters of gold : 

Me penes imperium, emporium sunt classis et artes, 
Et schola bene fluens, florida prata rigo. 

It far surpasses the Parnassus Mount in the Pratolino near 

Goldsmiths' Street [or Row — close to St. Paul's] is the finest 
and richest in the city. Numerous goldsmiths dwell here all near 

England as seen by Foreigners. 167 

together, where immense stores of silver and gilt drinking and 
other vessels, as well as gold and silver coin, are daily displayed. 154 

Two cannon of immense size, made of wood, which ThiTower. 
Henry VIII. took with him to strike terror into the enemy 
before Boulogne. 

Two pieces of Tapestry, worked very elegantly, representing 
the sea-fight with the Spaniards in 1567, and the fight before 

Tapestries — with Roman Histories worked on them. Theobalds. 

Tapestries — several pieces, containing the story of Hagar's Hampton 
delivery ; how Abraham is about to offer up his son Isaac ; how 
Isaac courted, &c. The dress, landscapes, buildings, and the 
like are in gold, silver, and variegated silks, so artistically 
worked as though they had been carefully painted with colours. 
The history of Tobit. The history of the Creation of the 
World in several pieces ; these were old, but also of silk and 
gold. The Deity is always represented as three old persons in 
episcopal habits, with crowns on their heads and sceptres in their 

A carved bust said to be an exact image of Christ. Nonesuch. 

Several views of countries and places. The description of the Greenwich. 
World, Holland, Sweden, East Indies, &c. done with the pen. 
Italy, in water-colours. Large engraving of England, Scotland 
and Ireland ; with genealogies and all the Kings, beautifully 







1 6 14. 


Peter Eisenberg, a Dane, whose father was Secretary to Frederick II, King of 
Denmark, compiled for the use of the two sons of Casper Marckdaner, who were 
about to travel, and to whom Eisenberg had been tutor, a little Guide-book in 
German, entitled " Itinerarium Gallic et Angliae : Reisebiichlein," &c, i6 mo . 
Leipzig, 1 6 14, 402 pp. The author died in France {Nyerup). Jocher {Allg, 
Gel. Lex.) has confused him with Petrus Eisenberger, a Roman Catholic Priest 
of Dresden and Confessor to the Duke George of Saxony, who lived a century 
earlier. The part relating to England occurs between pp. 321-359. The fol- 
lowing are translated extracts : — 

HE merchants meet at the Exchange every morn- 
ing between 1 1 and 1 2, and evening between 5 and 6. 
Henry VIII's lance at the Tower. In the Library 
at Whitehall is a little book in French, written by 
Queen Elizabeth with her own hand, and dedicated to her father ; 
it is the c Dialogus Fidei ex Erasmo Roterodamo :' also two other 
books written by the said Queen. In St. Paul's School there are 
153 youths instructed gratis. Many heads are on the Tower of 
London Bridge fixed on spikes. The palaces and places along the 






172 England as seen by Foreigners. 

bank of the Thames passing towards Westminster, are— " Fish- 
monges hall, Olde Swan, Schrevesbury howes, Cecls harbor, The 
stilliarde, Three Cranes, Quene hythe, Brokenwarfe, Paules 
wharfe, Baynardes Castle, Blackfryars stayrs, Bridwel dock, 
Salsbary court stayrs, Whytefriers stayrs, Temple stayrs, Essex 
howse, Milford stayrs, Arondell howse, Strond stayrs, Somerset 
howse, y e Savoye, Bedford howse, Durham howse, York howse, 
Scotland, Vhyte hall, Priuy stayrs, Garden stayrs, Kinges bridge, 
Parliment bridge." 

In the palace, remark the Library of King Henry VII, for 
the most part consisting of manuscripts, of which Library 
nothing was known until the time of Queen Elizabeth. One of 
the books is on magic or the black art, called " Modus et Ratio 
Divinae Contemplationis." Here also is a large mirror in which 
Henry VII. was able to see what he wished ; but this mirror 
broke in pieces of itself when the King died. His inkstand is 
likewise here. A portrait of the King when a young man, 
together with his wife ; also the genealogies of all the Kings 
of England. King Henry VII's chamber wherein he is said to 
have died, the wall of which is besprinkled with his blood, but 
this is not permitted to be seen by every one. 

Theobalds is called fC Diephtholtz" 

New College : a splendid library, in which are many MSS. on 
vellum ; also two globes, the terrestrial one showing the voyages 
of Drake and Cavendish. 

You see here the verses written on a window by Queen 
Elizabeth with a diamond. 3 

You see at " Vindsor" the room in which Henry VI. was born. 

See also Hentzner's " Travels," ante, p. 108. 

England as seen by Foreigners. ij^ 

The bed of Henry VIII. A table of red coral, on the four 
sides of which are these sentences, <c Virtutis laus actio," cc Omnis 
sapientia a Deo," cc Industrial fomes Praemium," " Regina rerum 
sapientia." A unicorn's horn 9 spans long. 

The picture of Venus as a lovely young lady. Above is Hampton 
written, " Imago amoris ;" on the forehead, " Procul et prope ; " CoURT ' 
on the crown, <c Mors et Vita ;" at the feet, " Hyems et iEstas ; " 
and beneath all, " In hac poesi figurantur proprietates Amoris." 
A cabinet, in the centre are these words in French, "Si tu as 
maistre, serves le bien, di bien de luy, gardes le sien, quoy qu 1 il 
fac^e, soys humble devant sa fa^.e." 

Queen Elizabeth's draught-board, presented to her by the Greenwich. 
Elector of Saxony, Christian I, made with costly precious stones, 
especially thirty-two beautiful emeralds. Also an elegant chess- 
board. Drake's ship at Deptford, nearly all destroyed. deptford. 

The author has confounded Cambridge with Canterbury. 







HE Author, who was Doctor of Laws of Basle, and 
Professor of Poetry at Frankfort on the Oder, pub- 
lished in 1618/ a work in Latin on the monu- 
ments in Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's, en- 
titled, cc Mausolea Regum, Reginarum, Dynastarum, Nobilium, 
sumtuosissima, artificiosissima, magnificentissima, Londini An- 
glorum in occidentali urbis angulo structa ; h. e. Eorundem 
Inscriptiones omnes in lucem reductas, cura Valentis Arithmaei, 
Prof. Acad. Uteris et sumtibus Joannis Eichorn," in i2 rao, pp. 
144. Westminster Abbey > pp. 1-122. St.PauVs>\rp. 123-144. 
This important work, of which King James's copy is in the 
British Museum, is not mentioned by Dugdale in his history of 
St. Paul's Cathedral, nor by his editor, Sir Henry Ellis. The 
author died in 1620. 

Arithmaeus, in his Preface, says he had travelled for three 

a The Preface is dated November, 161 7. 
A A 

178 England as seen by Foreigners* 

years in company with Baron Zedlitz. Alluding to the West- 
minster monuments and epitaphs, he remarks, "When the 
Verger saw that I was eager after these things, he offered a copy 
of some Inscriptions printed several years before j a but after the 
manner of his nation, eaten up with avarice, he demanded a 
great price." Arithmaeus has given the Latin inscriptions only, 
omitting the English, " for," says he, cc very few persons under- 
stand English." (Anglicam enim paucissimi intelligunt.) 

Speaking of St. Paul's, he mentions the ascent of the King 
of Denmark in company with King James [in i6o6], b to the 
steeple covered with lead ; and he adds (p. 1 24), cc No German 
is admitted to it, unless he pays his money beforehand, so in- 
tense is the avarice of the English, and I don't know whether 
the reason be not the simplicity of the Germans ! " He alludes 
to Paul's Cross, and preaching there every Sunday ; the mayor 
and two others [the sheriffs?] clad in their robes and wearing 
gold chains, attend on horseback. On August 5th, there are 
special prayers for the Gowry conspiracy. 

* Camden's work, mentioned ante, p. 132. b See Note 36. 

c See Note 93. 



Note I. Page 3. 
HE old travellers seldom forget to 'tune their distresses and record 
their woes' as inflicted by that merciless enemy, malde mer. An 
extreme case may be cited from the experiences of the noble 
Bohemian Baron Leo von Rozmital, who lionised at the gay court 
of Edward IV. in the year 1466. On crossing the Channel, U the 
sea so much affected my lord and his companions that they lay 
in the ship as if they were dead." (' Meinem herrn und andern gesellen thet 
das mer so we, das sie auf dem schiff lagen, als waeren si tot.') The Manor of 
Archer's Court, near Dover, was held upon this remarkable condition, viz. — that 
the owner or owners " should hold the King's head when he passes to Calais, 
and by the working of the sea should be obliged to vomit." (Philipott's Villare 
Cantianum, 1659, Addenda, p. 282.) 

2. Page 5. Among the MSS. in the British Museum, and particularly in the 
Cottonian MS. Aug. I. 1., are highly interesting plans, views, reports, and sur- 
veys of Dover and its harbour, temp. Henry VIII. and Elizabeth. In 1583, 
after many surveys and much investigation, important works were undertaken 
there for the defence of the town and harbour. They were commenced on May 
13th under the superintendence of Thomas Digges, a skilful engineer ; Sir Thomas 
Scot being appointed principal commissioner. A very interesting and circum- 
stantial narrative, by his kinsman, Reginald Scot (author of "The Discoverie of 
Witchcraft," 1584), is printed in Holinshed's "Chronicle" (1587), iii. 1535 — 
1547. This is unnoticed by the Dover historians as well as by the biographers of 
Reginald Scot. Hentzner, a German, who travelled in England in 1598, speaks of 
Dover as " situated among cliffs, standing where the port itself was originally, as 
may be gathered from anchors and parts of vessels dug up there ; it is more famous 
for the convenience of its port, which indeed is now much decayed, and its pas- 
sage to France, than for either its elegance or populousness. This passage is the 
most used and the shortest, it is of thirty miles, which, with a favourable wind, 
may be run over in five or six hours' time, as we ourselves experienced ; some 

1 82 Notes. 

reckon it only eighteen to Calais, and to Boulogne sixteen English miles, which, 
as Ortelius says in his " Theatrum, , ' are longer than the Italian. Upon a hill, 
or rather rock, which on its right side is almost everywhere a precipice, a very 
extensive castle rises to a surprising height, in size like a little city, extremely 
well fortified and thick set with towers, and seems to threaten the sea beneath. 
Matthew Paris calls it the door and key of England. The ordinary people have 
taken it into their heads that it was built by Julius Caesar ; it is likely it might 
have been built by the Romans, from those British bricks in the chapel which 
they made use of in their foundations." Dr. Dibdin, the well-known biblio- 
grapher, issued prospectuses for a new History of Dover, but the work was never 
published. The drawings and engravings which were executed for it are now in 
the hands of Messrs. Boone of Bond-street. 

3. Page 5. The Baron of Winnenberg (called also ' Wimberg') was sent by 
the Elector Palatine to England, in the beginning of 161 8, to invite the Queen 
and Prince Charles to stand sponsors to the Princess Elizabeth's second son, 
who was named Charles, after his uncle. (Nichols' Prog, of James I. iii. 467.) 

4. Page 5. Duke Frederick of Wirtemberg travelled from Dover to Gravesend 
on horseback, in spite of the hardness of the saddles, unattended by an English 
escort. In the next reign a Master of the Ceremonies was appointed, whose 
duty it was to receive ambassadors and distinguished foreigners, and who was 
invested with authority to supply them with coaches, carts and horses, and to pro- 
vide barges, and all things necessary for the journey to and from London. The 
first person who held this office was Sir Lewis Lewkenor. He was an active and 
courteous man, and, what was very essential, a good linguist. He is several 
times mentioned in our narratives. His assistant was Sir John Finett, who suc- 
ceeded to the post, and who published a curious book on the difficult duties of a 
Master of the Ceremonies. (" Philoxenis," 1656.) And, indeed, at times we 
may well suppose it to have been no easy task to find lodging and entertainment 
for such travellers, especially when the party was very numerous ; and " cozenage, 
mere cozenage," was likely to be the cry of many a "mine host" on the road. 
When the route was taken through Kent, the Lord Lieutenant assisted in doing 
the honours, generally bringing with him a large train, and indulging the more 
favoured visitors with a little hawking and hunting by the way. To the ladies 
of Kent, who would occasionally gaze on these gay cavalcades, Count Villame- 
diana, the Spanish Ambassador, coming in great pomp, in 1603, to congratulate 
James I. on his accession to the crown of England, and bearing with him the 
olive-branch of peace, pays a graceful, and doubtless a well-merited compliment, 
by remarking that, in that " province," more than any other part of England, 
nearly all of them were ' beautiful exceedingly.' — (" Damas, muy hermosas en 
estremo, porque casi todas lo son, generalmente en aquella provincia mas que en 
toda Inglaterra.") The Spaniards had an officer similar to our Master of the 
Ceremonies, who was termed " Aposentador," or harbinger. 

5. Page 5. Hentzner and his companions, in 1598, took post-horses for 

Notes. 183 

London [from Rye] — he says of them : " It is surprising how swiftly they run ; 
their bridles are very light, and their saddles little more than a span over." 

6. Page 6. A coloured plan of Canterbury, drawn by William Smith, Rouge 
Dragon Pursuivant, 1588, is in the Sloane MS. 2596. An engraved one of 
about the date 1575 occurs in Braun's " Civitates Orbis Terrarum." Dean 
Stanley, in 1855, published "Memorials of Canterbury," which is a model of 
historical topography. 

7. Page 6. At Gravesend, we are told, " there is every tyde a comon pas- 
sage by water to London, which is 20 myles, the which a man may pass for y e 
valew of two pence in y e comon barge, and in a tiltbote for vi, d." (Desc. of 
England, MS., by W. Smith, 1588). In May, 1592, the Gravesend tilt-boat, 
having forty passengers on board, was unfortunately run down by " an hoy" off 
Greenwich, the Court being there at the time. Most of the passengers were 
drowned, " at sight whereof (says Stowe) the Queene was much frighted." 
Hentzner, in 1598, speaks of Gravesend as "a small town, famous for the 
convenience of its port ; the largest Dutch ships usually call here. As we were 
to proceed farther from hence by water, we took our last leave here of the noble 
Bohemian, David Strziela, and his tutor, Tobias Salander, our constant fellow- 
travellers through France and England, they designing to return home through 
Holland, we on a second tour into France; but it pleased Heaven to put a stop 
to their design, for the worthy Strziela was seized with diarrhoea a few days 
before our departure, and, as we afterwards learned by letter from Salander, died 
in a few days of a violent fever in London." Respecting the character of the inns 
at Gravesend in early days, see Note 134. A good "History of Gravesend" 
was published in 1843 by Mr. R. P. Cruden. 

8. Page 6. The great number of swans on the Thames appears to have 
struck foreigners with wonder. The Italian captain, Francesco Ferretti, admired 
our " broad river of Thames, most charming, and quite full of swans white as 
the very snow." (Diporti notturni, 1579, p. 1 34.) Hentzner likewise, in 1598, 
states that the river " abounds in swans, swimming in flocks ; the sight of them 
and their noise is vastly agreeable to the fleets that meet them in their course." 

9. Page 6. The English names mentioned in the several narratives contained 
in our volume have, as usual, been sadly disfigured and maltreated by the foreigners. 
Greenwich, here obscured as Grouenwick, the author has attempted to improve 
in his 'errata' by a form equally good looking — Grunewickb y Sittingbourne is 
represented by Cetbunbarnne ; Rochester, by Rotbecestre, afterwards " corrected" 
to Rocbcestre ; Windsor, by Winsort ; Cambridge, by Cbambryssy, Cantobergy 
and Candelburg; Ware, Voaire; Theobalds, Tbieboldtz ; Uxbridge, Ocbsen- 
britscb y and so on, "for better, for worse." Hentzner's Grezin and Lyconsin — 
words certainly of aspect strange, yet simply denoting our two Inns of Court, 
Gray's Inn and Lincoln's Inn — were transformed into two Danish kings by 
Hentzner's Reading editor. The names in Bassompiere must often have sorely 
puzzled his translator; verily, the French Ambassador did the mangling most 

184 Notes, 

effectually. Some of the best riddles herein are Jorscbaux, by which we are to 
understand York House ; Stintinton, Kensington ; Vialenforaux, Wallingford 
House. Gough has furnished an amusing list of similar travesties culled from 
French, German, and Italian travels in England: to wit, Arondelots, Greuncbc, 
Longeuker, I Pare, Kueinstriten, Liken sen-jils, Gresin, Morfl, Elbor, Smit fils, 
Ogierlen, Milord Do/is, Huuiet, Serosbari — which turned into vernacular are, 
Arundel House, Greenwich, Longacre, Hyde Park, Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, Gray's Inn, Moorfields, Holborn, Smithfield, Hosier Lane, Lord Hollis, 
Wyatt, Shrewsbury. To gain an idea of the Spaniard's apprehension of the 
names owned by the nobility and gentry of the Court of James I, the reader is 
referred to the narrative numbered IX. in our collection. 

10. Page 6. In old English books the term " Dutch " is the usual translation 
of " Deutsch," which comprises both the people of Germany and of the Nether- 
lands. When, in course of time, it was desired to distinguish these by separate 
names, the terms High and Low Dutch were used. The quotations in Moryson's 
Itinerary (1617), and in Coryat's Crudities (161 1), called Dutch, are in reality 
German. Speaking of the Netherlands, the former says: "It is called Nether- 
lands as a country lying low, and the people for language and manners hath great 
affinitie with the Germans, both being called Dutchmen by a common name." 
(Pt. 3. p. 91.) So, in Sir James Melville's "Memoirs," under date of 1562, 
he calls Germany *.' Dutcheland," and the language " Dutche." At p. 123, 
under the year 1564, he says of Queen Elizabeth, "Sche spak to me in Dutcbe 
[meaning German], bot it was not gud." He uses indiscriminately, at pp. 17 
and 19, for the country Allemaigne, Dutcheland, and Germany. This has given 
rise to numerous mistakes. " Dutch clocks," for instance, are in fact German 
clocks. But it is remarkable that Shakespeare uses this term in its correct sense; 
e.g. in " Love's Labour's Lost," iii. 1 : — 

" A woman that is like a German clock, 
Still a repairing, ever out of frame, 
And never going aright," &c. 

This ill opinion entertained of the old German clocks is confirmed in the follow- 
ing line from " Essayes and Characters of a Prison and Prisoners. By G. M." 

" They are like the German clocks, which seldome goe right." 

The same confusion between German and Dutch seems also to exist in America. 
"I find (writes a recent tourist) that when people mean to speak of a native of 
Holland, they call him an Amsterdam Dutchman ; but when they speak of one 
of German race generally, they leave out the Amster." (Blackwood's Edin. 
Mag., 1864, p. 655.) 

11. Page 7. Jean de la Fin, Seigneur de Beauvoir-La Node de Buhy, was 
the resident French Ambassador in London from 1589 to 1593. He was in 
1562 Governor of New Haven (Le Havre). On the occasion of Queen Eliza- 

Notes. 185 

beth's visit to Oxford in September, 1592, the honorary degree of M.A. was 
conferred upon him. In Nichols's " Progresses " of the Queen he is incorrectly 
called Beauvoys la Noude. A few of his letters are printed in Rymer. (See 
also Note 57.) 

12. Page 7. John Norden, the Surveyor, in his MS. "Description of Mid- 
dlesex," 1592 (Harl. 570), printed the following year with considerable varia- 
tion, has a long encomium on the Thames, which he has likewise introduced in 
his MS. " Description of Essex" (1594), with alterations and additions. In the 
latter he says : " It is reckoned that above 40,000 people are nourished by the 
Thamise, as bargemen, ferryemen, fishermen, and such as they mayntayne, whiche 
may seeme incredible yet true." This beautiful MS. of Essex, which is in the 
Grenville Collection, is altogether a different work from that edited for the Cam- 
den Society by Sir H. Ellis. A poet, singing the praises of the river in 1606, 
speaks of 

" The bubbling beauty of fayre Thames — 
The silver christall streame." 

Assum, likewise, in his poem " Panegyrici tres Anglo wirttembergici," 1604, 
writes : 

" Quam magni videat Tamisis purissima stagna — 
Fluinen oloriferum," &c. 

William Smith, in 1588, thus writes of the cities of London and Westmin- 
ster: "This.roiall & famous Citty standeth on y e north side of the River of 
Thamise, which River is there a thousand foote brode ; over which there is a 
goodly Bridge of stone, which hath 20 arches, y* are 60 foote in height, 30 in 
thickness [breadth], & distant one from another 20 foote. On both sydes of 
the Bridge, are howses builded, in such sort that it seemeth rather a continuall 
street than a Bridge. London is 3 myles long (accompting Westminster withall), 
and is two myles brode, reckoning Southwark and its bridge. It is devyded into 
26 wardes, and hath 108 parish churches w th in the walles & xi w th out y e walles, 
but yet w th in the liberties, which is in all 1 19. 

" Westminster lyeth at y e West end of London, lyke the suburbes, and was of 
late by Quene Elizabeth made a Cittie. In the great Church of St. Peter are 
the sepultures of dyvers kings & noblemen, and hard by is Westminster Hall." 

The above description is from a MS. (Sloane, 2596) executed for Queen 
Elizabeth, in 1588, entitled, "The particuler Description of England; with 
portratures of the cheiffest Citties and Townes." By William Smith, Rouge 
Dragon Pursuivant. The view of London in this volume is coloured, and 
measures ift. 6i in. by 8 in. We have not met with any reference to this map. 
The Elizabethan Map # of Ralph Aggas is well known. There are also two highly 
interesting and well-executed maps of London and Westminster, by Norden, in 
his "Description of Middlesex," printed in 1593. Another is in Braun's 
" Civitates Orbis Terrarum," about 1575. 

B B 

186 Notes. 

13. Page 7. The bold London 'Prentices and their like were sad fellows in 
these early days, and it is even questionable whether, as a class, they had much 
improved in manners before the period of the awful apparition of the policeman 
in the streets of the metropolis. We meet with frequent complaints of the disres- 
pect shown to foreigners on the part of the English populace. Thus, as early as 
1497, the Venetian Ambassador, Andrea Trevisano, reports of the English that 
" they have an antipathy to foreigners, and imagine that they never come into their 
island but to make themselves masters of it, and to usurp their goods." Paolo 
Giovio (Jovius), in his " Descriptio Britanniae," 1548, says: "The English are 
commonly destitute of good breeding, and are despisers of Foreigners, since they 
esteem him a wretched being and but half a man (semibominem) who may be born 
elsewhere than in Britain, and far more miserable him whose fate it should be to 
leave his breath and his bones in a foreign land." Micheli, the Venetian Ambas- 
sador, alluding to the Spanish monarch, Philip, the husband of our Queen Mary, 
in 1557, adds: "With all this, he cannot live with dignity in this country, on 
account of the insolence with which foreigners are treated by the English." The 
opinion of Maistre Perlin, 1558, is to the effect that " the people of this nation 
have a mortal hatred of the French (bay eat a mort les Franqoys) as their ancient 
enemies, and commonly call us France chenesve, France dogue ; also or son. . . . 
They are proud and seditious, with bad consciences, and faithless to their word. 
These villains (ces vilains) hate all sorts of foreigners ; and although they have a 
good country, they are all constantly wicked and moved- by every wind, for at 
one moment they will adore a prince — turn your hand, they would kill or crucify 
him. It displeases me that these villains in their own country spit in our faces, 
although when they are in France, we treat them like little divinities, in which 
the French demonstrate themselves to be of a noble and generous spirit." Hentz- 
ner, in 1598, observes : " If they [the English] see a foreigner very well made, 
or particularly handsome, they will say, ' It is a pity he is not an Englishman.'" 
In the reign of James I. the learned Isaac Casaubon complains, in one of his Latin 
letters, that he was more insulted at London than he had ever been at Paris in 
the midst of the Papists ; that stones were thrown at his windows night and day; 
that he received a great wound as he went to Court ; that his children were 
affronted in the streets, and himself and family pelted with stones. The wily 
Spaniard, Count Gondomar, seems to have experienced similar treatment from 
the London buys, as Howell tells us he used to call them. The Count evidently 
was a good hater of the profanum vulgus of the England of his very familiar 
royal friend, to whom he one day remarked that the flour (meaning the gentry) 
was very choice and fine, but the bran (the common people) was very coarse — 
" La harina de Inglatierra es muy delgada y fina, pero el afrecho es muy grossero." 

It is strange that this Don, so frequently spoken of in the memoirs of the 
period, should have been altogether overlooked in the biographical dictionaries — 
even in the recent very extensive and excellent one published by MM. Didot. 
There is a good notice of him in Lopez de Haro's " Nobiliario de Espana," 

Notes. 187 

1622, but beyond that date we know but very little of him. Howell, the 
famous letter-writer, in Feb. 1625, mentions his then recent death at Bunnol, he 
being on his way to Flanders, and thence to England, to treat for a surrender of 
the Palatinate — "of pure apprehensions of grief, as it is giv r en out." (Epist. Ho- 
Eliana, 1650, p. m.) Gondomar could tell a merry tale, could read Will 
Shakespeare's plays, of which he possessed a ' first folio,' and did not disdain the 
English wines ; indeed, Howell had heard that the Don was once too hard for 
the King of Denmark when he was here in England. There is a fine whole- 
length portrait of him by Mytens at Hampton Court. 

Mons. Sorbiere, in 1663, complains of the English for their ill manners, and 
particularly alludes to the rudeness of the boys. The Dover urchins gave the 
first affront by calling after the Frenchman, a Mounser — a Mounter ; they then, 
becoming savage, followed it up with the opprobrious epithet of French dogs — 
French dogs! 

14. Page 7. In 26 Eliz. (1584), among the orders of the Commissioners for 
the execution of the Statutes made for keeping horses and geldings for service, and 
for horses and mares for " encrease and breede " in the County of Surrey, is one 
of curious import : — "If any person should be thought of ability to be charged by 
reason of lands or goods, or by their wives' apparell, they were to be so charged." 
Shakespeare [Taming of the Shrew, act iv. sc. 3) speaks of 

" Silken coats, and caps and golden rings, 

With ruffs and cuffs, and farthingales, and things ; 
With scarfs and fans, and double change of bravery, 
With amber bracelets, beads, and all this knavery." 

The Puritan writer, Stubbes, lashed the fashions, particularly of the ladies, in the 
Elizabethan age. Mr. "Punch" undertakes the arduous duty at the present 
day. Mr. Fairholt has almost exhausted this subject in his excellent book on 

15. Page 8. The women of England have fortunately escaped the censure so 
freely bestowed upon the inhabitants of perfide Albion by Maistre Etienne Perlin, 
a French student at the University of Paris, who published, in 1558, a little 
volume entitled, " Description des royaulmes d'Angleterre et d'Escosse." In this 
book we are presented with some curious pictures of the manners and customs of 
the English, highly charged as usual with exaggeration and prejudice. He pro- 
nounces our women, of any estimation, "the greatest beauties in the world, and 
as fair as alabaster, without offence be it spoken to those of Italy, Flanders and 
Germany. They are also cheerful, courteous, and of a good address." The 
Italian captain, Francesco Ferretti, paid us a visit when this " island-kingdom of 
England " was under the religious sway of the " good Cardinal Pole," so that 
London, he writes in his "Diporti notturni," 1579, p. 134, became " a second 
Rome, to the astonishment and infinite joy of the world — but now [/. e. in the 
days of good Queen Bess] it is perfidiously heretical to the very back-bone," 

1 88 Notes. 

(hora e perjidamente heretico in tut to iff per tutto.) Yet the gallant captain, 
however much he disliked our religion, admired our ladies ; " their women (says 
he) are of marvellous beauty, and wonderfully clever" {donne di ?naravigliosa bel- 
/ezza, & mirabilmente ingegnose). See also " Pictures of the English" by 
Van Meteren, the Dutch Consul in London (No. III.), and by Kiechel (No. VI.) 
16. Page 8. Henry Holland published, in 1614, " Monumenta sepulchraria 
Sancti Pauli. The Monuments, Inscriptions and Epitaphs, &c. in the Cathedrall 
Church of St. Paul." The work was republished in 1633, with a continuation 
to that year. Valentin Arithmaeus, a German who had visited England, published, 
in 161 8, a little book on the same subject, including the inscriptions in West- 
minster Abbey. (See some notes translated from this work, No. XVII.) 

Hentzner, in 1598, mentions a very fine organ in St. Paul's, " which at even- 
ing prayer, accompanied with other instruments, is delightful." 

One Henry Farley was a most energetic advocate in the cause of repairs to 
the church, of which it greatly stood in need during the reign of James I, nothing 
having been done to it since the steeple was struck by lightning in 1561. Dugdale 
says that Farley "ceased not by sundry petitions to importune King James therein." 
In one of his poetical petitions the author's enthusiasm is expressed in these lines : — 
" My love to Paules is such 

That if I had an angel's pen, Ide write ten times as much." 
It would seem, however, that Master Farley carried his importunities a step too 
far, for he at length " got into Ludgate Prison by his schemes about it." Three 
of his poetical effusions on the subject are in the British Museum : one entitled 
" St. Paules-Church, her bill for the Parliament," 162 1, 4-to. contains a view of 
the cathedral and cross, which we have copied. There is a curious folding 
picture on panel in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries, which was painted 
by John Gipkyn, at the expense of Farley, in 16 16. It represents an ideal pro- 
cession of King James and his Court to St. Paul's, and the preaching at the Cross. 
This picture was executed in anticipation of a royal visit, which, however, did 
not actually take place until 1620, when James attended in great state on Sunday, 
March 26th. The view of the cathedral, with the curious old houses near it, is 
valuable and interesting. 

In the following lines, from the above-quoted work, Farley satirizes the pre- 
vailing taste of the age : — 

" To see a strange out-landish Fowle, 

A quaint Baboon, an Ape, an Owle, 

A dancing Beare, a Gyants bone, 

A foolish Ingin move alone, 

A Morris-dance, a Puppit play, 

Mad Tom to sing a Roundelay, 

A woman dancing on a Rope, 

Bull-baiting also at the Hope ; 

A Rimers Jests, a Juglers cheats, 

A Tumbler shewing cunning feats, 

Notes. 189 

Or Players acting on the Stage, 

There goes the bounty of our Age; 
But unto any pious motion, 
There's little coine, and lesse devotion." 

In his "Complaint of Paules," 16 16, the writer, alluding to certain recent 
City improvements, introduces us to Smithfield, of savoury celebrity: — 

" From thence to Smithfield, if thou chance to hit, 
Tell me what costs they have bestow'd on it; 
It was before a filthy noisome place, 
And to the Citie verie much disgrace, 
Yet now some say it may with best compare, 
Of market places that in England are." 

17. Page 8. The Royal Exchange was at first called the " Burse," but named 
by Queen Elizabeth the f Royal Exchange,' when she visited the founder, Sir 
Thomas Gresham, and inspected the new building, on the 23rd of January, 
1 5 70- 1. Mr. J. W. Burgon published, in 1839, in two volumes 8vo, an elaborate 
and excellent work on the " Life and Times of Sir Thomas Gresham." 

18. Page 8. The inhabitants had at this time no other means of procuring 
water than by fetching it from the conduits, or paying men who made it their 
business to bring it from thence in vessels called tankards, which held about three 
gallons. One of these tankards is represented in Hoefnagel's curious View of 
Nonesuch, dated 1582. The water-carriers then constituted a large class, and 
seem to have formed a rather unruly part of the population. They were com- 
monly called " Cobs." Ben Jonson introduces a character of this description in 
" Every Man in his Humour." There was an old custom for the Lord Mayor, 
Aldermen, and principal citizens to proceed on horseback annually, on the 1 8th 
of September, to inspect the conduits. One of these ridings in 1562 is amusingly 
described in Machyn's Diary. Before dinner the jovial party hunted the hare, 
they then dined and had good cheer at the conduit-head ; after this refreshment 
they went merrily to ' hontyng' of the fox; the ' hondes ' after a run of a mile 
killed him at the end of St. Giles s, and there was a great cry at the death, and 
' blohyng ' of horns. 

19. Page 9. At this time (1592) an association of Englishmen, known by 
the name of* Merchant Adventurers,' had established themselves at Stade, one of 
the Hanse towns, not far from Hamburg, having a few years before obtained 
certain privileges for the purposes of trade. They continued their residence here 
ten years, in spite of much injurious opposition on the part of the foreign mer- 
chants of Hamburg and other Hanseatic towns, which was fostered by Spanish 
influence. Fynes Moryson being at * Stode' in Oct. 1592, says : " It is strange 
how the people raile on English-men in these parts." Probably the mission of 
this so-called " Ambassador " at this time was to accommodate some matters of 
difference between the English and foreign merchants. At length, however, the 
obnoxious English merchants were banished from Stade by a mandate of the 



Emperor Rudolph II. in 1597. Queen Elizabeth retaliated by ordering the 
Lord Mayor to expel their German rivals, the so-called c Easterlings ' (whence 
the word sterling applied to English money), who were resident in the Steelyard 
in Lower Thames-street, and who had enjoyed special commercial privileges 
and immunities in England for more than 300 years. (Wheeler, Treatise 
of Commerce, 1601, pp. 49, 81.) But, indeed, it was no easy matter to get rid 
of them, for the Germans clung to the old spot during a great part of the succeed- 
ing century. We have understood that the last traces of the old buildings of the 
Hanse merchants of the Steelyard were only removed during 1863. The bene- 
ficial influence of the Hanseatic league on English commerce has been ably treated 
by a French author, M. Worms (Histoire commercial de la Ligue Hanseatique, 
Paris, 1864) ; and the History of the Steelyard in London has been written in 
German by Dr. Lappenberg, the learned historian. (Gescbicbte des Hansischen 
Stahlhofes zu London , 4to. Hamburg, 185 I.) 

20. Page 9. Fynes Moryson (Itinerary , fol. Lond. 1617 ; part 3, bk. 3, p. 152) 
has a curious and amusing passage respecting English beer, ale, and wine, and 
the drinking customs of our ancestors : " Clownes and vulgar men onely use 
large drinking of Beere or Ale, how much soever it is esteemed excellent drinke 
even among strangers ; but Gentlemen garrawse onely in Wine, with which 
many mixe sugar — which I never observed in any other place or kingdome to be 
used for that purpose. And because the taste of the English is thus delighted 
with sweetnesse, the wines in tavernes (for I speake not of Merchants or Gentle- 
mens cellars) are commonly mixed at the filling thereof, to make them pleasant. 
And the same delight in sweetnesse hath made the use of Corands [currants] of 
Corinth so frequent in all places, and with all persons in England, as the very 
Greekes that sell them wonder what we doe with such great quantities thereof, 
and know not how we should spend them, except we use them for dying, or to 
feede Hogges." (See also Hentzner's remarks, ante, pp. 104, 109, 110.) 

This fondness of our countrymen and countrywomen for sweets astonished the 
Spaniards who came with the embassy of the Count Villamediana in 1603. At 
Canterbury the English ladies are described as peeping through the latticed win- 
dows (ventanas rejas) at the hidalgos, who presented the 'curious impertinent' 
fair ones with the bonbons, comfits, and sweetmeats that were upon the table, 
" which they enjoyed mightily ; for (it is remarked) they eat nothing but what is 
sweetened with sugar, drinking it commonly with their wine and mixing it with 
their meat." (" Y no comen cosa que no sea con su acucar, y en el vino lo 
beven muy de ordinario, y lo echan en la carne. ,, ) 

Falstaff's favourite potation of sack was taken with sugar ; his friend Pointz 
addresses him as " Sir John Sack-and-Sugar." 

Master Estienne Perlin (Description d"* Angleterre, 1558) indulges in a few 
pungent remarks upon the drinking habits and propensities of our forefathers. 
" The English (saith this French inquisitor) are great drunkards ( f fort grands 
yvrongnes ') ; for if an Englishman would treat you, he will say in his language, 

Notes. 191 

vis dri/ig a quarta rim oim gasquim oim hespaignol oim malvoysi y that is, will you 
drink a quart of Gascoigne wine, another of Spanish, and another of Malmsy ? 
In drinking or eating they will say to you above a hundred times, drind iou, which 
is, I drink to you ; and you should answer them in their language, iplaigiou, which 
means, I pledge you. If you would thank them in their language, you must say, 
god tanque artelay. When they are drunk, they will swear by blood and death 
that you shall drink all that is in your cup, and will say to you thus : bigod sol 
drind iou agoud oin. Now, remember, if you please, that in this country they 
commonly make use of silver vessels when they drink wine, and they will say to 
you at table, goud chere. The servants wait on their masters bare-headed, and 
leave their caps on the buffet. It is to be noted that in this excellent kingdom, 
there is, as I have said, no kind of order ; the people are reprobates and thorough 
enemies to good manners and letters, for they dont know whether they belong to 
God or the Devil, which St. Paul has reprehended in many people, saying, be not 
transported with divers sorts of winds, but be constant and steady to your belief. 
As to their manner of living, they are rather unpolite, for they belch at table 
without reserve or shame, even in the presence of persons of the greatest dignity. 
They consume great quantities of beer double and single {i.e. strong and small], 
and do not drink it out of glasses, but from earthen pots with silver handles and 
covers, and this even in houses of persons of middling fortune ; for as to the poor, 
the covers of their pots are merely of pewter, and in some places, such as villages, 
their beer pots are made only of wood. With their beer they have a custom of 
eating very soft saffron cakes, in which there are likewise raisins, which give an 
excellent relish to the beer (cela vous faict trouver la biere double bonne), some 
of which I formerly drank at Rye, as good as ever I drank in any country in the 

In the German account of the Bohemian Baron Leo von RozmitaPs embassy 
to England in 1466, we are told that the common people drink what is called 
■ Al'selpir* (Ale or Beer?) — "Das gemein volk trinkt ein trank, das heisst AT 

James Howell, in 1634, addressed to a friend some interesting remarks on 
wines and other drinks, which he wittily calls "a dry discourse upon a fluent 
subject." Henry Peacham, in his " Compleat Gentleman," )622, p. 194, makes 
the following curious statement : " Within these fiftie or threescore yeares it was 
a rare thing with us in England to see a drunken man, our nation carrying the 
name of the most sober and temperate of any other in the world. But since we 
had to doe in the quarrell of the Netherlands, about the time of Sir John Norrice 
his first being there, the custome of drinking and pledging healthes was brought 
over into England : wherein let the Dutch bee their owne judges, if we equall 
them not ; yea I thinke rather excell them." 

21. Page 9. Hentzner, in 1598, described old London Bridge as "a Bridge 
of stone, 800 feet in length, of wonderful work ; it is supported upon 20 piers 
of square stone, 60 feet high and 30 broad, joined by arches of about 20 feet 

192 Notes. 

diameter. The whole is covered on each side with houses, so disposed as to have 
the appearance of a continued street, not at all of a bridge." (See also Note 12.) 
Correr, the Venetian Ambassador, in 1610, states that the bridge was so narrow 
that it was very difficult for two coaches meeting to pass each other without danger. 

22. Page 9. The heads of criminals on the Bridge are seen figured in the old 
maps of London. Master Estienne Perlin, when speaking of the frequency of 
executions (1558), is of opinion that " in this country you will scarcely find any 
nobleman, some of whose relations have not been beheaded. For my part (he 
continues) with reverence to my readers, I had rather be a hog driver and keep my 
head on {certes faymerois mieulx estre porcber & garder bien ma teste) ; for this 
disorder falls furiously on the heads of great lords. For a while, you may see these 
great lords in vast pomp and magnificence; in a trice you behold them under the 
hands of the executioner." Hentzner, in 1598, says he counted above thirty 
heads on London Bridge. He adds : " Above three hundred are said to be hanged 
annually in London : beheading with them is less infamous than hanging ! " 

Kiechel, one of our German travellers (see p. 89), has some strange remarks 
upon the custom of hanging observed in England. 

23. Page 9. The first stone of Henry Vll's chapel was laid in 1503. Nor- 
den's description will be found under No. VII., p. 97. 

24. Page 10. In Neale's " Westminster Abbey" this word ('Jan.') is printed 
'jam,' which must be a mistake. In Camden's " Reges," &c. 1600, the inscrip- 
tion reads : — 

" Omnibus insignis virtutum laudibus heros, 
Sanctus Edwardus Confessor, Rex venerandus, 
Quinto die Iani moriens super aethera scandit. 
Sursum corda. 
Moritur, Anno Dom. 1065." 
The famous antiquary, Wiiliam Camden, published a list of the monumental 
inscriptions, &c. in Westminster Abbey, in 1600, in 4to. (republished in J 603, 
1606). It is entitled, "Reges, Reginae, Nobiles et alii in ecclesia collegiata 
B. Petri Westmonasterij sepulti," &c. In the British Museum is the author's pre- 
sentation copy of the first edition to Queen Elizabeth, on the margins of which 
are the shields of arms of the persons mentioned in the work splendidly illumi- 
nated and emblazoned in their proper colours. See ante, pp. 132, 178. 

Nathan Chytraeus, professor of the Latin language at Rostock, visited England 
in 1566, and collected, in the course of his travels in this country, France, and 
Italy, many inscriptions, chiefly monumental, which he published at Herborn, 
1594, 8°. (also 1599 ; 1606), under the title of " Variorum in Europa itinerum 
deliciae," &c. At pp. 76 et seq. will be found a few inscriptions in Westminster 
Abbey and St. Paul's, followed by a curious description of the geographical dis- 
coveries of Sebastian Cabot, copied by Chytraeus while at Oxford. Valentin 
Arithmaeus, another German professor, took up the same subjeet of monumental 
inscriptions in 1617. Some remarks by him respecting Westminster Abbey are 

Notes. 193 

translated in No. XVII. Tom Coryat says he was branded as a * tomb-stone 
traveller' for having copied and inserted in his book {Crudities, 161 1) so many 
epitaphs and inscriptions. 

25. Page 10. Shakespeare, in Hen. VI. act i. sc. 2, alludes to the Corona- 
tion Chair in Edward the Confessor's Chapel: — 

" In the Cathedral Church of Westminster, 
And in that chair where Kings and Queens were crown'd." 

26. Page 10. " Wolffsklingen " — a kind of curved and somewhat round 
blade, such as are manufactured at Solingen, bearing the figure of a wolf, which 
is said to be derived from the name of the maker (Wolff). — See Campe's Worier- 
buch. According to Sir S. Meyrick {Ancient Armour, Introd. xx.) Passau on 
the Danube was celebrated as early as the thirteenth century for its sword- 
cutlery, called " Wolfs-klingen" — wolf-blades. The old sword now in Edward 
the Confessor's Chapel presents no appearance of inscription or figure on the 
blade or handle ; the latter, however, seems to be comparatively modern. The 
sword is 7ft. 3 in. in length, and weighs i81bs. 

27. Page 11. A portion of the famous old abbey of Reading, — the third in 
size and wealth of all English abbeys, and whose last abbot was hanged by order 
of Henry VIII. for denying the Royal Supremacy — was after the dissolution con- 
verted into a palace, but it was never much frequented by our monarchs. In 
Queen Elizabeth's reign it was called "the Queen's House;" and here her 
Majesty occasionally resided. The town was also indebted to her for many 
donations, and she was a great encourager of the woollen manufactory there. 
Camden calls the palace " a royal seat, with fair stables stored with noble horses." 
The following items of expenditure having reference to this visit of the Queen in 
1592, recorded by the Duke of Wirtemberg's Secretary, were extracted by Mr. 
Coates from the Churchwardens' Accounts of St. Lawrence's Church : — 

" Paid for ringing at her ma'ties coming . . . xxii^. 

Paid for making cleane of the strete at her ma'ties coming, 

and for carriage ..... xxd. 

Paid for the suite for the reparation of the chaunsell . xxj." 

In this church, a seat, called " the state," was appropriated to the Queen's use 
in the chancel, and when royalty was present, this seat was hung with tapestry, 
persons were appointed to watch it, a cloth was hung before the pulpit, and the 
aisles were strewn with rushes and flowers. — (Coates' History of Reading, 4-to. 
1802, p. 227. Man's History of Reading, \io. 1816, pp. 284, 318.) 

Much of the stone-work of the abbey was used in Elizabeth's time for paving 
the streets of the town (Lemon's State Papers, June 10, 1577); likewise for the 
churches of St. Mary and St. Lawrence, and for building the hospital of the Poor 
Knights at Windsor. The work of demolition, however, went on more rapidly 
in the troubles that arose in the reign of Charles I. One Richard Symons, a 

C C 

194 Notes. 

royalist and antiquary, visited Reading in 1644, and with note-book in hand (now 
Harl. MS. 965), jotted down a few memoranda respecting the then state of the 
abbey. In that year, he says, " much of y e abbey is still standing — the old 
gatehowse and y e roomes on y e east side." He has also sketched the arms of 
Queen Elizabeth, and of Seymour with its quarterings, which he found in the 
" windowes of a large upper roome, now used as a dyning roome. In this roome 
hang divers old pictures of y e family of Knolls ; Sir Francis Knolls did live here." 
In the Parliamentary Survey taken in 1650, the " Abbey House" was then in the 
occupation of Mr. Richard Knollys. A fine Norman gateway has been fortu- 
nately preserved, in spite of numerous threatenings of destruction : the work of 
restoration has, we understand, been well performed by Mr. Gilbert Scott. There 
is a series of "Views of Reading Abbey, with those of the Churches originally 
connected with it, in the County of Berks." 2 vols. 4to. London and Reading, 

28. Page 1 2. Queen Elizabeth was said to be an excellent musician. Camden 
tells us that she could "play handsomely" on the lute. She was also a good 
performer on the Virginals, the prototype of the piano. (See also Note 118.) 

29. Page 13. The contemporary literature on the subject of the Spanish 
Armada — that " tirannical, prowd, and brainsick attempt," as Queen Elizabeth 
wrote to James VI. of Scotland — is very extensive and interesting. A con- 
siderable collection, probably the largest contained in any library, is in the British 
Museum, particularly in the Grenville library. A few of these curiosities may be 
pointed out. One is a handsomely printed broadside copy of verses on the defeat 
of the Armada, of the utmost rarity, containing a Latin Epigram by Theodore 
de Beze, entitled : " Ad Serenissimam Elizabetham Anglise Reginam Theodor. 
Beza." — Excusum Londini G. B. & R. N. 1588. The Epigram commences, 
" Straverat innumeris Hispanus navibus aequor." On the same leaf are translations 
in English, Dutch, Spanish, Hebrew, Greek, ] talian, and French ; concluding with 
six lines in French addressed " A l'autheur de l'Epigramme Th. de Beze aage 
presque de 70 ans." The whole is surrounded by an ornamental woodcut border. 
The English translation is so spirited and excellent that we quote it: — 

" The Spanish Fleete did flote in narow Seas, 
And bend her Ships against the English shore, 
With so great rage as nothing could appease, 
And with such strength as never seene before. 

And all to joine the kingdome of that land, 

Unto the kingdoms that he had in hand. 
Now if you aske what set this King on fire, 
To practise warre when he of peace did treate, 
It was his Pride, and never quencht desire, 
To spoile that Islands wealth, by Peace made great : 

His Pride which farre above the Heavens did swell, 

And his desire as unsufficed as hell. 

Notes. 1 95 

But well have winds his proud blasts overblowen, 
And swelling waves alaid his swelling heart, 
Well hath the Sea with greedie gulfs unknowen, 
Devourd the devourer to his smart: 

And made his Ships a praie unto the sand, 

That meant to praie upon anothers land. 
And now o Queene above all others blest, 
For whom both windes and waves are prest to fight, 
So rule your owne, so succour friends opprest, 
(As farre from pride, as ready to do right) 

That England you, you England long enjoy, 

No lesse your friends delight, than foes annoy." 

Under the title of " Expeditionis Hispanorum in Angliam vera Descriptio 
anno d. mdlxxxviii," was published a series of eleven charts in folio, representing 
the several actions while the " Invincible" Armada was on the British coasts. 
They were drawn by Robert Adams, and engraved and published by Augustine 
Ryther. These plates were intended to accompany the "Discourse concerninge 
the Spanishe fleete," written by Petruccio Ubaldino, citizen of Florence; Lond. 
1590, 4.'°. Of the charts there are three copies in the British Museum ; that' in 
the King's Library, formerly belonging to James West, President of the Royal 
Society, is bound with a Spanish tract on the equipment of the Armada, written 
by Pedro de Paz Salas, the margins of which contain manuscript notes in Lord 
Burghley's hand. His lordship has been at the pains of noting the fate of many 
of the Spanish galeons : against one he has written, " This shipp was taken by, 
S r Francis Drak ;" another, " Wrecked in October, in Devonshire, neare Plim- 
mouthe ;" another, "This man's ship was drowned, 17 Sept., in the He of 
Furemare, Scotland ; " another, " This was drowned afor Calliss." This 
identical volume, which is particularly referred to by Strype in his " Annals," 
vol. iii. Pt. 2, p. 18, was sold at West's sale in 1773, for the very moderate sum 
of £5. The two other copies above referred to form part of the old Royal 
collection, and belonged to Queen Elizabeth; one of them is bound with a mag- 
nificent coloured edition of Saxton's Maps (the earliest collection of English Maps 
ever published, and of which Lord Burghley's copy, with interesting additions 
and notes in his own handwriting, is in the manuscript department) ; the other 
with Waghenaer's "Mariners Mirrour," the maps in which are, also. coloured. 
The Museum also possesses three contemporary black-letter ballads by T. D. 
i. e. Thomas Deloney, a famous ballad-writer of the period. The first sings 
of " The Queene's visiting of the Campe at Tilburie, with her entertainment 
there;" the second, "Of the straunge and most cruell Wnippes which the 
Spanyards had prepared to whippe and torment English men and women ;" the 
third, of "The happie obtaining of the great Galleazzo, wherein Don Pedro de 
Valdez was the chiefe." 

30. Page 13. Harrison, in his " Description of England," prefixed to Holin- 

1 96 Notes, 

shed's " Chronicle, " edit. 1586-7, p. 197, says, "I might speake here of the 
great traines and troopes of serving men, which attend upon the nobilitie of 
England in their severall liveries, and with differences of cognisances on their 
sleeves, whereby it is knowen to whome they apperteine. I could also set downe 
what a goodlie sight it is to see them muster in the court, which being filled with 
them doth yeeld the contemplation of a noble varietie unto the beholder, much 
like to the shew of the pecocks taile in the full beautie, or of some medow 
garnished with infinit kinds and diversitie of pleasant floures." 

A verse of a Ballad in the Roxburghe collection, called " Times alteration/' is 
likewise illustrative of this custom : — 

" The nobles of our Land 

Were much delighted then, 
To have at their command 

A crue of lustie men, 
Which by their coats were knowne, 

Of tawnie, red, or blue, 
With Crests on their sleeves showne, 

When this old cap was new." 

Hentzner, in 1598, remarks : " The English are lovers of show, liking to be 
followed wherever they go by whole troops of servants, who wear their masters' 
arms in silver, fastened to the left arms, and are not undeservedly ridiculed for 
wearing tails hanging down their backs." 

An extremely rare black-letter quarto in the British Museum contains some 
interesting illustrations of manners in the Elizabethan age. It is entitled: "A 
Health to the Gentlemanly Profession of Servingmen," &c. Imprinted at London, 
by W. W., 1598. I. M., the initials of the author appended to the Epistle to 
the Reader, says (sig. H.), " But yet there remaynes one service, wherein they 
[/. e. the * Potentates and Gentlemen'] must imploy moe men then the tables 
attendance requireth, that is, yf their Mistres ryde abrode, she must have vi or viii 
Servingmen to attende her, she must have one to carrie her Cloake and Hood, 
least it raine, another her Fanne, if she use it not herselfe, another her Boxe with 
Ruffes and other necessaries, another behinde whom her Mayde or Gentlewoman 
must ryde, and some must be loose to open Gates, and supply other services that 
may be occasioned. Now to deminish and cut of this charge, aswell of Horse as 
Men, there is now a new invention, and that is, she must have a Coach, wherein 
she, with her Gentlewomen, Mayde, and Chyldren, and what necessaries as they 
or any of them are to use, may be caryed and conveyed with smaller charge, lesse 
cost, and more credite, as it is accompted : for one or two Men at the most, 
besides the Coach-man, are sufficient for a Gentlewoman or Lady of worthy 
parentage." Speaking of the practice of lessening the number of servants, he 
says, " The Gentleman (I know) will thus answere for himselfe, that he is neither 
able to do so much for his men, nor to maynteine his port and hospitalitie in so 

Notes. 1 97 

bountifull manner as his auncestors in former ages ; for his Father, or Graund- 
father payde but xxs. an Oxe, iii/. a Mutton, us. a Calfe, \\d. a Goose, iiii^. a 
Capon, \\d. a Henne, and \\d. a Pigge, and for all other householde provision the 
like rate. Now there is not any thing that belonges to housekeeping, but it is a 
triple charge over it was : and whereas one hundred poundes a yeere was a com- 
petent lyving to maynteine good hospitalitie, now three hundred pound a yeere 
will not defray the charge of such a house, rateably proportionyng all necessaries 
thereunto belonging, without exceeding his accustomed plentie. ... In tymes past, 
I could have bought Cloth for iij. the brode yarde, an Hatt for x\\d., a Shirt 
for xd.y a payre of Bootes for iij. — now I must pay three tymes dearer." Referring 
to the decay of hospitality, he says (sig. I 2 verso), " But this decay of Hospita- 
litie, hath bred a far greater mischiefe amongst Servingmen. For now every Gen- 
tleman almost hath gotten such a rabble of Retayners, as makes poore House- 
holde servantes so smally set by as they are. For, what cares a Gentleman now 
adayes, to knave and rasca/Ih'is Man at every Worde. And yf his Man (as flesh 
and blood many tymes cannot indure to be so inhumanely intreated) shal scorne 
these ungentlemanlike tearmes, and thinke much for so small a cause, as many 
times they are, to be so hardly used : then off goes the Lyverie-Coate, or Cloake, 
and packe out of my doores you arrant knave, I wyll have your betters to beare more 
then this at my handes. Thus is the poore Servingman turned out of his Lyverie, 
and out of doores, having but a bare quarters warning, but not that quarter that 
is allowed them by the Statute made for Servants, in quinto of her Maisties reigne, 
which is a quarter of a yeere, but scarce a quarter of an houre, to packe up such 
apparrell as he hath." 

31. Page 14. Mory son {Itin. 1617, Pt. 3, pp. 53, 149), explains this proverb: 
" England in generall is said to be the Hell of Horses, the Purgatory of Servants, 
and the Paradiceof Weomen. The Londiners pronounce woe to him, that buyes 
a horse in Smyth-field, that takes a servant in Pauls Church, that marries a wife 
out of Westminster. The horses are strong, and for jornies indefatigable; for 
the English, especially Northerne men, ride from day breake to the evening with- 
out drawing bit, neither sparing their horses nor themselves : whence is the Pro- 
verb — because they ride horses without measure, and use their servants impe- 
riously, and their women obsequiously." He adds : " Londiners, and all within 
the sound of Bow-Bell, are in reproach called Cocknies, and eaters of buttered 
tostes. The Kentish men of old were said to have tayles, because trafficking in the 
Low Countries, they never paid full payments of what they did owe, but still left 
some part unpaid." Van Meteren, the Dutch historian, has given (ante, p. 73), 
his reasons " why England is called the Paradise of Married Women." 

32. Page 14. Harrison says: "Our Princes and the Nobilitie have their 
cariage commonlie made by carts, wherby it commeth to passe that when the 
Queenes Majestie dooth remoove from anie one place to another, there are usuallie 
400 carewares, which amount to the summe of 2400 horses, appointed out of the 
countries [counties] adjoining, whereby hir cariage is conyeied safelie unto the 

i 9 8 


appointed place. Hereby also the ancient use of somers and sumpter horsses is in 
maner utterlie relinquished, which causeth the traines of our princes in their 
progresses to shew far lesse than those of the Kings of other nations." (Desc. of 
England, in Ho/insbed, 1586, p. 220.) A reform in this respect took place about 
1604, when the number of carts used in progresses was reduced from 600 to 220. 
(Nichols's Prog, of James I. Pref. xiii.) 

33. Page 15. There is a View of Windsor in Braun's " Civitates Orbis 
Terrarum," done by Georgius Hoefnagel, about 1575. Another interesting 
large wood-engraving occurs in Fox's "Acts and Monuments," 1576. The 
Harleian MS. (No. 3749, art. 14) contains an original Survey of Windsor by 
John Norden, which was made expressly for James I. in 1607. It is a folio 
volume, beautifully executed on vellum and coloured, and has the royal arms at 
the back of the title, finely illuminated. It is entitled "A description of the 
Honor of Windesor, &c. Taken and performed by the perambulation, view and 
delineation of John Norden in anno 1607." In 1850, Mr. J. G. Nichols con- 
tributed to the " Gentleman's Magazine " two valuable papers on Windsor Castle 
in the reign of Elizabeth. Messrs. Tighe and Davis published, in 1858, two 
handsome volumes of " Annals of Windsor," but in this work Hentzner's in- 
teresting description of the Windsor of the Elizabethan age is not given. Hentzner, 
who travelled in 1598, says: "Windsor, a royal castle, supposed to have been 
begun by King Arthur, its buildings much increased by Edward III. The 
situation is entirely worthy of being a royal residence — a more beautiful one is 
scarcely to be found ; for from the brow of a gentle rising it enjoys the prospect 
of an even and green country ; its front commands a valley extended every way, 
and chequered with arable lands and pasturage, clothed with groves, and watered 
by that gentlest of rivers, the Thames {placidissimo Thamesi) ; behind rise several 
hills, but neither steep nor very high, crowned with woods, and seeming designed 
by nature herself for the purpose of hunting. The Kings of England, invited by 
the deliciousness of the place, very often retire hither ; and here was born the 
Conqueror of France, the glorious King Edward III, who built the castle anew 
from the ground, and thoroughly fortified it with trenches and towers of square 
stone ; and having soon after subdued in battle John, King of France, and David, 
King of Scotland, he detained them both prisoners here at the same time. This 
Castle, besides being the royal Palace, and having some magnificent tombs of the 
Kings of England, is famous for the ceremonies pertaining to the Knights of the 
Garter ; this Order was instituted by Edward III, the same who triumphed so 
illustriously over John, King of France. The Knights of the Garter are strictly 
chosen for their military virtues and antiquity of family ; they are bound by 
solemn oaths and vow to mutual and perpetual friendship among themselves, and 
to the not avoiding any danger whatever, or even death itself, to support by their 
joint endeavours the honour of the Society. They are styled Companions of the 
Garter, from their wearing below the left knee a purple garter inscribed in letters 
of gold, with Horn soit qui mal y pense — this they wear upon the left leg, in 

Notes. 199 

memory of one which, happening to get untied, was let fall by a great Lady 
passionately beloved by Edward, while she was dancing, and was immediately 
snatched up by the King, who to do honour to the Lady, not out of any trifling 
gallantry, but with a most serious and honorable purpose, dedicated it to the legs 
of the most distinguished nobility. The ceremonies of this Society are celebrated 
every year at Windsor on St. George's Day, the tutelar Saint of the Order, the 
King presiding; and the custom is, that the Knights Companions should hang up 
their helmet and shield, with their arms emblazoned thereon, in some conspicuous 
part of the church. There are 3 principal and very large Courts in Windsor 
Castle, which give great pleasure to the beholders : the first is enclosed with most 
elegant buildings of white stone, flat-roofed and covered with lead ; here the 
Knights of the Garter [the poor Knights] are lodged : in the middle is a detached 
house, remarkable for its high tower, which the Governor of the Castle inhabits. 
In this is the public kitchen, well furnished with proper utensils, besides a spacious 
dining-room, where all the poor Knights eat at the same table ; for into this 
Society of the Garter, the King and Sovereign elects, at his own choice, certain 
persons who must be gentlemen of three descents and such as for their age and 
the straitness of their fortunes are fitter for saying their prayers than for the 
service of war : to each of them is assigned a pension of £18 per annum, and 
clothes : the chief institution of so magnificent a foundation is, that they should 
say their daily prayers to God for the King's safety and the happy administration 
of the kingdom, for which purpose they attend the service, meeting twice every 
day at chapel. The left side of this court is ornamented by a most magnificent 
chapel of 134 paces in length, and 16 in breadth : in this are 18 seats, fitted up 
in the time of Edward III. for an equal number of Knights. This venerable 
building is decorated with the noble monuments of Edward IV, Henry VI, and 
Henry VIII, and of his wife Queen Jane. It receives from royal liberality the 
annual income of £2,000, and that still much increased by the munificence of 
Edward III. [IV.] and Henry VII. The greatest Princes in Christendom 
have taken it for the highest honour to be admitted into the Order of the 
Garter ; and since its first institution about 20 Kings, besides those of England 
who are the Sovereigns of it, not to mention Dukes and persons of the greatest 
figure, have been of it. It consists of 26 companions. In the inner Choir of 
the Chapel are hung up 16 coats of arms, swords and banners, among which are 
those of Charles V. and Rodolphus II, Emperors ; of Philip of Spain ; Henry III. 
of France ; Frederick II. of Denmark, &c ; of Casimir, Count Palatine of the 
Rhine, and other Christian Princes who have been chosen into this Order. In 
the back Choir or additional Chapel are shown preparations made by Cardinal 
Wolsey, who was afterwards capitally punished [jzV/], for his own tomb, con- 
sisting of 8 large brazen columns placed round it, and nearer the tomb four 
others in the shape of candlesticks ; the tomb itself is of white and black marble, — 
all which are reserved, according to report, for the funeral of Queen Elizabeth, 
the expenses already made for that purpose are estimated at upwards of £60,000. 

200 Notes. 

In the same chapel is the surcoat of Edward III. [IV.], and the tomb of Edward 
Fynes, Earl of Lincoln, Baron Clinton and Say, Knight of the most noble Order 
of the Garter and formerly Lord High Admiral of England. — The 2nd Court of 
Windsor Castle stands upon higher ground and is enclosed with walls of great 
strength, and beautified with fine buildings and a tower. It was an ancient Castle, 
of which old annals speak in this manner: — King Edward, a.d. 1359, began a 
new building in the Castle of Windsor where he was born, for which reason he 
took care it should be decorated with larger and finer edifices than other places. 
In this part of the Castle were kept prisoners John, King of France, and David, 
King of Scots, over whom Edward triumphed at one and the same time : it was by 
their advice, struck with the advantage of its situation and out of the sums paid 
for their ransom, that by degrees this Castle stretched to such magnificence, as to 
appear no longer a fortress but a town of proper extent, and impregnable to any 
human force; and this particular part of the Castle was built at the sole expense 
of the King of Scotland, except one tower, which, from its having been erected by 
the Bishop of Winchester, Prelate of the Order, is called Winchester Tower 
[confounded with the Round Tower]. There are 100 steps to it, so ingeniously 
contrived that horses can easily ascend them ; it is I 50 paces in circuit, and within 
it are preserved all manner of arms necessary for the defence of the place. — The 
3rd Court is much the largest of any, it was built at the expense of the captive 
King of France ; as it stands higher, so it greatly excels the two former in 
splendour and elegance ; it is 148 paces in length by 97 in breadth. In the middle 
of it is a fountain of very clear water, brought under the ground at an excessive 
expense from the distance of four miles ; towards the East are magnificent apart- 
ments destined for the royal household ; towards the South is a tennis-court for 
the amusement of the Court ; on the North side are the royal apartments con- 
sisting of magnificent chambers, halls and stove- rooms, and a private chapel, the 
roof of which is embellished with golden roses and fleur-de-lis. On this side too 
is that very large banqueting room, 78 paces long and 30 wide, in which the 
Knights of the Garter annually celebrate the memory of their tutelar Saint, St. 
George, with a solemn and most pompous service. From hence runs a walk of 
incredible beauty, 386 paces in length and 7 in breadth, compassed all round 
with wooden rails, affording a platform from whence the nobility and persons of 
distinction can behold the hunting and hawking which take place in the wide 
area below ; for the fields and meadows clad with variety of plants and flowers, 
swell gradually into hills of perpetual verdure quite up to the Castle walls, and 
beyond stretch out in an extended plain, that strikes the beholders with delight. 
Besides what has been already mentioned, there are worthy of notice here two 
stove-rooms ceiled and wainscoted with looking-glass ; the bed-chamber in which 
Henry VI. was born; Queen Elizabeth's bed-chamber, where is a table of red 
marble with white streaks ; a gallery everywhere ornamented with emblems and 
figures impressed in plaster ; a chamber in which are the royal beds of Henry VII. 
and his queen, of Edward VI, of Henry VIII, and of Anne Boleyn, — all of them 

Notes. 201 

eleven feet square and furnished with hangings glittering with gold and silver ; 
Queen Elizabeth's bed, with curious coverings of embroidery, but not quite 
so long or large as the others; a piece of tapestry, in which is represented 
Clovis, King of France, with an angel presenting to him the fleur-de-lis to be 
borne in his arms ; for before that time the kings of France bore 3 toads in their 
shield, instead of which they afterwards placed 3 fleurs-de-lis on a blue field : this 
antique tapestry is said to have been taken from a King of France, while the Eng- 
lish were masters there. We were shown here among other things the horn of a 
unicorn of above 8-*- spans in length, valued at above £100,000; a cushion most 
curiously wrought by Queen Elizabeth's own hands ; the Bird of Paradise, three 
spans long, three fingers broad, having a blue bill of the length of half an inch, the 
upper part of its head yellow, the under part of prismatic colours (optici colons) ; 
a little lower from either side of its throat stick out some reddish feathers, as well 
as from its back and the rest of its body ; its wings of a yellow colour are twice 
as long as the bird itself; from its back grow out lengthways two fibres or nerves, 
bigger at their ends, but like a pretty strong thread, of a leaden colour, inclining 
to black, with which, as it has no feet, it is said to fasten itself to trees when it 
wants to rest." 

Mr. George Gray, of the British Museum, to whom the above description of 
a Bird of Paradise was submitted, thinks that what the German traveller saw was 
an ornithological fraud — a made-up gaudy specimen, and in truth a very rara avis. 
Fable has been busy with these beautiful creatures with which we are now so 
familiar — one story, long credited, being that they were legless. The high value 
set upon these birds, which were worn as plumes in the turbans of Oriental chiefs, 
awakened the cupidity and trickery of the Chinese, who manufactured from par- 
rots, parroquets, and other gay specimens of the feathered tribes, artificial Birds of 
Paradise ; and the natives, in former times, scarcely ever produced a skin from 
which they had not carefully removed the feet. 

34. Page 16. Perlin {Description d* Angleterre, 1558) remarks that the Eng- 
lish are great lovers of music, for there is no church, however small, but has musi- 
cal service performed in it. Hentzner, in 1598, observes: "The English excel 
in dancing and music, for they are active and lively, though of a thicker make 
than the French." He adds : " They are vastly fond of great noises that fill the 
ear, such as the firing of cannon, drums, and the ringing of bells ; so that in Lon- 
don it is common for a number of them, that have got a glass in their heads, to 
go into some belfry and ring the bells for hours together for the sake of exercise." 

35. Page 16. His Highness certainly had to endure much delay, trouble, and 
" hope deferred " ere he himself obtained the long-coveted honour of K.G., which 
he perseveringly asserted that the Queen had promised him during this visit. — 
See the Introduction. 

36. Page 17. This is perhaps the earliest recorded instance of the name-carv- 
ing propensity said to belong peculiarly to the English. In the " Guls Horn 
Booke," 1609, written by Dekker, the gallant is advised to fe pay tribute to 

D D 

202 Notes. 

the top of Powles steeple with a single penny (see ante p. 139); and before you 
come downe againe, I would desire you to draw your knife, and grave your 
name (or for want of a name, the marke which you clap on your sheepe) in great 
caracters upon the leades, and so you shall he sure to have your name lye in a 
coffin of lead, when your selfe shall be wrapt in a winding-sheete ; and indeed 
the top \i.e. the leads] of Powles contains more names than Stowe's Chronicle." 
Another curious practice prevailed. When Christian IV. King of Denmark paid 
us a visit in 1606, we are told that: "After dinner the King, being accom- 
panyed with the Lord Admirall, the Lord Chamberlayne and others, went by 
coach unto Pauls Church, and into the quyer and other chappels therein. And 
then the King and the Lord Chamberlayne with some others ascended the top 
of the steeple, and when he had survayed the Cittie, hee helde his foote still whilest 
Edward Soper keeper of the Steeple, with his knife cutte the length and breadth 
thereof in the lead ; and for a lasting remembrance thereof, the said Soper, within 
few dayes after, made the Kinges charecter in gilded copper, and fixed it in the 
middest of the print of the Kinges foote, which was no sooner done, but some 
rustie mindes of this yron age, thinking all gold that glistred, with violent instru- 
ments attempted to steale it." (Stow's Chronicle ; contin. by Howes, 161 5, p. 886.) 
So, also, when Sir Symonds D'Ewes, in 1627, was on his wedding tour, after 
showing his bride divers of the colleges at Cambridge, " wee went (says he) both 
upp to the topp of King's Colledge Chappell, on the south side whereof upon the 
leades my wives foote was sett, being one of the least in England, her age and 
stature considered, and her armes exsculped within the compasse of the foote in a 
small escocheon." (Hearne's Liber Niger Scaccarii, p. 644.) 

37. Page 17. Our ancestors held the horn of this animal (supposed to be the 
rhinoceros) in high estimation. It was considered to be an absolute antidote to 
the effects of poison, and was sold at extravagant prices. The Prince of Anhalt, 
who travelled in 1596, notes, in his poetical Itinerary, that there were "two long 
Unicorns' horns preserved at Windsor, one perfectly smooth, the other of a spiral 
form and nearly four ells long:" — 

" Zwey lang' Einhorner seind daselbsten auch verwahrt, 
Das eine war gar glat, und eins gewundner art, 
Fast an vier ellen lang" 

Hentzner, in 1598, says: "We were shown here, among other things, the 
horn of a Unicorn, of above eight spans and a half in length, valued at above 
£100,000!" An unicorn's horn at Somerset House, valued at £500, occurs in 
the Inventory of the plate, goods, &c. of King Charles I. There is a charming 
touch of satire in the following merry verse of Master Thomas Weelkes, Gentle- 
man of Her Majesties chapel in 1 606 (Ayres or Phantasticke Spirites), — 
" Ha, ha, ha, ha ! this world doth pass 

Most merrily I'll be sworn; 
For many an honest Indian Ass 

Goes for an Unicorn." 


2 °3 

And in the List of " Sights" in England, temp. James I. (see p. 1 39), the over- 
scrupulous author refers to 

" That home of Windsor (of an Unicorne very likely)" 

In 1641, the Marquis de la Ferte Imbaut, Marshal of France,*saw in the Tower 
of London a Unicorn's horn, covered with plates of silver, and estimated at the 
enormous sum of £40,000. 

38. Page 18. Norden writes of Hampton Court: "There are belonging 
to this princely Pallace two parkes, the one of deare, the other of hares, both in- 
vironed with wals of bricke, the south side of the deare parke excepted, which is 
paled and invironed with the Thamise. It is admirable to consider the mightie 
and huge buyldinges, and the multitude of bricke ther disposed. But more admi- 
rable to waye the founder [Card. Wolsey], his person, state and wealth. But in 
those dayes men of his place, howsoever, gathered wher they strewed not, reaped 
wher they sowed not, [and recey ved and exacted wher, when, what and of whom 
they listed], and so grew to wealth infinite, [to gredynes insatiable]. But as this 
kinglie mansion was a seate beseminge a more worthy person, [so it soone] it came 
to a prince fitt for the place, renowned King H. 8. And now is our most 
gracious Quene Elizabeths, who God graunt may grace it w th her prosperous 
life, Enochs yeares, if Jehovah please so to voutsaufe." {Description of Middle- 
sex, 1592. Harl. MS. 570.) 

Six years later, Hentzner thus describes Hampton Court : — *' Hampton Court 
is a Royal Palace, magnificently built with brick by Cardinal Wolsey in ostenta- 
tion of his wealth, where he enclosed five ample courts, consisting of noble edifices 
in very beautiful work. Over the gate in the 2nd area is the Queen's device, a 
golden Rose, with this motto : Dieu et mon Droit, On the inner side of this 
gate are the effigies of the 1 2 Roman Emperors in plaister. The chief area is 
paved with square stone ; in its centre is a fountain that throws up water, covered 
with a gilt crown, on the top of which is a statue of Justice, supported by columns 
of black and white marble. The Chapel of this Palace is most splendid, in 
which the Queen's closet is quite transparent, having its windows of crystal. We 
were led into two chambers, called the presence, or chamber of audience, which 
shone with tapestry of gold, silver and silk of different colours; under the canopy 
of state are these words embroidered in pearl : Vivat Rex Henricus VIII. Here 
is besides a small Chapel richly hung with tapestry, where the Queen performs 
her devotions. In her bed-chamber the bed was covered with very costly cover- 
lids of silk. At no great distance from this room we were shewn a bed, the tester 
of which was worked by Anne Boleyn, and presented by her to her hus- 
band Henry VIII. All the other rooms, being very numerous, are adorned with 
tapestry of gold, silver and velvet, in some of which were woven history pieces ; 
in others, Turkish and American dresses, all extremely natural. In the Hall are 
these curiosities : — A very clear looking-glass, ornamented with columns and little 
images of alabaster ; a portrait of Edward VI, brother to Queen Elizabeth ; the 

204 Notes. 

true portrait ofLucretia; a picture of the Battle of Pavia; the History of Christ's 
passion, carved in mother of pearl ; the portraits of Mary Queen of Scots, who 
was beheaded, and her daughter [several mistakes here] ; the portrait of Ferdinand, 
Prince of Spain, and of Philip his son; that of Henry VIII, under it was placed 
the Bible curiously* written upon parchment; an artificial sphere; several musical 
instruments ; in the tapestry are represented negroes riding upon elephants. The 
bed in which Edward VI. is said to have been born and where his mother Jane 
Seymour died in childbed ; in one chamber were several excessively rich tapestries, 
which are hung up when the Queen gives audience to foreign ambassadors ; there 
were numbers of cushions ornamented with gold and silver ; many counterpanes 
and coverlids of beds lined with ermine : in short, all the walls of the Palace shine 
with gold and silver. Here is also a certain cabinet called Paradise, where 
besides that everything glitters so with silver, gold and jewels, as to dazzle one's 
eyes, there is a musical instrument made all of glass, except the strings." 

The Duke of Saxe- Weimar, in 1613, visited Hampton Court. In the Journal 
of his Travels it is stated that all the apartments and galleries were covered with 
rush matting : — " alle Gemacher und Galerien waren mit geflochtenen Decken 
aus Wintzen belegt." 

39. Page 18. Hentzner remarks: "Afterwards (in Sept. 1598) we were 
led into the gardens [at Hampton Court], which are most pleasant; here we saw 
Rosemary so planted and nailed to the walls as to cover them entirely — which is 
a method exceedingly common in England." The Prince of Anhalt, in 1596, 
speaks of the fine hedges of rosemary to be seen at Somerset House, afterwards the 
residence of Queen Anne of Denmark, and on that account called Denmark House. 
John Gerard, who possessed a flourishing garden in Holborn, ' within the suburbs 
of London? says (Herball, 1597): " They make hedges of it in the gardens of Italie 
and Englande, being a great ornament unto the same." The several virtues of the 
plant are mentioned by him. (See also Nares' Glossary for allusions by the old 
English poets and dramatists.) The same Gerard, 'Surgeon and Herbalist to 
the King,' held a lease of a garden-plot adjoining Somerset House, on condition 
of his supplying Queen Anne of Denmark with herbs, flowers, and fruit. (Calen- 
dar of State Papers, 1604.) It was surrendered to the Queen in June, 161 1. 
Horace Walpole, alluding to Hentzner's description of the gardens at Theobalds, 
remarks : " We are apt to think that Sir William Temple and King William [III.] 
were in a manner the introducers of gardening into England : by the description 
of Lord Burleigh's gardens at Theobalds and those at Nonsuch, we find that the 
magnificent tho' false taste was known here as early as the reigns of Henry VIII. 
and his daughter." Harrison, in his Description of England (Holinshed, 1586), 
on the same pleasant subject of gardens, says : " If you looke into our gardens 
annexed to our houses, how wonderfullie is their beautie increased, not onelie 
with floures and varietie of curious and costlie workmanship, but also with rare 
and medicinable hearbes sought up in the land within these fortie yeeres ; so that 
in comparison of this present, the ancient gardens were but dunghills and laistowes 

Notes. 205 

to such as did possesse them So curious and cunning are our Gardeners 

now in these daies, that they presume to doo in maner what they list with nature, 
and moderate hir course in things as if they were hir superiours. For mine owne 
part, good reader, Jet me boast a litle of my garden, which is but small, and the 
whole area thereof little above 300 foot of ground, and yet, such hath beene my 
good lucke in purchase of the varietie of simples that notwithstanding my small 
abilitie, there are verie neere three hundred of one sort and other conteined therein, 
no one of them being common or usuallie to bee had. If therefore my little 
plot, void of all cost in keeping be so well furnished, what shall we think of those 
of Hampton Court, Nonesuch, Tibaults, Cobham Garden, and sundrie other 
apperteining to diverse citizens of London whom I could particulate name." 
One of Lord Bacon's delightful Essays treats of the subject of gardening. 

40. Page 18. Sir Martin Frobisher, in his second voyage to the North West 
in 1577, brought over from the newly-discovered territory, named by the Queen 
"Meta Incognita,'' a native man, woman, and child. Among the accounts of 
Frobisher's three voyages kept by Michael Lok, " Treasurer of the Company of 
Cathay," Frobisher is allowed a payment of £17 i8j. $d. for apparel and 
expenses of the " strange man and woman," who both died at Bristol; the child 
being brought to London. There is a charge for maintaining this child and its 
nurse for eight days at the Three Swans, and then for its burial in St. Olave's, 
Hart Street, and also the charges of the surgeon who attended it. Large and 
small portraits were made for the Queen and the Company ; the Queen's were 
sent to Hampton Court. In the MS. Inventory of Charles I's effects sold after 
his death {Harl. MS. 4898), a picture of" A Cataia,or Island Man," with "A 
Cataia Woman" at Hampton Court, were sold for £6. They afterwards appear 
in the catalogue of James II's pictures, and were again at Hampton Court. 
{Harl. MS. 1890, fo. 79.) I have hitherto been unable to find any trace of 
their present whereabouts ; possibly they may be discovered in some of the royal 
palaces. The payments in regard to these pictures are curious and interesting : — 

" Paid to Cornellis Ketteller, paynter, as fol°. £ s. d. 

For a greate picture of the strainge man in his apell [apparel] .500 
For a great picture of him in Englishe apell . . . .500 

For an other picture of him in his apparell . . . .500 

For a smalle picture of him . . . . . . .100 

For his picture naked, or waxe molde . . . . .100 

Paid to Petter Gilbart, Dutchman, for iii great frames and waynscott 
at 8 sh . pece, and a small frame 2 sh . and nayles l sh . 6 d . for the 
Tartar mans picture . . . . . . . .176 

Paid to Petter Gilbarte for ii great frames for the strainge manes 

pictures to send over seas . . . . . . .0160" 

The artist likewise received £6 for a < great picture of the shippe Gabriell,' 
and £5 for a 'great picture of Captayne Furbusher.' 

206 Notes. 

In his former voyage also, in 1 576, it appears from these accounts that Frobisher 
brought over one of the natives, who died here ; and it is possible that Shake- 
speare's quip in the Tempest, on the scramble of the "holiday fools" to see a 
" dead Indian," has reference to Frobisher's poor captive Esquimaux. 

£ s. d. 
" Paid for apparrell for the strange man of Cathay or new land India 1 10 o 
Paid Mr. Crowe, the surgeon, for opening of the India man, and 

balmyng him dead . . . . . . . .500 

For Bedding for him spoyled in his sickness . . . .0160 

For household charge, Potticarye in his sickness, and folke highered 

to tend him and wind him . . . . . .1106 

For a CofFyne, bran to pak him, and other [things] . . .0114 

For Wax to make his mold in pictur . . . . .0100 

Paid Cornelius Kettell, payntar Ducheman, for making a great Pic- 
ture of the whole bodye of the strange man in his garments, £5, 
and the Joyner for a frame and case for it, which was given the 
Queen's Majesty, 1 p. ^.d. . . . . . . .5134 

For another lyke Picture and frame for it, which is for the Com- 

panye 580 

For two other small Pictures of his head . . . . .200 

Paid W m . Cure, Duchemane graver, for making a mould of hard 

earthe of the Tartar man's ymage to be cast in wax . .1134' 

{Proceedings of the Record Commission, Edited by C. P. Cooper, 1833, folio. Of 
this work only 50 copies were struck off. The printing of this and similar 
valuable matter among the " Agenda" gave rise to a searching investigation and 
censure by the Select Committee of the House of Commons, appointed in 1836.) 
John Allde had a license to print [1577-8, Jan. 30], — " A description of the 
purtrayture and shape of those strange kinde of people whiche M r . Martin Four- 
boisier brought into England a°. 1576 and 1577." Cornelius Kettell, or more 
properly Ketel, above mentioned, was born at Gouda in 1548. He came to 
England in 1573, and was much employed by the merchants in painting portraits. 
He also painted several of the nobility, and, in 1578, the Queen herself. He left 
this country in 1581, and settled at Amsterdam. Subsequently this painter laid 
aside his brushes, and painted with his fingers, and succeeding so well, at length 
attempted it with his feet. (See Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting!) There is a 
Portrait of him at Hampton Court, probably by himself. William Cure is com- 
mended by Meres, his contemporary, as an excellent engraver, meaning sculptor. 
Walpole could find no other account of him. But in Devon's Issues of the Exche- 
quer, there are payments, in 1606 and 1613, to Cornelius and William Cure, His 
Majesties Master Masons, for making the tomb of Mary Queen of Scots in West- 
minster Abbey, amounting in the whole to £825 \os. 

41. Page 19. Norden writes : "Queen Elizabeth hath of late caused a very 

Notes. 20 j 

beautifull fountaine there to be erected in the second court, which graceth the 
Pallace, and serveth to great and necessarie use ; the fountaine was finished in 
anno 1590, not without great charge." {Description of Middlesex 3 1593.) In 
his MS. of this- work, dated the year before, he has added at this place, " Besydes 
the mayne buyldinge ther are dispersed sundrye towres or rather bowers, for 
places of recreation and solace, and for sundry other uses." Hentzner notes : " In 
a garden joining the Palace [at Whitehall], there is a jet-d'eau, with a sun-dial, 
which while strangers are looking at, a quantity of water, forced by a wheel, 
which the gardener turns at a distance, through a number of little pipes, plenti- 
fully sprinkles those that are standing around." Likewise at Nonesuch, Hentzner 
noticed " a pyramid of marble, full of concealed pipes, which spirt upon all who 
come within their reach." 

42. Page 19. Hentzner, in 1598, describes his visit to the Tower of London 
as follows : — «* Upon entering, we were obliged to leave our swords at the gate, 
and deliver them to the guard. When we were introduced, we were shown 
about 100 pieces of arras belonging to the crown, made of gold, silver, and silk ; 
several saddles covered with velvet of different colours; an immense quantity of 
bed-furniture, such as canopies and the like, some of them most richly ornamented 
with pearl; some royal dresses so extremely magnificent, as to raise any one's 
admiration at the sums they must have cost. We were next led into the Armoury, 
in which are these particularities: spears, out of which you may shoot; shields 
that will give fire four times ; a great many rich halberds, commonly called partisans, 
with which the guard defend the Royal person in battle ; some lances covered 
with red and green velvet, and the suit of armour of King Henry VIII; many 
very beautiful arms, as well for men as for horses in horse-fights ; the lance of 
Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, 3 spans thick [this was a bourdonnass, or 
hollow lance — Meyrkk] ; two pieces of cannon, the one fires three, the other 
seven balls at a time ; two others made of wood, which the English had at the 
siege of Boulogne in France, and by this stratagem, without which they could 
not have succeeded, they struck a terror into the inhabitants, as at the appearance 
of artillery, and the town was surrendered upon articles ; 19 cannons of a 
thicker make than ordinary, and in a room apart 36 of a smaller size; other 
cannons for chain-shot ; and balls proper to bring down masts of ships. Cross- 
bows, bows and arrows, of which to this day the English make great use in their 
exercises. Eight or nine men, employed by the year, are scarcely sufficient to 
keep all the arms bright. On coming out of the Tower, we were led to a small 
house close by, where are kept a variety of creatures, viz. 3 lionesses ; one lion 
of great size, called Edward VI, from his having been born in that reign; a 
tiger ; a lynx ; a wolf excessively old — this is a very scarce animal in England, 
so that their sheep and cattle stray about in great numbers, free from any danger, 
though without anybody to keep them ; there is besides a porcupine and an 
eagle. All these creatures are kept in a remote place, fitted up for the purpose 
with wooden lattices, at the Queen's expense. Near to the Tower is a large 

208 Notes. 

open space; on the highest part of it is erected a wooden scaffold, for the execu- 
tion of noble criminals, upon which they say, three princes of England, the last 
of their families, have been beheaded for high treason." 

43. Page 20. In the beginning of September, 1566, Queen Elizabeth 
honoured the University of Oxford by a visit, staying there a week, winning 
golden opinions, and leaving behind a pair of richly embroidered gloves and a cuff, 
which are to be seen in the Bodleian Library. She repeated her visit in the 
same month of the year 1592 {i.e. a few weeks later than the visit of our Duke), 
desiring to behold — as Ant. a Wood informs us — " the change and amendment 
of learning and manners" which had taken place during the long interval. She 
thanked the Oxonians in choice Latin for their complimentary speeches, having, 
as saith the facetious Fuller, " as good a command of her Latin tongue as of her 
loyal subjects." On the former occasion Thomas Neale, Hebrew Professor, pre- 
sented to her a little book of Latin verses containing the description of all the 
colleges, halls, &c. Some views were at the same time offered to her and exhibited 
publicly, which were drawn by John Bereblock, Fellow of Exeter College, who 
was "most admirably well skill'd in the art of delineation," and who wrote like- 
wise an account of this royal visit, which was long afterwards (1729) published 
by Hearne. The verses by Neale were published by Miles Windsore in 1 590, 
and by Hearne (with the views engraved), in 1 7 1 3. The oldest Plan of the 
University and City is that by Ralph Aggas in 1578. This was re-engraved in 
1728 on two sheets, with copies of Bereblock's views introduced in the margin. 
At the bottom is " Augustinus Ryther, Anglus, delineavit 1588 " — the same who 
engraved and published the interesting series of charts of the Spanish Armada. 
There are also some curious verses, one referring to the map of London, by which 
Aggas is so well known : — 

" Neare tenn years paste, the author made a doubt, 
Whether to print or laie this worke aside, 
Untill he first had London platted out, 
Which still he craves — 

Meantime, the measure, forme and sight I bringe 

Of antient Oxford noblenesse of skill — 

A citie seated ritch in euerye thinge, 

Girte with woode and water, pasture, corne and hill : 

He tooke the vewe from North and soe he leaves it still, 

For there the buildings make the bravest showe, 

And from those Walkes the Scholers best it knowe." 

The notice of Aggas and his Oxford map, by Walpole and his editors, is faulty. 
There is a small coloured View of Oxford in 1588, by William Smith, Rouge 

Notes. 209 

Dragon Pursuivant, in the Sloane MS. 2596. An engraved view, about 1575, 
is in Braun's w Civitates Orbis Terrarum." Loggan published a collection of views 
in 1675. See also Skelton's fine work, " Oxonia antiqua restaurata," 1823. 

44. Page 20. Thomas Sackville, Earl of Dorset, was at this time Chancellor. 

45. Page 21. The description of the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge was written 
in Latin by one Simon Bibeus, an Englishman, and it would seem to have been pub- 
lished and probably used as a guide-book to the Universities in the very year in which 
this German visit was paid. A copy of it was no doubt taken back by our tra- 
vellers, and the matter adopted and introduced in this Journal of the Duke of 
Wirtemberg. It appears to have been unknown to those who have written on 
the subject of the two Universities. Herr Rathgeb has, of course, made sad havoc 
with the English names; but these the editor has rectified by Wood and Chalmers 
for Oxford, and by Fuller, Dyer, and other authorities for Cambridge ; indeed, 
without such aid, some of the names thus * ubersetzt,'*/. e. overset or upset, would 
be hopelessly unrecognizable. Nothing appears to be known of the writer, Simon 
Bibeus. He dedicates his work to Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury, whom he 
calls his patron. Might he not have been connected with " Simon Bibye, esq. 
ofBugden, Huntingdonshire," whose daughter (according to Collins' Baro?ietage) 
married the royalist baronet Sir Edward Lake, who died in 1674? 

46. Page 21. All this is an M imagined piece of antiquity," says Anthony 
Wood. The same remark may be applied to the description of the early days of 

47. Page 22. William of Durham willed estates for the purpose; he died in 
1249. Purchases were made 1 253-1 280. 

48. Page 29. The following represents the return made of the rents of every 
college in Oxford, according to which they were taxed for the Entertainment of 
Queen Elizabeth in the thirty-fourth year of her reign, 1592 (See Gutch's Collect. 
Curiosa, vol. i. p. 190): — 1. Christ Church, £2000 ; 2. Magd. Coll., £1200 ; 
3. New Coll., £1000; 4. All Souls, £500; 5. Corpus Christi Coll., £500 ; 6. 
Merton, £400; 7. St. John's, £400; 8. Brasenose, £300; 9. Queen's, £260; 
10. Exon, £200; 11. Oriel, £200; 12. Trinity, £200; 13. Lincoln, 130; 
14. University, £100; 15. Balliol, £100; 16. Jesus, £70. Total, £7560. 
(See Note 43.) 

49. Page 30. " The colleges of Oxford (says Harrison) for curious worke- 
manship and privat commodities, are much more statelie, magnificent, and com- 
modious than those of Cambridge ; and thereunto the streets of the towne for the 
most part more large and comelie. But for uniformitie of building, orderlie com- 
paction and politike regiment, the towne of Cambridge, as the newer workman- 
ship exceedeth that of Oxford (which otherwise is and hath beene the greater of 
the two) by manie a fold (as I gesse), although I know diverse that are of the con- 
trarie opinion. This also is certeine, that whatsoever the difference be in building 
of the towne streets, the townesmen of both are glad when they may match and 
annoie the students, by incroching upon their liberties, and keepe them bare by 

E E 



extreame sale of their wares, whereby manie of them become rich for a time, but 
afterward fall againe into povertie, bicause that goods evill gotten doo seldome 
long indure.' , {Description of England, in Holinshed ; 1586, p. 148.) 

Anthony Wood pays but a poor compliment to the Oxford of his day when 
he says that, if it were not for the colleges, it " would be one of the beggarliest 
places in England." 

Hentzner, in 1 598, terms Oxford " the famed Athens of England/' He says : 
" The students lead a life almost monastic ; for as the monks had nothing in the 
world to do, but when they had said their prayers at stated hours, to employ 
themselves in instructive studies, no more have these. They are divided into 
three tables: the first is called the Fellows' table, to which are admitted Earls, 
Barons, Gentlemen, Doctors, and Masters of Arts, but very few of the latter ; 
this is more plentifully and expensively served than the others. The second is for 
Masters and Bachelors of Arts, some Gentlemen, and eminent Citizens. The third 
for people of low condition. While the rest are at dinner or supper in a great 
Hall, where they are all assembled, one of the Students reads aloud the Bible, which 
is placed on a desk in the middle of the Hall, and this office every one of them 
takes upon himself in his turn ; as soon as grace is said after each meal, every one 
is at liberty either to retire to his own chambers, or to walk in the college garden, 
there being none that has not a delightful one. Their habit is almost the same 
as that of the Jesuits, their gowns reaching down to their ancles, sometimes lined 
with fur; they wear square caps; the Doctors, Masters of Arts, and Professors 
have another kind of gown that distinguishes them. Every student of any con- 
siderable standing has a key to the Library of his college. 

" In an outpart of the town are the remains of a pretty large fortification, but 
quite in ruins. We were entertained at supper with an excellent concert, com- 
posed of variety of instruments. " 

The Prince of Anhalt, in 1596, was entertained by the Oxford collegians, 
and in his Itinerary he has quizzed the ladies in the following verse : what would 
his satirical Highness have said had he been present at a ' Commemoration?' 

" Es liessen sich aldar auch weibesbilder sehn, 
Wo das geprange war, sie konten nichts verstehn 
Was man Lateinisch redt : doch wurden sie getrieben 
Durch fiirwitz und den schein, ob wer'es ein belieben 
Zur freyen kunst, es war nichts als die eitelkeit, 
Die ihren schonen glantz zu schauen an so beut : 
Sie sassen hier und dar nach ihrem wolgefallen, 
Und wusten anders nichts, als Englisch her zu lallen." 

" There in the glittering throng fair women might be seen, 
Who of the Latin speeches understood no word ; 
Yet led by forwardness and show, as if from love 
Of liberal arts, shed forth their radiance to the gaze 
Of all — from nothing else but idle vanity ! 

Notes. 2 1 1 

Where'er it liked them best they sat, and lisp'd on still 

In their own English tongue ; 'twas all that they could do." 

We are reminded here of Lord Francis Leveson Gower's (Egerton Ellesmere) 
curious mistake in translating from Goethe's " Faust " the line : — 

" Und lispeln englisch wenn sie lugen," 

" And lisp in English when they lie," 
instead of 

" And lisp like Angels when they lie." 

" Non Angli, sed Angeli," was the punning remark of Gregory the Great, when 
he saw the fair Saxon children in the market-place at Rome. 

50. Page 32. In August, 1564, Queen Elizabeth visited Cambridge, where 
she remained five days. The maps and views of Cambridge executed during 
her reign may here be mentioned. Richard Lyne's valuable map of 1574 is 
referred to in Note 52. There is a coloured plan drawn by William Smith, 
Rouge Dragon Pursuivant, in 1588, in the Sloane MS. 2596. An engraved bird's- 
eye view of about the date 1575 occurs in Braun's interesting collection of" Civi- 
tates Orbis Terrarum." Another is said to have been executed by Ralph Aggas, 
whose map of London is well known, but of this of Cambridge no copy has 
hitherto been discovered. Loggan published a fine collection of views in 1688. 
Hentzner, the German traveller, visited Cambridge in 1598; he enumerates 
briefly the several colleges. Alluding to Trinity Chapel, he says : " On its right 
side is a fine library, where we saw the Book of Psalms in manuscript upon parch- 
ment, four spans in length, and three broad, taken from the Spaniards at the siege 
of Cadiz, and thence brought into England with other rich spoils." 

51. Page 32. During the year 1592 there were two Vice-Chancellors of 
Cambridge University, — Dr. John Still, Master of Trinity College, afterwards 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, and Thomas Legge, Master of Gonville and Caius 
College. Lord Burghley was Chancellor. 

52. Page 33. Fuller, dismissing all these fables, commences his history of 
Cambridge University at the Norman Conquest, not wishing, as he says, to make 
any difference betwixt the sisters, which should be the eldest. The superior 
antiquity claimed for Cambridge over the sister University in a speech delivered by 
the Public Orator of the former before Queen Elizabeth, when she visited that 
University in 1564, gave rise to a fierce and furious literary controversy. The 
two Caius' (Kaye or Keye), were the principal combatants. Thomas Caius, of 
All Souls, entered the arena on the side of Oxford, in 1568, while the more cele- 
brated Dr. John Caius, the founder of Gonville and Caius College, and not related 
to the Oxford man, maintained the opinion advanced by the Cambridge Orator. 
The literary weapons, pro and con, are in our national library. It is said that no 
less than 380 writers engaged on the part of Oxford, and no on that of Cam- 
bridge. One volume in the British Museum is of considerable interest. It con- 



sists of three tracts in Latin, the first two being republications of the pieces of the 
Keyes before mentioned, and printed by John Daye, in 1 574 and 5 ; the last being 
the History of the University of Cambridge, by Dr. John Caius. This volume, 
very handsomely bound, with an elaborately worked pattern in gold, was a pre- 
sent to James I. from John Parker, the son of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
whose MS. dedication to the King is prefixed. In it is the highly interesting and 
supposed unique Map of Cambridge, engraved at the expense of the Archbishop, 
by Richard Lyne, and dated 1574, and accompanied by the arms of the several 
colleges, &c. all finely coloured. 

53. Page 43. Probably his Highness slept in the " Great Bed, "although our 
careful chronicler has not noticed the circumstance. The Duke's son's secretary, 
eighteen years later, was more exact (see p. 62). Vallans, who was a native of 
Ware, seems to point to something remarkable by mentioning the inn at which 
the bed was formerly kept, in the following lines in his " Tale of Two Swannes," 

" And this was done least that undecently 

They should passe by the guested towne of Ware, 

Thus ordered they came by Byrches house, 

That whilom was the Brothers Friers place ; 

Then by the Crozune y and all the innes of Ware." 
Perhaps the earliest recorded mention of this celebrated " piece of furniture" 
is contained in the Poetical Itinerary of the Prince Ludwig, of Anhalt-Kohten, 
who visited this country in 1596,3 period anterior, by five years, to Shakespeare's 
" Twelfth Night," in which the well-known allusion (act iii. sc. 2) occurs. It 
is in these words: — 

" Es war in Wahr ein Bett' 
An weitem raume, das auch vier par leute hett' 
In sich geruhiglich beysammen lassen liegen, 
Das keines sich genau ans andre durfte schmiegen." 

Which may be thus rendered : — 

" At Ware was a bed of dimensions so wide, 
Four couples might cosily lie side by side, 
And thus without touching each other abide." 

Good engravings of the bedstead will be found in Clutterbuck's " Hertford- 
shire," and in Shaw's " Specimens of Ancient Furniture." Its date is of the reign 
of Elizabeth, and its dimensions are 10 ft. 9 in. in length, 10 ft. 9 in. in width, and 
7 ft. 6|- in. in height. In September, 1864, this famous Shakespearean bed was 
sold by auction, and purchased for 100 guineas, for Mr. Charles Dickens, and is 
now, we believe, at Gad's Hill, a famous Shakespearean locality. 

54. Page 44. Vallans and Norden speak in raptures of the once magnificent 
seat of Theobalds, w r hich was in the parish of Cheshunt, Hertfordshire. The 

Notes. 2 1 3 

former, in his " Tale of Two Swannes," 1 590 (an early specimen of blank verse), 
thus alludes to it : — 

" Now see these Swannes the new and worthie seate 
Of famous Cicill, treasoror of the land — 

* * * * 

The House itselfe doth shewe the owners wit, 
And may for bewtie, state and every thing, 
Compared be with most within the land." 

And Norden, the earliest historian of Hertfordshire, writing in 1598, says — 
" To speake of the state and beuty therof at large as it deserveth, for curious 
buildinges, delightfull walkes and pleasant conceites within and without, and 
other thinges very glorious and ellegant to be seene, would challenge a great 
portion of this little treatise, and therfore least I should come shorte of that 
due commendation that it deserveth, I leave it as indeed it is a princely 
seat." Lord Burghley, in a letter dated August 14, 1585, says, "My House at 
Theobalds was begun by me with a mean mesure, but encreast by occasions of 
her Majesty's often coming, whom to please, I never would omit to strain myself 
to more charges than building it. And yet not without some speciall direction of 
her Majesty. Upon fault found with the smal mesure of her chamber (which 
was in good mesure for me), I was forced to enlarge a room for a larger chamber; 
which need not be envied of any for riches in it, more than the shew of old oaks, 
and such trees with painted leaves and fruit." Strype adds : " And coates of 
armes, for so he had painted this new room for the Queen, set forth with several 
trees of several sorts, with the armes of the nobility, officers of state, the 
bishops," &c. At Theobalds the lord treasurer had thirty persons in family, and 
besides a constant allowance in charity, he directed £10 a week to be laid out in 
keeping the poor at work in the garden. The expenses of his stables were 1 000 
marks a year. Not less than twelve times he entertained the Queen at his house 
for several weeks together, at the expense of £3000 each time. His contemporary 
Biography, printed in Peck's " Desiderata Curiosa," informs us in addition : " He 
greatly delighted in making gardens, fountains, and walks, which at Theobalds 
were perfected most costly, bewtifully and pleasauntly, where one might walk 
twoe myle in the walkes before he came to their ends." Lord Burghley's son, 
Sir Robert Cecil, first Earl of Salisbury, in 1607 exchanged Theobalds with 
James I, for the equally fine palace of Hatfield. Shortly after the exchange (161 1), 
the architect, John Thorpe, was employed to make a survey of the Park. The 
very plan, drawn on vellum and coloured, exists among the Cottonian MSS. 
(Aug. I. i. 75). Theobalds became the King's favourite country residence during 
the whole of his reign. Here was the scene of his revellings with the jovial King 
of Denmark; here he hunted with the young Duke of Saxe Weimar, and touched 
for the evil (see ante, p. 149), and here he breathed his last on March 27, 1625. 
Theobalds Road, in London, was so called, because it led to James's pleasant 

2I 4 


hunting-seat. On leaving Whitehall, the King was in the habit of going through 
the Strand, up Drury Lane, into Holborn, Kingsgate Street, and Theobalds Road. 
Charles I. occasionally resided at Theobalds; but in 1649, on the sale of the 
Crown lands, notwithstanding the recommendation of the Commissioners to the 
Rebel Parliament to save it from destruction, it was pulled down, the materials 
sold, and the money divided among the soldiers. Not a vestige of the mansion 
now remains; but the name is preserved in the residence of the eminent brewer 
Sir Henry Meux, Bart., and some houses erected on the site of the old palace. 

" Thro' Theobalds passing, we the bounds remark 
Of a once Royal Court and stately Park, 
But now from its primaeval pride decay'd, 
Villas of wealthy Cits possess the shade." 

{Scarborough : a Poem, 1734.) 

There is a view of the old royal house in the " Gentleman's Magazine" for 
1836, which accompanies an interesting notice of the Palace by John Gough 
Nichols, Esq. ; a folio plate of the same view, engraved at the expense of the 
Society of Antiquaries, was published in 1765, under the misnomer of Richmond 
Palace. \t is also engraved in the 2nd part of Drummond's splendid folio work 
on " Noble British Families," published by Pickering, together with a view of 
its interior, from a picture belonging to Earl Paulet. In this latter are portraits 
of Charles I. and his Queen, the Earls of Pembroke and Montgomery, and last 
and least, the famous dwarf JefFery Hudson, with three of King Charles's favourite 
spaniels. The portrait of the diminutive hero, which was engraved by John 
Droeshout (incorrectly called by Walpole Martin, the engraver of the famous 
Shakespeare portrait in the first folio), and inserted in the little volume, entitled 
" The New Yeeres Gift," 1638, we have discovered to be identical with Mytens's 
fine picture at Hampton Court ; the accessories, however, difFer. (See also 
Note 136.) 

55. Page 45. Hentzner, at the period of his visit in the beginning of Sep- 
tember, 1598, was not admitted to the apartments of the Palace, as the family 
were then in town owing to the recent death of its late noble owner. The Prince 
of Anhalt, in 1596, devotes a few lines of his German verse to Theobalds, which 
he mentions under the distorted form of Die Wats. 

56. Page 46. According to Stow's " Survay of London," 1598, p. 331, on 
the " West banke [in Southwark] there be the two Beare-gardens, the old and 
new places wherein be kept Beares, Bulles, and other beastes, to be bayted. As 
also Mastiues in seuerall kenels, are there nourished to bait them. These Beares 
and other beastes are there bayted in plottes of grounde, scaffolded about for the 
beholders to stand safe." 

These buildings are shown in the old maps of Aggas, Braun, and Visscher. 
One of them gave place to the Globe Theatre — the ' glory of the Bank* — where 
Shakespeare's plays were originally performed, and which appears to have been 


2 '5 

erected in 1593 and 1594. Edward Alleyn, the celebrated actor and founder 
of Dulwich College, held in the next reign the post of " Master of the King's 
games of bears, bulls, and mastiff dogs." These popular but brutal pastimes which 
often took place on Sundays, have been well described by Hentzner and by Master 
Robert Laneham. The latter, an "admirable conceited fellow," or, as Sir 
Walter Scott calls him, "as great a coxcomb as ever blotted paper," treats us 
to a morceau which is rich enough to be reproduced in part. " It waz a sport," 
says he, being an eyewitness of the " princelye pleasures" at Kenil worth, "very 
pleazaunt of theez beastz : to see the bear with hiz pink nyez leering after hiz 
enmiez approch, the nimblness and wayt of y e dog too take hiz auauntage, and the 
fors and experiens of the bear agayn to auoyd the assauts : if he wear bitten in 
one place, hoow he woold pynch in an oother too get free : that if he wear taken 
onez, then what shyft with byting, with clawyng, with roring, tossing and tum- 
bling, he woold woork too wynde hymself from them ; and when he waz lose, to 
shake hiz earz twyse or thryse wyth the blud and the slauer aboout hiz fiznamy, 
waz a matter of a goodly releef." {Letter from Killingwoorth Cast/, 1575, p. 23.) 

It is perhaps worth pointing out that the above racy and grandiloquent language 
has been made to do service, totidem verbis — with an improved orthography, 
however, yet without any sign of quotation — for a similar "sport" enacted in 
1586 before Queen Elizabeth and the Danish Ambassador, Ramelius, described 
in Holinshed's " Chronicles," vol. iii. p. 1562. 

There is a curious entry in the " Calendar of State Papers" (16 10, Sept. 6), 
of a licence granted by Sir George Buck, the then " Master of the Revels," for 
Thomas Morris and two others, " to shew a strange Lion brought to do strange 
things, as turning an ox to be roasted," &c. The wonders of Bankes's horse, 
mentioned by Shakespeare and our early dramatists, are well known. Shake- 
speare, in the " Tempest," act ii. sc. 2, has admirably quizzed the eagerness of 
the sight-loving portion of the English public after such matters. The "sights" 
of London and elsewhere, in the reign of James I, as described in English hexa- 
meters, will be found under No. XII. See also Farley's verses, Note 16. 

Hentzner, in the beginning of September, 1598, describes his visit to the 
"Theatres," as follows: "Without the city, are some theatres, where English 
Actors represent almost every day Comedies and Tragedies to very numerous 
audiences; these are concluded with variety of dances, accompanied by excellent 
music and the excessive applause of those that are present. Nor far from one of 
these Theatres [the Globe ?], which are all built of wood, lies the Royal Barge, 
close to the river Thames ; it has two splendid cabins, beautifully ornamented 
with glass windows, painting and carving; it is kept upon dry ground, and shel- 
tered from the weather. There is still another place, built in the form of a Theatre, 
which serves for the baiting of bears and bulls : they are fastened behind, and then 
worried by those great English dogs (quos lingua vernacula f Docken' appellant), 
and mastiffs, but not without great risk to the dogs from the teeth of the one 
and the horns of the other, and it sometimes happens they are killed on the spot: 

2 1 6 Notes. 

fresh ones are immediately supplied in the places of those that are wounded or 
tired. To this entertainment there often follows that of whipping a blinded bear, 
which is performed by five or six men, standing in a circle with whips, which 
they exercise upon him without any mercy; although he cannot escape from them 
because of his chain, he nevertheless defends himself vigorously, throwing down 
all who come within his reach and are not active enough to get out of it, tearing 
the whips out of their hands and breaking them. At these spectacles, and every- 
where else, the English are constantly smoking the Nicotian weed, which in 
America is called Tobaca — others call it Ptetum — [i. e. Petun, the Brazilian name 
for Tobacco, from which the allied beautiful plant ' Petunia ' derives its appella- 
tion,] and generally in this manner : they have pipes on purpose made of clay, 
into the farther end of which they put the herb, so dry that it may be rubbed 
into powder, and lighting it, they draw the smoke into their mouths, which they 
puff out again through their nostrils like funnels, along with it plenty of phlegm 
and defluxion from the head. In these Theatres, fruits, such as apples, pears and 
nuts, according to the season, are carried about to be sold, as well as wine and 
ale." It appears from the Preface to William Fennor's "Descriptions," 1616, 
that it was customary also to sell books at the Theatres before the play began. 
He says, "I suppose this Pamphlet [i.e. Poems] will hap into your hands before 
a play begin, with the importunate clamour of Buy a new Booke, by some needy 

The Prince of Anhalt, in 1596, thus mentions the Theatres in his Poetical 
Itinerary : — 

" Hier besieht man vier spielhauser, 
Darinnen man fiirstelt die Fiirsten, Konge, Keyser, 
In rechtcr lebens gross', in schoner Kleider pracht, 
Es wird der thaten auch, wie sie geschehn, gedacht." 

Here may you see playhouses four, 
Where represented are, Prince, King, and Emperour 
In real size of life, and beauteous clothes they wear; 
Of many a wondrous deed you also there may hear. 

It would appear, however, according to Mr. Collier, that there were more 
than four theatres at this time in London ; but probably the German prince speaks 
only of those on the Bankside. In the Privy Purse expenses of Prince Henry in 
the Record Office (Dom. lvii.), under the dates of March 17 and April 13, 16 10, 
two sums of £6 and £2 were paid by the Prince's order to an ° Italian Comedian." 

Tom Coryat compares the theatres at Venice with our own theatres. He says 
{Crudities, 161 1, p. 247), "I was at one of their Playhouses where I saw a 
Comedie acted. The house is very beggarly and base in comparison of our 
stately Play-houses in England ; neyther can their Actors compare with us for 
apparrell, shewes and musicke. Here I observed certaine things that I never saw 
before, for I saw women acte, a thing that I never saw before, though I have 
heard that it hath beene sometimes used in London, and they performed it with 



as good a grace, action, gesture, and whatsoever convenient for a Player, as ever 
I saw any masculine Actor." 

Mr. Secretary Pepys, on January 3, 1661, saw the "Beggar's Bush" performed ; 
" the first time," he says, " that ever I saw women come upon the stage." 

In a book entitled " Ethographia mundi" (in German), Durch Johannem 
Olorinum [i.e. Sommer] 1610-13, pars 4, the author alludes to the magnificence 
of the dresses worn by English actors in the theatre : " Da miissen die Kragen mit 
Perlen besetzet werden, und wird ein solcher Pracht gesehen, dass sie einher gehen, 
wie die Englischen Comadienspieler in Theatre" 

57. Page 46. Among the Addit. MSS. (12,506-7), are original letters by 
Beauvoir La Node, the French Ambassador. One of these, addressed to Sir 
Julius Caesar, is dated " De Hacquenay pres Londres, 25 Juillet, 1590." There 
is likewise a letter by him dated Hackney, 27 September, 1591, printed in Rymer, 
where the name is incorrectly spelt Beauvoir la Node. (See also Note 11.) 

58. Page 46. Sir John and Sir Edward Norris, a brace of brave brothers, 
were the sons of Henry Lord Norris, of Rycot in Oxfordshire, and were soldiers 
of high reputation. "The Norrises," Fuller says, "were all ' Martis pulli' 
[chickens of Mars, like the N^piers], men of the sword, and never out of military 
employment." Sir John, the eldest of six brothers, fought valiantly in the 
Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, France and Ireland. In 1591, he was General 
of the English auxiliary forces sent into Brittany to succour Henry IV. of 
France against his rebellious subjects. Sir John died suddenly in Ireland, in 
1597. On hearing of the death of so "worthy a servant," Queen Elizabeth 
wrote a letter of condolence to his mother, whom she called her " own crow," 
so nicknamed on account of her dark complexion, which the sons also inherited. 
Sir Edward, the third son, distinguished himself at the taking of the Groyne 
(Corunna, the inglorious so-called "Portugal Voyage" in 1589), as also at the 
siege of Ostend, and died in 1606. The memorable military services of the 
brothers Norris, particularly of Sir John, have been chronicled by the soldier-poet 
Thomas Churchyard, in the work " A true Discourse historicall, of the suc- 
ceeding Governours in the Netherlands," &c. 4to. Lond. 1602, in black letter. 

59. Page 47. Byfleet, in Surrey, adjoins Walton-on-Thames. Aubrey says 
Henry VIII. was nursed here. Sir Anthony Browne, Master of the Horse, 
built a house here, called Byjiete House, where he died 6th May, 1548. James 
I. settled it on his son, Prince Henry, and after his death on his Queen, Anne. 
She began to build a new house, which was finished by Sir James Fullerton. 
Tab. 14 of the beautiful MS. Survey of Windsor taken by Norden in 1607 
(Harl. MS. 3749, art. 14) contains " Biflete Parke in Surrey," to which he has 
appended the following description : " Wherof parte lieth within, part without 
the boundes of the Forest, all yet belonging to the Honor, wherof Sir Edward 
Howard is chiefe keper. And hath about 160 fallow deere, about 36 of antler 
and 14 buckes. This parke is in circuite 3^ mile, and so muche it paleth, few or 
no timber trees to mayntaine the fence. It contayneth in quantitie about 380 

F F 

2i 8 Notes. 

acres meane grounde. The hooping birde, vulgarlie helde ominous, muche fre- 
quenteth this parke." In an account of the expenses of James I. (Somen's 
Tracts, ii. 391) is a payment to Sir Edward Howard above mentioned for keep- 
ing Bifleet park and lodge, 8 d . by the day = £i2 y. \d. The Surrey historians 
do not mention any residence possessed here by the Lord High Admiral Howard, 
but as he was Constable of Windsor Castle, Keeper of the Forest and High Stew- 
ard, he probably also held the keepership of the Park of Byfleet, and may have 
had a lodge there by right of his office. 

60. Page 48. At this time Stow (Annals, p. 765) records a most singular in- 
stance of drought in the river Thames : " Wednesday, the sixth of September 
[1592], the wind west and by south, as it had beene for the space of two days 
before, very boysterous, the river of Thamis was so voyd of water, by forcing 
out the fresh and keeping backe the sault, that men in divers places might goe 200 
paces over, and then fling a stone to the land. A collier, on a mare, rode from 
the north side to the south, and back againe, on either side of London Bridge, but 
not without danger of drowninge both waves." Dr. Dee in his Diary notes : 
" Sept. 4th, 5th, 6th, very tempestuous, windy at West, Sowtherly. Sept. 5th, 
the Terns very shallow at London." See the Introduction for particulars of the 
storm which followed. 

61. Page 48. A coloured view of Rochester is contained in William Smith's 
interesting Manuscript, the " Description of England," 1588. Rochester is there 
described as a " litle Cittie, but very ancient, as may appeare by the walles 
thereof, which now in many places are gone to decay. Also the Castell, which 
seemeth to be builded when the Tower of London was, and is lyke y e same 
building. The cheiffest Church [the Cathedral] is called St. Andrewes. There 
is a very ffayer Bridge of Stone, ffounded by S r . Rob'. Knolles, Knight, w th a 
Chapell at y e est end therof, which Bridge is builded uppon pyles lyke as London 
Bridge is, I meane in the selfsame maner. The River of Medway passeth under 
the said Bridge. ... It is of such depth that all the Quenes Ma ties shippesdo ryde 
there, at a low water, all along the river from Rochester to Upnor-Castell." The 
" fFayer Bridge of Stone" above mentioned is now gone, but too prematurely, we 
think, and the hideous Railway bridge adjoining the fine new iron one has 
deprived all future Mr. Pickwicks from enjoying the charming prospect as 
once seen on that side. Lambarde, in his " Perambulation of Kent" (the first 
English county history ever published) edit. 1596, furnishes a list of forty-five 
of the Queen's ships then lying at Chatham. He says, " No Towne, nor Citie 
is there (I dare say), in this whole shire, comparable in right value with this one 
Fleete ; nor shipping any where els in the whole world to be founde, either more 
artificially moulded under the water, or more gorgeously decked above." Camden 
extolled the dockyard at Chatham as the " best appointed arsenal the sun ever saw." 
Fuller, speaking of the British Navy, remarks : " Indeed, much is in the matter — 
the excellency of our English oak ; more in the making — the cunning of our ship- 
wrights; most in the manning — the courage of our seamen." On the occasion of 

Notes. 2 1 9 

the Congress of the Archaeological Institute held at Rochester in July and August, 
1863, the editor contributed a paper on " Visits to Rochester and Chatham by- 
royal, noble, and distinguished personages, English and foreign, from 1300 to 
1783." It has since been printed in vol. vi. of the " Archaeologia Cantiana." 

62. Page 49. The ship in which Drake sailed round the world (the Golden 
Hind), when it became unfit for service, was laid up near the " Mast Dock" at 
Deptford, where it remained for a long series of years an object of curiosity and 
wonder. Hentzner, in 1598, says he saw here the ship of that noble Pirate, 
Francis Drake. From a passage in one of Ben Jonson's plays, it appears to have 
become a resort for holiday people, the cabin being then converted into a ban- 
queting house. " Drake's ship at Detford" is spoken of as one of the " sights" 
in some verses prefixed to the redoubtable Tom Coryat's "Crudities," 161 1. 
(See ante, p. 140.) When the young Duke of Saxe Weimar saw the ship in 161 3, 
but very little remained of it. It was then described as lying by the river-side 
in shallow water, in a dock {in einem Loch) ; the lower part only (corpus) was 
left, the upper part being all gone, for almost everybody who went there, and 
especially sailors, were in the habit of carrying ofFsome portion of it. (Neumayr 
von Ramssla, " Des Fursten Joh. Ernsten, &c. Reise," 1620.) Philipott, " Hist, 
of Kent," 1659, says that in a very short time nothing was left of her. And in 
Mory son's "Itinerary," 1617 (Pt. iii. p. 138), it is noticed as follows: "Notfarre 
from hence [Deptford] upon the shore, lie the broken ribs of the ship in which 
Sir Francis Drake sailed round about the world, reserved for a monument of that 
great action." A chair, made out of the wood, is to be seen in the gallery of the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford. 

63. Page 49. We do not hesitate to fix this " unsafe" spot at the famed 
"high old robbing hill" called Gad's Hill, a short distance from Rochester, on 
the road towards Gravesend. Like Shooter's Hill, it appears to have been a place 
notorious for robberies during the reign of Elizabeth, and even before the time 
of Shakespeare. In Warton's " History of English Poetry," iii. 322, ed. 1840, 
mention is made of a ballad, entitled "The Robery at Gads Hill," in 1558. 
One of the Lansdowne MSS. presents us with a curious narrative in the hand- 
writing of Sir Roger Manwood, Chief Baron of the Exchequer, dated July, 1 590, 
which shows that Gad's Hill was at that period the resort of a band of desperadoes 
of more than usual daring. Gad, in the cant language of the day, signified a rogue 
or vagabond, as well as the formidable clubs with which they armed themselves. 
Clavell, a penitent robber, of a poetic turn as well, in the opening lines of his 
"Recantation" (1628), confesses to have commenced his nefarious operations on 

"Gadd's Hill, and those 
Red tops of mountaines where good people lose 
Their ill-kept purses." 

Gad's Hill is frequently alluded to by our dramatists of the seventeenth century. 



It is also mentioned in the curious and rare 4to. by I. M. entitled " A Health to the 
Gentlemanly Profession of Servingmen," 1598, (Sig. I 3 verso)'. — "What shall 
he then do? Shall he make his appearance at Gaddes hill, Shooters hill, Salis- 
burie playne, or Newmarket heath, to sit in Commission, and examine passen- 
gers?" In 1 66 1, Gad's Hill was the scene of an atrocious murder committed on 
a Transylvanian Prince, named Cossuma Albertus. He was buried with great 
solemnity in Rochester Cathedral. This very spot, " Gad's Hill," — hallowed as 
it is by the inimitable scenes pourtrayed by England's greatest dramatic poet, 
affording " argument for a week, laughter for a month, and a good jest for ever," 
yet no longer subjected to the untimely visits of "gentlemen of the shade," and 
" minions of the moon," — has been chosen by the greatest of England's living 
novelists as his summer home. The traveller will have to seek for the charming 
rural dwelling of Charles Dickens at a few paces from the well-known FalstafF 
Inn, on the brow of the hill, embowered in foliage and conspicuous by some dark- 
spreading cedars. The prospect it commands is of great beauty, while not far 
distant stands in all its grandeur the glorious old Castle of Rochester, which, and 
the surrounding scenery, Mr. Dickens in one of his earliest works, and perhaps 
his best, has, in the company of Mr. Pickwick, described so eloquently and so 

64. Page 50. A storm in England by express command of -a witch ! The 
popular belief in witchcraft was at this time rampant. Reginald Scot attempted 
to check it in a publication of 560 pages, entitled " The Discoverie of Witchcraft," 
1584. In the thirteenth chapter, being "A confutation of witches confessions, 
concerning making of tempests and raine," he remarks : " I saie, that there is 
none which acknowledgeth God to be onlie omnipotent . . . but will denie that 
the elements are obedient to witches, and at their commandement ; or that they 
may at their pleasure send raine, haile, tempests, thunder, lightening." And in 
the first chapter he says : "Such faithlesse people are also persuaded, that neither 
haile nor snowe, thunder nor lightening, raine nor tempestuous winds come from 
the heauens at the commandement of God, but are raised by the cunning and 
power of witches and conjurers ; inasmuch as a clap of thunder, or a gale of wind 
is no sooner heard, but either they run to ring bels, or crie out to burne witches, 
or else burne consecrated things, hoping by the smoke thereof to driue the diuell 
out of the aire," &c. On the other hand, the royal author of the " Dasmono- 
logie" — 

" A gentleman called King James, 
In quilted doublet and great trunk breeches, 
Who held in abhorrence tobacco and witches" — 

was of opinion, in 1597, that witches " can rayse stormes and tempestes in the 
aire, either upon sea or land, though not universally, but in such a particular 
place and prescribed boundes, as God will permitte them so to trouble." The 
Lapland witches, according to some, sold wind to sailors, and delighted in raising 
storms and tempests, which they effected by repeating certain charms, and throw 



ing up sand in the air. Abundant illustration will be found in Brand's "Popular 

65. Page 51. One principal reason of the number of rabbit warrens formerly 
was the great use our ancestors made of fur in their clothing. " I judge warrens 
of coneys," says Harrison, 1586, " to be almost innumerable, and daily like to 
encrease, by reason that the black skins of those beasts are thought to countervail 
the prices of their naked carcasses." The latter were worth (17 Hen. VIII.) z-\d. 
a piece, and the former 6d. Moryson (///». 161 7, Pt. iii. p. 149), touching 
on the diet of our ancestors, says: " The English have great plenty of connies, 
the flesh wherof is fat, tender, and much more delicate than any I have eaten in 
other parts, so as they are in England preferred before hares, at which the Ger- 
mans wonder, who having no venison (the princes keeping it proper to them- 
selves, and the hunting of hares being proper to the gentlemen in most parts), they 
esteem hares as venison, and seldom eate connies, being there somewhat rare, and 
more like rosted cats then the English connies." 

66. Page 51. In a black-letter Proclamation of 4th Elizabeth, it is ordered that 
" None shall carry or convey out of the realme any horse or any mare, the price of 
which mare shall be above vis. viiid. and under the age of three yeres, without 
licence: upon payne of forfeyture of the same horse or mare. Neverthelesse, every 
subject of thys realme may carry any such horse for theyr owne use, takyng an 
othe before the Customer of the Porte where he embarketh, that he intendeth not 
to sell the same horse." The whole of this proclamation is curious, and evinces 
a strong desire to encourage and improve the breed of English horses. 

6j. Page 52. Moryson {Itin. 1617, Pt. iii. p. 150) says: " The oysters of 
England were of old carried as farre as Rome, being more plentifull and savorie 
then in any other part." Hentzner, in 1598, visited Queenborough (^uinck- 
burg.) " A little farther on," he says, " we saw the fishing of oysters out of the 
sea, which are no where in greater plenty or perfection." There is classical 
authority for the excellence of the English oysters. (See Juvenal, iv. 141.) 

68. Page 57. Sir William Browne was at this time Lieutenant-Governor of 
Flushing under Sir Robert Sidney, to which post he had been appointed in 1596. 
He was a brave soldier, and had served in the wars of the Low Countries with 
the gallant Sir Philip Sidney, who esteemed him highly. The valiant brothers, 
Sir Francis and Sir Horace Vere, who had probably been trained to the military 
profession under his care, always styled him " Father." He was knighted in 
1605. His Letters and Despatches are printed in Collins's " Sydney Letters." 
One of these (ii. 266), giving a description of the ceremony of proclaiming King 
James at Flushing, on March 29, 1603, contains a droll conclusion, as well as a 
honest confession — " We were drunke all, in drinking the health of our King." 
He refers, in a letter dated Flushing, 8th April, 1610; (Collins, ii. 320) to this 
embassy of the Duke of Wirtemberg : " The Duke of Wirtenberg, who is to 
come into England on the behalf of the German Princes allyed, is on his way 
between this and Roterdam." Tom Coryat, in his " Crudities," 161 1, p. 652, 



describes Vlyshingen, or Flushing, which he says is built in the form of a pitcher, 
and guarded with a garrison of English soldiers. He tells us he received a " very 
speciall courtesie" of Sir William Browne. Flushing had been, with the Brill, held 
and garrisoned by the English from the reign of Elizabeth, as " cautionary towns ;" 
the Queen having greatly assisted, and lent considerable sums of money to, the 
States of Holland. They were redeemed in the following reign. Howell, in 
a letter written in 1619, describes the manner of their surrender by James I. ; 
the cash, he tells us, "came in convenient time, for it served to defray the 
expencefull progresse he made to Scotland the summer following." {Epist. 
Ho-Eliana, 1650, p. 19.) 

69. Page 58. Robert Bertie, Lord Willoughby, Lord High Chamberlain, 
created, in 1626, Earl of Lindsey ; Lord High Admiral in 1636; and appointed 
General of the King's Forces, June 1642. He was mortally wounded at Edge 
Hill, Oct. 23, and died the same night, a prisoner in Warwick Castle. 

70. Page 58. Elizabeth, eldest daughter of James I, was born 1596, and died 
in 1 66 1 . We have, at page 1 1 8, been introduced to the English princess, when she 
was eight years old. At the age of seventeen, and within little more than three 
months after the lamented death of her brother Henry, she was married to Frederick, 
Elector Palatine, 14 February, 161 3. The prince, shortly before he set out on 
his journey to England, feeling himself somewhat out of practice in his dancing, 
forwarded a request to the Duke John Frederick of Wirtemberg, to procure for 
him the professional services of the Tubingen dancing-master for one month, in 
order that he might appear at the English Court a proficient in all kinds of exer- 
cises. {Letter in German, July 12, 161 2, in Royal Library at Stuttgart ; Cooper's 
Appendix, A.) Unfortunately for the happiness of himself and family, Frederick 
was prevailed upon in 1619 to accept from the revolted subjects of the Emperor 
Ferdinand II. the crown of Bohemia. But, u uneasy lies the head that wears a 
crown ;" this indeed proved a fatal gift to Frederick, whose royalty was but 
ephemeral, for he was driven out of Prague, Nov. 1620, by the imperial army, 
and deprived of his dominions and electoral dignity. Lord Herbert of Cherbury, 
in his " Autobiography," mentions his kind reception by the Prince and Princess 
Palatine, at their castle of Heidelberg, and also speaks of his viewing the " fair 
library" there. An interesting literary relic from this library is now in the British 
Museum. It is a copy of Sir Walter Raleigh's " History of the World," printed 
16 14, in folio. From a series of Latin manuscript notes on the title-page and fol- 
lowing leaf, it appears that this volume once belonged to the Princess Elizabeth, 
and was left behind her at Prague, on her flight from that city in Nov. 1620, when 
it fell into the hands of a Spaniard named Verdugo. At the recapture of Prague 
by the Swedes, in 1648, the book was recovered by a German of the name of Klee, 
who restored it to John Philip Frederick, son of the princess. Good portraits of 
the Queen of Bohemia are at Hampton Court. An interesting large historical 
painting, by Adam Willaerts, is in the royal collection. It represents the 
embarkation of the Prince and Princess Palatine at Margate, on their homeward 

Notes. 223 

journey on the 21st of April, 161 3. The picture was purchased by her Majesty 
in 1858, having been acquired in Holland. In the centre appears conspicuously 
the ship Prince Royal, which was built and at that time commanded by Phineas 
Pett, on this her first voyage. Lord Howard of Effingham, then Earl of Not- 
tingham, one of the heroes of the Armada, was the admiral of the squadron 
appointed to convey the English princess to her adopted country. At Althorp is 
a large painting, by ( Velvet' Breughel, representing Elizabeth, with her husband 
and son, Sir Dudley Carleton, Maurice Prince of Orange, Prince Frederick 
Henry, and many others of the Court at the Hague, going out to hunt. Some 
interesting juvenile autograph letters by the princess are in the MS. department, 
British Museum. Many of her letters are printed in Evelyn's Memoirs {Appendix), 
and also in the " Archaeologia," (vol. 37 and 39). She was the mother of the 
Princes Rupert and Maurice, both of whom fought bravely on the royalist side 
in the Civil Wars. From the Princess Sophia, her twelfth child (married to 
Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover), Queen Victoria is descended and derives 
her title to the throne. 

71. Page 58. Arabella Stuart was usually called by her contemporaries, 
Madame Arbella and the Lady Arbella. The story of the loves and misfortunes 
of this accomplished woman, whose greatest crime appears to have consisted in 
her endeavour to get married, forms one of the most entertaining of D'Israeli's 
" Curiosities of Literature." In her case, most emphatically, the course of true 
love never did run smooth. Correr, the Venetian Ambassador in London, about 
1608 or 1609, penned the following sketch of her, under the misnomer of 
Madame Isabelle: — ■ 

" The person nearest in blood to His Majesty after his children is Madame 
Isabelle, who is descended, like the King, from Margaret the daughter of 
Henry VII, being born of a natural brother of his Majesty's father, whereby she 
is cousin to him. She is 28 years of age, is not particularly handsome, but in 
recompense she is adorned with a thousand lovely virtues ; for besides that she 
is noble both in her actions and her manners, she possesses several languages in 
perfection, viz. Latin, Italian, French, and Spanish; she understands Greek and 
Hebrew, and is constantly studying. She is not very rich ; for the late Queen, 
being jealous of every body, and especially of those who had some pretension to 
the crown, under divers pretexts deprived her of the greatest part of her revenues; 
hence the poor Lady cannot live in splendour, and has not the means of doing 
good to those who serve her, as she would wish. The King makes a show of 
affection and esteem by allowing her to live at court, which the deceased Queen 
would never permit her to do. The King had promised to restore her property, 
and to procure a husband for her ; she is nevertheless still kept from both the 
one and the other." {Relation d* Angleterre, p. 82.) 

At the time of the visit of the Prince of Wirtemberg, Arabella was privately 
married to Mr. Seymour, afterwards Marquis of Hertford and Duke of Somerset, 
whom she had known from childhood ; but on this being discovered, in July, 

224 Notes. 

1610, they were separately imprisoned. The romantic particulars of her escape 
and speedy capture by order of the heartless monarch, are well known. When, 
in 16 1 3, the young Prince of Saxe Weimar went over the Tower of London, he 
found the unhappy lady immured there, and there she dragged out the brief 
remnant of a life of misery, which terminated in a state of lunacy. A homely 
doggrel verse of a black-letter ballad in the Roxburghe collection, makes Arabella 
say : — 

" I would I had a milk-maid been, 

Or born of some more low degree, 
Then I might have loved where I like, 

And no man could have hindred me." 

Her letters, beautiful in penmanship and touching in expression, many of which 
were written in the time of her troubles, are preserved in the British Museum. 
Several miniatures of her, all attributed to the masterly hand of Nicholas Hilliard, 
were exhibited at the Loan Collection in South Kensington Museum in 1862. 

72. Page 58, Frederick Ulric was the son of Henry Julius, Duke of Bruns- 
wick, and was cousin to Prince Henry, to whom he was then on a visit. 
Mr. Beaulieu in a letter, 29th of March, 1610 (Winwood, iii. 145), writes: 
" Here is expected this day the young Prince of Brunswick, who shall be lodged 
with the Prince at St. James's. The speech is that he cometh for a marriage 
with the Lady Elizabeth, and that he will stay some months in these parts." The 
French Ambassador, La Boderie, communicates similar news to Villeroy,on May 1, 
but adds, with reference to the * design of marriage/ that the Prince of Brunswick, 
* soit de mauvoise grace.' (Jmbassades, v. 221.) The two young Princes were 
much attached to each other, and several of their letters are preserved in the Har- 
leian MS. 7007. The German Prince travelled in many parts of England, some- 
times in company with Prince Henry; one place visited by the former was Ox- 
ford, although Nichols {Progresses of James I.) states that he could find no record 
of his reception here; but a proof sufficient is contained in the existence of a 4to. 
volume of congratulatory verses, composed by the Oxonians on this occasion. 
This volume, formerly in King James's library, is now in the British Museum ; 
it is entitled, " Musae hospitales Wicchamicas in adventum illustrissimi Principis 
Frederici-Ulrici primogeniti Henrici Julii, serenissimi Ducis Brunsvicensis et 
Luneburgensis. Exhibitae Oxonias in Collegio Novo, die 6 Mensis Maii, anno 
dom. 1 610." On May 17th a warrant was issued to pay to Sir David Murray, 
Gentleman of the Bedchamber to the Prince [Henry], £1000 for extraordinary 
expenses incurred by the abode of the young Duke of Brunswick with the Prince. 
Cal. of State Papers.) In the Book of Privy Purse Expenses of Prince Henry 
kept by Sir David Murray {Rec. Off. Dom. lvii.) is an entry under date of July 
18, 1 6 10, " To Isaac [Oliver] for a picture of his highnes made to the Duke of 
Brunswick, £8 ;" and a further sum of £3 was paid, " for another picture of his 
highnes made in paper." Towards the end of June appears a record (Devon's 
Issues of the Exchequer) of a sum of £1900 paid by the King to Peter Vanlore, 

Notes. 225 

for a jewel given by his Majesty to the Duke of Brunswick, and also for a ring 
presented to the said duke by the Lady Elizabeth. A suit of gilt armour which 
Prince Henry had ordered to be made, as a present to his cousin the Duke of 
Brunswick, was sent soon after the Prince's death, in 161 2, by the hands of a 
special *nessenger, the payments to whom, and for which armour " fairly gilt and 
graven" (costing £340) occur in Devon's Issues, pp. 160, 173. 

Jn a Poem by William Fennor {Descriptions, &c. 16 16) we are told that the 

" Yong Prince of Brundswicke craves the second place, 
whose virtues with him brings a noble spirit : 
Hee's milde and courteous, mixt with maiesticke grace, 

his praise is not so much as he doth merit : 
A Prince, a Schollar, and a Travailer, 
a peacefull youth and yet a souldier." 

Frederick Ulric was a weak prince, of a pacific disposition, and altogether unsuited 
to the stirring and troublous period of the thirty years' war, into the vortex of 
which, however, he was unwillingly drawn. He died in 1634, from the eifects 
of a fall from his horse, at the age of 43. His younger brother, Christian, 
Duke of Brunswick, and Protestant Bishop of Halberstadt, engaged with ardour 
in the cause of Frederick V, King of Bohemia, who had married the very Lady 
Elizabeth whom it had been supposed his brother had courted. Christian came 
to England in December, 1624, and in the following January received the Order 
of the Garter. He was lodged and well entertained by Prince Charles, received 
from him a gift of £3000, and had a pension assigned to him of £2000 a year. 
(Cat. of State Papers.) This Duke of Brunswick has been mistaken by Nichols 
and Devon for his brother, Frederick Ulric. A letter by Chamberlain affords us 
an amusing anecdote respecting this visit. He writes on January 8, 1625 : 
" The Duchess of Richmond admitted him [at Ely House] with the proviso that 
he must not offer to kiss her ; but what was wanting in herself, was supplied in 
her attendants and followers, who were all kissed over twice in less than a quarter 
of an hour." This excessive kissing-custom, it would seem, was nothing unusual 
in this or in previous reigns. For other examples, see p. 90, and Note 1 17. 

73. Page 58. Antoine Le Fevre de la Boderie was, in April, 1606, appointed 
by Henry IV. his Ambassador in England. He remained here until 161 1, 
excepting only a short interval in 1609, when he returned to France, on which 
occasion James I. presented him with a basin and ewer of gold, for which John 
Williams was paid a nice little sum of £762 2s. 6d. (Cal. of State Papers?) La 
Boderie was a busy correspondent, and has left five volumes of " Ambassades en 
Angleterre," printed at Paris, 1750, i2mo., which give no very favourable picture 
of King James or of his Court. Sir Thomas Edmondes speaks of him as " a very 
honest gentleman." He was of the reformed religion, and died in 1615. 

74. Page 59. Marc' Antonio Cornao, called also Cornaro, but more fre- 
quently Correr or Correro, was the Venetian resident " ordinary" or " lieger" 

G G 

226 Notes. 

Ambassador in England. Sir Henry Wotton wrote a letter from Venice, August 1 6, 
1608, recommending to Prince Henry this gentleman, and his son a youth of 
" so sweet a spirit." The present ambassador, he remarks, " is the third since the 
renewed friendship between Great Britain and the Republic, in the royal person 
of our good King" [James]. He proceeds to give a favourable character o£ Correr 
(Birch's Prince Henry, 1 15), who returned to Venice in 161 1, in which year he 
presented his relation of England to the Senate. Mr. Holmes in his list of Venetian 
Ambassadors {Camden Society) states that there is no relation existing of the English 
Embassy of Antonio Correro, but this is the same individual as Marco Antonio; 
and in 1668, there was published a small volume at Montbeliard (our old friend 
"Mompelgard" — See the Introduction), entitled "Relation d'Angleterre. Par 
Marc-Anton Correr." This work, which is very rare, and hitherto unused, it is 
believed, by English writers, in illustration of the reign of James I, is a translation 
from the Italian MS. descriptive of the country to which the author was accredited. 
A copy of the printed book is in the British Museum. Translations of portions 
will be found in our Notes. According to Mr. Rawdon Brown's valuable 
Calendar of Venetian State Papers, Correr was in London again on a diplomatic 
mission in July, 1626. His despatches written from this country are at Venice, 
and most probably his original Relation of England. 

75. Page 59. Jehan Berck, Pensionary of Dort, had been employed on a 
mission to this country two years before. He was now accompanied by Albert 
Verius (or de Veer), Pensionary of Amsterdam ; Helias van Oldenbarnevelt, Pen- 
sionary of Rotterdam, brother of the great statesman John, who was beheaded ; 
and Albert Joachimi, Deputy of Zealand, an " honest and sufficient man" {Win- 
wood; but there misspelt "Jouching"). Van Meteren {Nederl. Historie) speaks 
at length of their proceedings in England ; the main object of their visit being to 
thank King James for favours conferred, and to ascertain what assistance he would 
render in the contest about the States of Cleves and Juliers. Other propositions 
were made, which are detailed in a letter of Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, to Winwood, 
on May 14, 1610 {Winwood, iii. p. 161). But very little was effected owing to 
the disastrous news of the French King's death, and to the absence of the English 
King from London, whereat, it is said, " the ambassadors felt themselves much 
neglected and aggrieved." James, who was at that time in the country, enjoying 
the pleasures of hunting, hawking and fishing, on his part uttered his discontent 
against the States, " in that they had sent men of such quality to the King of 
France, and served him with mean Pensioners of Townes." (Letter of Beaulieu, 
May 2, in Winwood.) Cecil, in the letter above mentioned, is anxious to explain 
to Winwood, the English Ambassador at the Hague, that the Dutch Pensionaries 
had been treated here with great respect. " First," he says, " for their reception, 
that their own purpose to come in their ships up to London, and their refusing 
to go on land at Gravesend, hath prevented us that they were not brought into 
the city with such lustre as is reported their colleagues were at Paris. Yet we did 
what we could to send barges to meet them by the way (as they did), and coaches 

Notes. 227 

to bring them to their lodgings ; wherein we hope they have had no cause of 
mislike. At their access to his Majesty, they received all the honour that is 
here usually done to the ambassadors of the greatest monarchs." In Van 
Meteren, every event in connection with this journey is related couleur de rose. 
The Deputies were conducted everywhere to view the rarities of England ; they 
were even feasted on St. George's Day. On the 24th [14th O. S.] May, the 
King entertained them at his own table very magnificently, when the assassination 
of the French monarch formed the chief topic of conversation. After the repast, 
the four Ambassadors were knighted in the presence of many lords and gentle- 
men. (See also Rymer's Feeder a.) After taking leave of his Majesty and of 
the Queen, Princess Elizabeth, and Prince Henry, they went to visit the young 
Duke of York (Charles I, at this time nine years old), who was ill with the 
measles (sieck vande maselen). On May 28th [18th O. S.], they took their 
departure, carrying with them handsome presents. Mention is also made by Van 
Meteren of the Duke Lewis Frederick of Wirtemberg and his assistants, and of 
the young Duke of Brunswick. Of Sir Noel Caron we shall speak hereafter. 

76. Page 59. Correr, the Venetian Ambassador in London (1 608-1 1), in his 
" Relation d'Angleterre," p. 80, speaks in the following terms of that idol of the 
nation, Prince Henry, at whose death, in 1612, says Bishop Hacket (Life of Lord 
Keeper Williams, p. 27), "so much light was extinguished, that a thick dark- 
ness, next to that of hell, is upon our land at this day" [i.e. circa 1650]. 

" The King's eldest son named Henry is a prince very intelligent (fort spirituel), 
very generous and of very great hopes ; all his actions are accompanied by a sur- 
prising gravity beyond his age ; he applies himself to study although it is dis- 
pleasing to him, but this he does rather to please his father than from his own 
inclination, on which account his Majesty frequently reproves him. One day 
the King, after having remonstrated with him at length on this subject, said to 
him, that if he did not attend more seriously to his studies, he would give the 
kingdom to his brother Charles, because he learnt thoroughly well, and studied 
with intelligence and attention. The Prince did not reply, out of respect to his 
father, but going into his chamber, and his tutor continuing to speak to him on 
the subject, he answered, ' I know what becomes a great prince, and it is not 
necessary that I should be a doctor but rather a soldier, and well acquainted with 
the affairs of the world. If my brother is as learned as it is said, he should be 
made Archbishop of Canterbury.' (Compare also Lilly's Life of Charles I, 1651, 
p. J$.) This answer having been communicated to the King his father, did not 
quite please him, for as his Majesty was persuaded that the Prince was very much 
beloved, that he gave good earnest concerning his person, and that his subjects 
had already placed all their hopes in him, the King began to show signs of jea- 
lousy of him ; for this reason this young Prince has need of having about him a 
person of judgment and of good counsel." 

From an interesting Biography " The true Picture and Relation of Prince 
Henry," written by " W. H., one of the late Prince's servants " (probably William 

228 Notes. 

Haydone, his Groom of the Bedchamber, see Birch, p. 451), and dedicated to the 
Prince's sister Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia and Princess Palatine (Leyden, 1634, 
4to.) it is said (p. 9) that Henry " was exceeding magnifick and stately in all his 
doings, and principally in feasting of great persones ; such as was the young Duke 
of Brounswick, the young Landgrave of Hesse (see ante, p. 1 43), the Duke of 
Wirtemberg (see pp. 55, &c), and others, which he feasted most royally, giving 
them all maner of contentment, that they could have desired of him." And again, 
at p. 27, the author writes : " He tooke great delight in ryding of great horses, 
and laboured to have of the best and rarest horses that were to be found, and had 
such care of them that he went often to the stables to see them, and accounted 
them to be a part of his best jewels, as on a time he declared evidently. For 
having sent one of the best that he had, and which he loved dearly (named Pied- 
Admirall) to the Duke of Brounswick, his cousin, who had been farre in love with 
him during the time that he sejourned in England, and one of his servants who 
had gone over with the horse to the Duke having brought backe from him to his 
Highnes for a token a certaine booke full of pictures of horses, with such furni- 
ture as belonged to them ; after that he had somewhat slightly, and as it were in 
disdaine turned over some of the leaves thereof, he uttered this speech before the 
said servant and all that stood by : 'I would rather have my Pied-Admirall 
againe alive, than all these painted beasts.'" Many of Prince Henry's books, 
including those on horsemanship, having his arms and mottos stamped on the 
original handsome bindings, are in the British Museum. 

77. Page 60. The following sketch of James I. is translated from the " Rela- 
tion d' Angleterre" of Correr, the Venetian Ambassador in London from 1 608- 1 1 . 
" He who now reigns is James, Sixth King of Scotland, and First of England, 
born June 19, 1563 [1566], and who is now 43 years old. He is of moderate 
height, of a very good complexion, of an agreeable presence, and of a very robust 
constitution, which he endeavours to preserve in its vigour. He ardently loves 
hunting, and makes use of it not only for his diversion, but also for his health; so 
thoroughly does he devote himself to it, that he has abandoned and thrown under 
foot all other business, which he has resigned to his Council and Ministers, so that 
one may truly say that he is merely a Prince by name, and rather in appearance 
than in fact. This proceeds purely from inclination, seeing that he can, and knows 
how to, exercise the art of reigning, and that he is endowed with an excellent 
understanding and extraordinary learning, having earnestly applied himself to 
study during his youth, but now he has entirely abandoned it. He professes the 
Protestant religion, which is thus called because it is to speak correctly a mixture 
of various religions as to doctrine, but not in what relates to government and 
policy, Calvin denying not only the spiritual powers, but also the temporal, which 
all Princes hold in horror." (P. 57.) 

" He is a great enemy to our religion, not only because he believes it to be full 
of abuses and artifice, but especially for that unjust, impious, and inhuman doc- 
trine, which we have before noticed, which obliges him to speak very badly of it, 

Notes. 229 

and in very scornful and altogether injurious terms ; and he holds it all the more 
in horror, because in this last conspiracy against his person and entire kingdom, 
he discovered the most horrible, the most cruel and the most barbarous attempt 
which had ever been made ; for as he himself told me, * one has seen many times 
Princes assassinated — one has seen attempts made to annihilate a whole house and 
posterity; but to wish to extinguish with the person of the King all his posterity, 
and to ruin a whole kingdom — this was quite unexampled ;' for if this enterprise 
had succeeded, it is certain that not only the King, the Queen and their children 
would have been killed, but also all the clergy, judges, most of the citizens, and 
more than 30,000 would have perished ; and after that the people being left 
without a ruler, would have been free to commit all the evil they could have 
desired, to the total ruin of the kingdom. And what is more, he pretends that 
the Jesuits have been participators in this frightful treason ; it is this that un- 
doubtedly will render this prince more cruel towards our true religion — for in 
other respects, his Majesty is naturally very gentle, an enemy to cruelty, a lover 
of justice, and full of good will. He is accustomed to go to prayer and to sermon 
every Sunday, and every Tuesday, holding in much devotion this day on which 
he was delivered from a conspiracy formed by certain Scottish earls to kill him in 
Scotland in 1660 [1600, see Note 93, ' Gowry Conspiracy']. It is for this 
reason he goes every Tuesday to church, in order to render thanks to God, who 
preserved him from those assassins. He loves tranquillity, peace, and repose ; he 
has no inclination for war ; on the contrary, it is not in the least conformable to 
his nature — it is this that displeases many of his subjects. And what they find 
still worse is, that the King having entirely abandoned the government of his 
kingdoms, leaves all care of them to his Council, and thinks of nothing else than 
to take his pleasure in hunting. He does not make much of (il ne fait point de 
caresses) his subjects, and does not receive them with the same cordiality {bonnes- 
cberes) by which Queen Elizabeth used to gain the hearts of this people, who love 
their prince so much, that if he passed a hundred times a day through a street, 
they would always run to see him, feeling pleased that royalty should be gratified 
with this mark of afFection. Queen Elizabeth used to observe this custom parti- 
cularly, but the King on the contrary disdains it. Thus while the Queen acquired 
the intense love of the people, the present King is hated and despised by them, his 
Majesty's humour being rather to live privately among eight or ten of his own set 
{des siens) than magnificently and in public, as is the custom of the country and 
the wish of the people." (Pp. 75-78.) 

" He hates and has an intense horror of the Pope, calling him a ' Monster of 
Nature,' and when he expatiates on this topic, he says hortible things of him, 
which, to tell the truth, offend the ears of those who hear them." (P. 90.) 

"The Councillors of the King are 25 in number; if you want anything done, 
you must make large presents, for it is customary in this country that the more any 
one receives, the more he is esteemed and honoured ; and this abuse is carried to 
such an extent, that they take not only from their subjects, but even from foreigners 

230 Notes. 

and ministers of Princes. The authority of these being so great, other noble and 
ancient families suffering by the comparison, so thoroughly hate the power of these 
counsellors, that they declare them to be petty kings and tyrants." (Pp. 84, 86.) 
Among the old Royal MSS. in the British Museum is the original of the Basi- 
likon Doron, written by James when King of Scotland, for the instruction of his 
son Prince Henry. The binding is of crimson velvet, with gold clasps and 
corner pieces, having the King's initials on both covers, and on the lower cover 
the arms of Scotland, also in gold. Besides this volume there are two others 
in his hand throughout; one a Paraphrase of the Revelation {Old Royal- MS. 
18 B. xiv.) dedicated " To the quhole christiane kirke militant in quhat sumeuir 
pairte of the earth;" the other being a metrical version of the Psalms {Old 
Royal MS. 18 B. xvi.) Subjoined is his version of the Lord's Prayer, which 
certainly is not very elegant, but is a good example of what the British Solomon 
thought worthy of himself: — 

" O michtie father that in heauin remainis 
Thy noble name be sanctifeit aluayes 
thy Kingdome come, in earth thy uill & rainis 
euen as in heauinnis mot be obeyed uith prayse 
& giue us lorde oure dayly bread & foode 
forgiuing us all oure trespassis aye 
as ue forgiue ilk other in lyke moode 
lorde in temptation lead us not ue praye 
but us from euill deliuer euer moire 
for thyne is Kingdome ue do all record 
allmichtie pouer & euerlasting gloire 
for nou & ay, so mot it be 6 lorde." 

The Museum likewise possesses some of James's correspondence with " Steenie" 
(the Duke of Buckingham), familiarized to us by Sir Walter Scott in the " Fortunes 
of Nigel." 

78. Page 60. Mr. Beaulieu writes from London on April 26 : " His Majesty 
departed hence yesterday towards Newmarket" — {Winzvood.) Mr. Chamberlain 
dates from London on May 2 : " Our St. George's Feast passed without making 
any new Knights. The next day [Apr. 24] the King went towards Thetford, 
where he now remains." Thetford is 80 miles distant from London. 

yg. Page 60. Sir Noel Caron was an eminent and able diplomatist, who 
represented the States of the Netherlands in this country during the long period 
of thirty-four years, in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. He erected a hand- 
some house at South Lambeth, where he had a large park for deer, which extended 
to Vauxhall and Kennington. At this house, on whose portal were inscribed the 
words " Omne Solum Forti Patria," he entertained Queen Elizabeth, in July 1 599, 
when she was on her way to Lord Burghley's seat at Wimbledon. In October 
following, the Queen presented Monsieur Caron, " Agent for Flaunders," with 



ten chains of gold, weighing together more than sixty-eight ounces. In 1607 he 
obtained a lease for twenty-one years of the Prince of Wales's manor of Kennington, 
with all the houses, buildings, &c. containing 122 acres, at an annual rent of 
£16 ioj. gd. In the Privy Purse Expenses of Prince Henry [Record Off. 
Dom. lvii) are several payments made in 16 10 to "Sir Noel Carones man," for 
fruit brought to the Prince; and one entry shews a sum of £1 to have been 
given for a " picture to his Highnes." Caron House (of which there is a cut 
in Allen's "History of Lambeth," 1827, taken from an old plan, and now 
re- copied), with its gardens and orchards, was granted 
to Lord Chancellor Clarendon, by Charles II, in 
1666, and in the year following was made over by the 
Chancellor to Sir Jeremy Whichcott, in considera- 
tion of the sum of £2000. Hither the Fleet pri- 
soners were removed after the Great Fire. The house 
was on the site of Messrs. Beaufoy's distillery. Allen 
states that part of the old building was standing only 
a few years before, as " Caron House Seminary," but in 1809 the principal 
portion was demolished ; and that a considerable remnant of the walls surrounding 
the park existed when he wrote (1827), particularly one place across Kennington 
Oval. According to Nichols, however, the house was pulled down in 1687, and 
a moderate sized one built on its site, which was taken down in 1810. Sir Noel 
was a very worthy and charitable man ; in 1607 he gave £10 towards the repairs 
of Lambeth church, and £50 to the poor. In 161 5 he founded almshouses at 
Vauxhall for seven poor women, granting an annual pension to each of £4. 
Howell, in his Letters, calls him " Lord Caroon" and doubtless the name was 
commonly so pronounced. His autograph letters are dated " De Suydt Lambeth y 
He died in December, 1624. (Van der Aa, Biog. Woord. der Nederl.) His 
helmet, coat of mail, gauntlet and spurs, together with his arms, were placed in 
Lambeth church, and when Nichols wrote, were in good preservation. In the 
reign of James I, the " Keeper of the Game" about Lambeth and Clapham was 
allowed one penny a day, and £1 6s. Sd. per annum for his livery. (Expenses 
of James I. in Somen Tracts, ii. 392.) The name of Sir Noel Caron does not 
appear either in the " Biographie Universelle," or in the " Nouvelle Biographie 
Generate, published by MM. Didot." 

80. Page 60. The Ferry at Lambeth was a Horseferry between Lambeth Palace 
and Millbank. The memory of it is retained in the name " Horseferry Road," in 
Westminster. The following is extracted from an interesting paper on [old] West- 
minster Bridge, in the " Penny Magazine," 1842, p. 150 : — " Those who may 
have occasion to cross the river by a wherry from the stairs at the foot of the fine 
old gateway of Lambeth Palace to Millbank on the opposite side, are landed on a 
shelving slope, directly opposite the end of Market Street, and a little southward 
of the church of St. John the Evangelist. At the top of the slope stands a little 
wooden house ; that is the old ferry-house, and the place is that of the old Horse- 

232 Notes, 

ferry. Directly opposite, some hundred yards or so from Lambeth Palace, is an 
opening to an obscure street, still known as Ferry Street, and one, perhaps both, 
of the houses which then formed considerable inns still stand there — where tra- 
vellers were accustomed to wait for the return of the boat or for better weather, 
... or to stay all night and sleep there if the day were far spent, and themselves 
somewhat timid. How primitive all this seems : one can hardly be satisfied that 
we are really speaking of the Thames at Westminster, and of a time so little 
removed ! The Horseferry, it appears, belonged to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury from time immemorial, by whom it was leased at a rent of £20, at the time 
of the suppression. On the opening of the Bridge, both the archbishop and the 
lessee received compensation." 

81. Page 60. According to Peacham (see ante, p. 139), the public had to 
pay one penny to see the monuments in Westminster Abbey. The following, 
however, were payments made by royalty : — 

" Paid for the hire of a barge that did carry the Palatine and Her Highness 
[Princess Elizabeth] by water, when they went to see the monuments at 
Westminster .......... 20s. 

Given by Her Highness' command to the Keeper of the Monuments at West- 
minster ........... 20s." 

— (Lord Harrington's MS. Account Book, 161 2- 13, quoted in Green's " Prin- 
cesses," v. 196.) 

82. Page 61. Hippolytus Colle, Colli, or a Collibus, was a Swiss jurist, of 
Italian origin, born at Zurich, 1561 ; died, 1612. He was Chancellor to Chris- 
tian, Prince of Anhalt, and afterwards Privy Councillor to the Elector Palatine, 
Frederick IV, by whom he was employed in several embassies. In 1591 he was 
in England, and again in 16 10. He wrote a few legal treatises. His biographer 
says of him : u Two virtues were especially commended in him : prudent reserve, 
and incorruptibility (a^xapyup/a), or a persistent refusal of bribes, which blind 
the eyes even of the wise." (Herzog. Athena Rauriae; Basil. 1778, pp. 157-9.) 

83. Page 61. Benjamin von Buwinckhausen was a skilful diplomatist, of 
Wirtemberg ; he made several special visits to England, first, in the service of 
Duke Frederick, to Queen Elizabeth, in 1598, and subsequently to congratulate 
James on his accession. He came again, in company with Prince Lewis Frederick, 
in 1608 and 1610. (See the Introduction.} His correspondence with Sir Robert 
Cecil on the affairs of Germany is in the State Paper Office. In 1619-20 he was 
appointed Ambassador from the Princes of the Union. 

84. Page 61. The accounts we have of that "deservedly famous mechanician 
and chymist," as the Hon. Robert Boyle calls Cornelius Drebbel, are confused and 
inexact. As Drebbel passed many years of his life in England, was patronized by 
James I. and Charles I, and astonished our countrymen with his wonderful inven- 
tions and instruments, it becomes more necessary to collect as many particulars as pos- 
sible regarding his history and doings here, and in elucidation of these discoveries, 
especially as his name is only once to be seen in that vast storehouse of historical 


2 33 

lore, Nichols' Progresses of the former monarch. With this view, therefore, we 
shall endeavour to supply the defect by availing ourselves of original sources of 
information, including the investigations of Drebbel's own countrymen. The 
earliest, perhaps, of these writers is Paquot, who has admitted Drebbel at some 
length into his " Hist. litt. des Pays Bas," 1 765, i. 3 1 7, 3 1 8. Adelung, a learned 
German author, followed with a notice considerably more extended, in his "His- 
tory of Human Folly" {Geschichte der menscblichen Narrheit, 1 786, ii. 1 25- 1 50) — 
a very comprehensive theme by-the-bye — but the opinion which he entertained 
of the subject of his biography may be ascertained by the heading he adopted, 
" Cornelius van Drebbel, ein Charlatan." More circumstantial still, as well as 
more exact, was the Dutch writer, J. P. van Cappelle, who has introduced Drebbel 
in his " Bijdragen tot de Geschiedenis der Wetenschappen en Letteren in Neder- 
land," 8vo. Amst. 1 82 1 ; pp. 65- 1 26. To this notice is prefixed a portrait of Drebbel 
very neatly engraved. The last account is by A. J. van der Aa (Biog. Woordenb. 
der Nederlanden, iv. pp. 322-327), who has availed himself of some particulars 
from the Dutch Notes and Queries, the " Navorscher." Other epithets have 
been bestowed upon Drebbel, as alchemist, empiric, magician, and professor of 
the black art. But, however extravagant and improbable some of the following 
descriptions may appear, yet, allowing, as we ought to do, for the crude state of 
physical science and the credulity of the times in which he lived, as well as the then 
prevailing tendency to clothe scientific investigations and experiments with an air 
of mystery, Cornelius Drebbel is entitled, we think, to hold a respectable position 
among the ingenious inventors and mechanicians of the early part of the seven- 
teenth century. 

Nearly all Drebbel's biographers fall into the mistake of not making him 
arrive in England until after the battle of Prague, in 1620; the notice in the 
text is therefore of value, as showing that as early as 16 10 Cornelius was settled 
at Eltham Park, exhibiting his Perpetual Motion, which seems to have been a 
sight worthy even of the visit of a foreign prince. At this point, then, we are able 
to answer Adelung, who remarks : " What Drebbel did or invented in London is 
not known." In all probability he was allowed apartments in Eltham Palace by the 
king ; a similar privilege having been granted to Vandyke in the next reign, and 
it was at Eltham that this celebrated artist in summer painted some of his magnifi- 
cent pictures. (Carpenter's Life, p. 28.) At the time above mentioned (1610), 
in addition to the famous Hall yet remaining, there was standing a goodly pile of 
buildings of various styles and dates, which, under the name of " the King's 
House," formed the Palace at Eltham. Drebbel's Perpetual Motion is alluded to by 
Peacham (see " Sights and Exhibitions," ante, p. 139), and by a greater poet, rare 
Ben Jonson ; and as some curious mistakes have been made by Giffbrd, his 
editor, and others, as to what this " Motion" could have been, we have been 
desirous of giving a full description of it, and have accompanied this by an 
etching, both derived from a scarce work in the British Museum, written by one 
Thomas Tymme, " Professour of Divinitie," and published in 161 2, under the 

H H 

234 Notes. 

title of " A Dialogue philosophicall, wherein Natures secret closet is opened. . . 
Together with the wittie invention of an Artificiall Perpetuall Motion, presented 
to the Kings most excellent Maiestie. Discoursed betweene two speakers, Phila- 
delph and Theophrast." Before quoting this passage, however, it may be as well 
to make the reader acquainted with a statement of what wonderful things Drebbel 
could and did accomplish, translated from Paquot, and derived from a writer in 
"Notes and Queries" ( 1st Series, ii. 7), both of whom have taken their informa- 
tion from a Dutch Chronicle of Alkmaer (by C. van der Woude), printed there in 
1645. From this it appears that Drebbel presented King James with "A glass 
or crystal globe, wherein he blew or made a perpetual Motion by the power of 
the four elements. For every thing which (by the force of the elements) passes 
in a year on the surface of the earth, could be seen to pass in this cylindrical 
wonder in the shorter lapse of 24 hours. Thus were marked by it all years, 
months, days, hours; the course of the sun, moon, planets, and stars, &c. It 
made you understand what cold is, what the cause of the primum mobile, what 
the first principle of the sun, how it moves ; the firmament, the stars, the moon, 
the sea, the earth ; what occasions the ebb, flood, thunder, lightning, rain, wind; 
and how all things wax and multiply, &c, as every one can be informed by 
Drebbel's own works ; we refer the curious to his book, entitled Eeuwige 
Bewegingbe (Perpetual Motion). He built a ship, in which one could row and 
navigate under water, from Westminster to Greenwich, the distance of two Dutch 
miles; even five or six miles, or as far as one pleased. In this boat a person could 
see under the surface of the water and without candlelight, as much as he needed 
to read in the Bible or any other book. Not long ago this remarkable ship was 
yet to be seen lying in the Thames or London river. Aided by some instruments 
of his own manufacture, Drebbel could make it rain, lighten, and thunder, at 
every time of the year, so that you would have sworn it came in a natural way 
from heaven. By means of other instruments he could, in the midst of summer, 
so much refrigerate the atmosphere of certain places, that you would have thought 
yourself in the very midst of winter. This experiment he did once at his 
Majesty's request, in the great Hall of Westminster ; and although a hot summer 
day had been chosen by the King, it became so cold in the Hall that James and 
his followers took to their heels in hasty flight. With a certain instrument he 
could draw an incredible quantity of water out of a well or river. By his pecu- 
liar ingenuity he could at all times of the year, even in the midst of winter, hatch 
chickens and ducklings without the aid of hens or ducks. He made instruments 
by means of which were seen pictures and portraits ; for instance, he could show 
you kings, princes, nobles, although residing at that moment in foreign countries ; 
and there was no paint or painter's work to be seen, so that you saw a picture in 
appearance, but not in reality. He could make a glass that, placed in the dark 
near him or another, drew the light of a candle, standing at the other end of a 
long room, with such force, that the glass near him reflected so much light as to 
make him see to read perfectly. He could make a plane glass without grinding 



2 35 

it on either side, in which people saw themselves reflected seven times. He 
invented all these and many other curiosities, too various to relate, without the aid 
of the black art ; but by natural philosophy alone, if we may believe the tongues 
of those whose eyes saw it. By these experiments he so gained the King's favour, 
that his Majesty granted him a pension of 2000 guilders. He died in London, 
1634, in the 60th [62nd] year of his age." 

The extract from Tymme, in reference to the first-mentioned wonder — the 
Perpetual Motion — is as follows. In his Preface to the Reader he says : " And 
for that rare things move much, I have thought it pertinent to this Treatise to set 
before thee a most strange and wittie invention of another Archimedes, which 
concerneth Artificiall Perpetuall Motion, immitating Nature by a lively patterne of 
the Instrument itselfe, as it was presented to the Kings most royall hands by 
Cornelius Drebble of Alchmar in Holland," &c. At page 60 : " And to make 
plaine the demonstration unto you that the heavens move and not the earth, I 
will set before you a memorable Modell and Patterne, representing the motion of 
the Heavens about the fixed earth, made by Art in the immitation of Nature, by a 
Gentleman of Holland, named Cornelius Drebble, which instrument is perpetually 
in motion, without the means of Steele, springs and waights. — Philadelph. I 
much desire to see this strange invention. Therefore I pray thee, good Theo- 
phrast, set it here before me, and the use thereof. Theophrast. It is not in my 
hands to shew, but in the custody of King James, to whom it was presented. 
But yet behold the description thereof hereafter fixed. Phil. What use hath the 
Globe, marked with the letter A ? Theo, It representeth the Earth ; and it 
containeth in the hollow body thereof divers wheeles of brasse, carried about 
with moving, two pointers on each side of the Globe doe proportion and shew 
forth the times of dayes, moneths, and yeeres, like a perpetuall Almanacke. 
Phil. But doth it also represent and set forth the motions of the Heavens ? 
Theo. It setteth forth these particulars of Celestiall motion. First, the houres 
of the rising and setting of the Sunne, from day to day continually. Secondly, 
hereby is to be seene, what signe the Moone is in every 24 houres. Thirdly, in 
what degree the Sunne is distant from the Moone. Fourthly, how many degrees 
the Sunne and Moone are distant from us every houre of the day and night. 
Fiftly, in what signe of the Zodiacke, the Sunne is every moneth. Phil. What 
doth the circumference represent, which compasseth the Globe about, marked 
with this letter C ? Theo. That circumference is a ring of Cristall Glasse, 
which being hollow, hath in it water, representing the Sea, which water riseth 
and falleth, as doth the floud and ebbe, twise in 24 houres, according to the 
course of the tides in those parts, where this Instrument shall be placed. Whereby 
is to be seene how the Tides keepe their course by day or by night. Phil. What 
meaneth the little Globe about the Ring of the Glasse, signed with this letter B ? 
Theo. That little Globe, as it carrieth the forme of a Moone cressent, so it 
turneth about once in a moneth, setting forth the encrease and decrease of the 
Moones brightnesse, from the wane to the full, by turning round every moneth 

236 Notes. 

in the yeere. Phil. Can you yeeld me any reason to persvvade me concerning 
the possibility of the perpetuity of this motion? Theo. You have heard before 
that fire is the most active and powerfull element, and the cause of all motion in 
nature. This was well knowne to Cornelius, by his practise in the untwining 
of the Elements, and therefore to the effecting of this great worke, he extracted 
a fierie spirit out of the minerall matter, joyning the same with his proper Aire, 
which encluded in the Axeltree, being hollow, carrieth the wheeles, making a 
continuall rotation or revolution, except issue or vent be given to the Axeltree, 
whereby that imprisoned Spirit may get forth. I am bolde thus to conjecture, 
because I did at sundry times pry into the practise of this Gentleman, with 
whom I was very familiar. Moreover, when as the King our Soveraigne, could 
hardly beleeve that this motion should be perpetuall, except the misterie were 
revealed unto him : this cunning Bezaleel, in secret manner disclosed to his 
Maiestie the secret, whereupon he applauded the rare invention. The fame 
hereof caused the Emperour [Rudolph II.] to entreate his most Excellent Maiestie 
to licence [allow] Cornelius Bezaleel to come to his Court, there to effect the 
like Instrument for him, sending unto Cornelius a rich chaine of gold. Phil, It 
becommeth not me to make question concerning the certaintie of that, which so 
mighty Potentates out of the sublimity of their wisedomes have approved, yet me 
thinketh that time and rust, which corrupteth and weareth out all earthly things, 
may bring an end to this motion in few yeeres. Tbeo. To the end time may 
not weare these wheeles by their motion, you must know that they move in such 
slow measure, that they cannot weare, and the lesse, for that they are not forced 
by any poyse of waight. It is reported in the Preface of Euclydes Elements by 
John Dee, that he and Hieronimus Cardanus saw an instrument of perpetuall 
motion, which was solde for 20 talents of gold, and after presented to Charles the 
fift Emperour ; wherein was one wheele of such invisible motion, that in 70 
yeeres only his owne period should be finished. Such slow motion cannot weare 
the wheeles. And to the end rust may not cause decay, every engine belonging 
to this instrument is double guilded with fine gold, which preserveth from rust 
and corruption. Phil. This wonderfull demonstration of Artificial! motion, immi- 
tating the motion celestial], about the fixed earth, doth more prevaile with me to 
approve your reasons before aleadged concerning the moving of the Heavens, and 
the stability of the Earth, than can Copernicus assertions, which concerne the 
motion of the Earth. I have heard and read of manie strange motions artificial!, 
as were the inventions of Boetius, in whose commendation Cassiodorus writeth 
thus: Tou know profound things and shew mervailes, by the disposition of your 
Art, mettals doe lozue in sundrie formes : Diomedes picture of bras se, doth sound a 
Trumpet loude : a brasen Serpent hisseth : birds artificially sing sweetly. Very 
strange also was the moving of the Images of Mercurie : The brasen head which 
seemed to speake, made by Albertus Magnus : The Dove of wood, which the Mathe- 
matician Architas, did make to fie, as Agellius reporteth. Dedalus strange 
Images, which Plato speaketh of; Vulcans selfe-movers, whereof Homer hath 

Notes. 237 

written: the Iron Fly, made at Noremberge [by Regiomontanus], which being 
let out of the Artificers hands, did as it were flie about by the guests that were 
at the table, and at the last, as though it were weary, returned to his Maisters 
hand againe. In which Citie also an artificiall Eagle [made by Regiomontanus] 
was so ordered to flie aloft in the ayre toward the EmperOur comming thither, that 
it did accompany him a mighty way. These were ingenious inventions, but none 
of them are comparable to this perpetuall motion here described, which time 
by triall in ages to come, will much commend. Tbeo. These great misteries 
were attained by spending more oyle then wine ; by taking more paines then 
following pleasure." 

Having disposed of this curious and certainly marvellous description of Drebbel's 
instrument of Perpetual Motion, we will now quote Ben Jonson's allusion to it. 
This occurs in his "Silent Woman" (played in 1609), act 5, sc. 3. Morose 
exclaims, " My very house turnes round with the tumult! I dwell in a Wind- 
mill ! The Perpetuall Motion is here, and not at Eltham." On this passage 
Giffbrd offers the following note : " Here [at Eltham] was a puppet-show of great 
celebrity in our author's time. It is called in Peacham's verses to Coryat, ' that 
divine [' heavenly,' not ' divine? see p. 139] motion at [of] Eltham,' so that it was 
probably some piece of Scripture history. Jonson introduces it again in his Epigrams 
[' On the New Motion'] : — 

" See you yond' Motion ? not the old Fa-ding, 
Nor Captayne Pod, nor yet the Eltham-thing, 
[But one more rare" — ]. 

The mistake is certainly a curious one, inasmuch as the word Motion was at 
that period understood to signify a puppet-show as well, and sometimes even a single 
puppet, and it is used by Ben Jonson in his " Bartholomew Fair," and also by 
Shakespeare in this sense. The mistake is a suitable companion to that made by 
Mr. Payne Collier, who converted a piece of pastry or confectionery into a play 
(see his Hist, of Dram. Poetry, i. 20 ; and the New Retrospective Review, 1854, 
p. 244). Mr. Henry Dircks, C. E., the inventor of the Ghost illusion, pub- 
lished in 1 86 1 a goodly volume of 558 pages on the subject of Perpetual Motion. 
The author states that he was unable to see a copy of Tymme's work; he 
therefore quotes an extract from Bishop Wilkins, who, in his " Mathematical! 
Magick" (1648, p. 229, cap. ix., treating of a Perpetuall Motion) writes: 
" Amongst the chymicall experiments to this purpose may be reckoned up that 
famous motion invented by Cornelius Dreble, and made for King James ; 
wherein was represented the constant revolutions of the sun and moone, and 
that without the help either of spring or weights. Marcellus Vranckhein, 
speaking of the means whereby it was performed, he cals it, Scintillula animee 
magnetic*? mundi, seu Astralis et insensibilis spiritus 5 being that grand secret, 
for the discovery of which, those Dictators of Philosophic, Democritus, Pytha- 
goras, Plato, did travell unto the Gymnosophists and Indian Priests. The 
Authour himself, in his discourse upon it (Epist. ad Jacobum Regem), does not 

2 3 8 


at all reveal the way how it was performed. But there is one Thomas Tymme, 
who was a familiar acquaintance of his, and did often pry into his works (as 
he professes himself), who affirms it to bee done thus : ' By extracting a fiery 
spirit ,' &c. (See this, ante, p. 236.) What strange things may be done by such 
extractions I know not, and therefore dare not condemn this relation as impos- 
sible ; but methinks it sounds rather like achymicall dream, than a Philosophicall 
truth. It seems this imprisoned spirit is now set at liberty or else is grown weary, 
for the instrument (as I have heard) hath stood still for many years. It is here 
considerable that any force is weakest near the center of a wheel, and therefore 
though such a spirit might of itself have an agitation, yet 'tis not easily con- 
ceivable how it should have strength enough to carry the wheels about with it. 
And then the absurdity of the authours citing this, would make one mistrust his 
mistake ; he urges it as a strong argument against Copernicus, as if because Dreble 
did thus contrive in an engine the revolution of the heavens, and the immove- 
ablenesse of the earth, therefore it must needs follow that 'tis the heavens which 
are moved and not the earth. If his relation were no truer than his consequence, 
it had not been worth the citing." 

Bishop Wilkins, referring to the submarine vessel, says (p. 178) : •' That such 
a contrivance is feasible and may be effected, is beyond all question, because it 
hath been already experimented here in England by Cornelius Dreble; but 
how to improve it unto publike use and advantage so as to be serviceable for 
remote voyages, the carrying of any considerable number of men, with provi- 
sions and commodities, would be of such excellent use as may deserve some further 

Boyle also, in his " New Experiments physico-mechanicall," &c. (8vo. Oxf. 
1660 ; pp. 363-365), mentions a "conceit of Drebell, who is affirmed by more 
then a few credible persons, to have contriv'd for the late learned King James, a 
Vessel to go under water, of which tryal was made in the Thames with admired 
success, the vessel carrying twelve rowers besides passengers, one of which is yet 
alive, and related it to an excellent Mathematician that inform'd me of it. Now 
that for which I mention this story is, that having had the curiosity and oppor- 
tunity to make particular enquiries among the relations of Drebell, and especially 
of an ingenious Physitian [Dr. Kuffler] that marry'd his daughter, concerning the 
grounds upon which he conceived it feasible to make men unaccustom'd to con- 
tinue so long under water without suffocation, or (as the lastly mention'd person 
that went in the vessell affirmes) without inconvenience, I was answer'd that 
Drebell conceiv'd, that 'tis not the whole body of the Air, but a certain Quintes- 
sence (as Chymists speake) or spirituous part of it, that makes it fit for respiration, 
which being spent, the remaining grosser body or carcase (if I may so call it) of 
the Air, is unable to cherish the vitall flame residing in the heart : so that (for 
ought I could gather) besides the mechanicall contrivance of his vessell, he had a 
chymicall liquor which he accounted the chiefe secret of his submarine navigation. 
For when from time to time he perceiv'd that the finer and purer part of the Air 

Notes. 239 

was consum'd or over-clogg'd by the respiration and steames of those that went in 
his ship, he would, by unstopping a vessell full of this liquor, speedily restore to 
the troubled air such a proportion of vitall parts as would make it againe for 
a good while fit for respiration, whether by dissipating or precipitating the grosser 
exhalations or by some other intelligible way, I must not now stay to examine. 
Contenting myselfe to add, that having had the opportunity to do some service to 
those of his Relations, that were most intimate with him, and having made it my 
business to learne what this strange liquor might be, they constantly affirm'd that 
Drebell would never disclose the liquor unto any, nor so much as tell the matter 
whereof he made it, to above one person, who himselfe assur'd me that it was. 
This account of Drebell's performance I mention, not that I any further assent to 
his opinion then I have already intimated, but because the man and the invention 
being extraordinary, I suppose your Lordship will not be displeas'd to know the 
utmost I could learne about it, especially not having found it mention'd by any 
writer." Boyle, elsewhere {Works, ed. Birch, v. 128), speaks of Drebbei's dis- 
coveries. Writing on the subject of the Thermometer, he says : " It is certain 
that Drebble, that great, singular, learned mechanick, did by the help of this 
instrument, make a dial continually to move of itself, regularly shewing both the 
time of the day and other motions of the heavens ; did also make an automatous 
instrument of musick, and found out a furnace which he could govern to any 
degree of heat ; but whether these have died with him, or how far the medita- 
tions of others have wrought upon them, I shall humbly refer to a more leisurable 
enquiry." At p. 1 39, vol. iii. of his Works, ed. Birch, Boyle says : " I may safely 
affirm that a great deal of money hath been gained by tradesmen both in England 
and elsewhere upon the account of the Scarlet Dye invented in our time by Corne- 
lius Drebble, who was not bred a dyer, nor other tradesman." See further on the 
subject of this scarlet dye in Beckmann's Hist, of Inventions, art. ' Cochineal.' 
Beckmann says Drebbel communicated his discovery to KufFelar, who was after- 
wards his son-in-law, and that the name by which this dye was known was 
KufFelar's colour. When he mentions a little farther on a Fleming named Kepler, 
who established the first dye-house for scarlet in England, at the village of Bow, 
not far from London, we should recognize in this form the same Dr. Kuffler. 
The colour was also known as the " Bow-dye." 

It appears from the " Calendar of State Papers," of James I, that some short 
time previous to May 161 2, Drebbel addressed a letter in Latin to Prince Henry, 
informing him that the Lord Mayor had refused him permission to hold a Lottery, 
and that he had no other means of subsistence ; he begs in consequence the 
Prince's influence with Lord Treasurer Salisbury for leave to have one beyond 
the jurisdiction of the city. Here we behold the cunning Dutchman suffering 
from the same unfortunate, but alas ! too common, malady of atrophy of the 
purse, as the u Clerk of Oxenforde, of whom it is said :" — 

" But al though he were a philosophre, 
Yet hadde he but litel gold in cofre." 

240 Notes, 

The Prince had, in December, 1609, given the sum of £20 to "Cornelius 
the Dutchman," — undoubtedly Drebbel — as appears from his book of Privy 
Purse Expenses, in the Public Record Office (Dom. Ivii). A further sum of 
£20 was paid to Cornelius the Dutchman, on March 29th in the following year. 
Willem Boreel, the Dutch Ambassador in London in 1619, states that 
Drebbel, a very "cunning man in Nature's secrets," showed him a Micro- 
scope, manufactured by John [Lippershey, the spectacle- maker] of Middelburg, 
which had been presented to Drebbel himself by the Archduke Albert. 
(Borellus, De vero inventore TeIescopii y 1655, p. 35.) We are again reminded 
of Drebbel's fame in London by two letters, written on December 21, 1622, by 
the celebrated French philosopher Peiresc, who had shortly before been in England, 
anxiously enquiring of his friends and correspondents, Camden and Selden, 
respecting the truth of the astonishing inventions of "Cornelius Drubelsius (as he 
calls him), who is in the service of the King of Great Britain, and residing in a 
house near London." Peiresc refers to the Perpetual Motion, the submarine 
boat, and to telescopes {lunettes) by means of which you can read writing at the 
distance of more than a league. He also mentions his having seen at Paris 
Drebbel's small glasses [microscopes], through which you can see mites as large 
as flies. (Epist. Camdeni, 4to. Lond. 1691, pp. 333, 387.) The Dutch phi- 
losopher had acquired at Middelburg, about 1620, both a Telescope and a Micro- 
scope from the spectacle-maker, the supposed inventor, and it is likely that Drebbel 
was now attempting to pass off these optical instruments as his own invention, or 
had made others in imitation. Farley's verse, ridiculing the seeing, among other 
things, "a foolish Ingin move alone" (see Note 16), in all probability applies to 
one of Drebbel's specimens of handiwork. In 1625, "Cornelius Dreble the Engi- 
neer" walked in the funeral procession of his late royal master, in the immediate 
company of " Baston le Peer the dauncer, under-officers of the Mynte, Actors 
and Comedians." (Nichols' Progr. of James I. iii. 1042.) The Calendar of 
State Papers of Charles I, p. 367, discloses that on July 4, 1626, the Earl of 
Totness sent a Warrant to Sir W. Heydon, Lieutenant of the Ordnance, to 
provide lodgings and workshops in the " Minorites," for Cornelius Drebbel and 
Arnold Rotispen, who were to apply their skill for His Majesty's service. 
Having performed their work, we next find (June 5, 1627) another Warrant 
signed by the King, to pay Drebbel and Rotispen £100, as a reward for forging 
divers water-engines (p. 206). From the same source we learn that, in January, 
1630, "Cornelius Drible, engineer," in concert with other "undertakers" 
named, made propositions for draining the level within the counties of Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Cambridge, Isle of Ely, Huntingdon, Northampton, and Lincoln. From 
other documents of the date of March, 1630, it appears that Drebbel and 
Abraham Kuffler had been employed in the late expedition to Rochelle, by 
authority of an Order of the Council, issued on July 13, 1628, for the preparation 
of three extraordinary fireships, under the direction of Colonel Peblis, and six 
engines for fireworks, according to the directions of the Lord Admiral, with 



allowance of pay to the chief officers of the same fireships and engines; among 
whom are Abraham Kuffler, 20s. per diem, and Cornelius Drebbel, £150 per 
month. Kuffler and Drebbel petitioned for further payment, but this was refused. 

Drebbel had a daughter who married Dr. Kuffler, a physician. Monconys, 
in his " Voyage d'Angleterre," 1663, p. 40, informs us that he went four miles 
out of London, to a village called Stratford-bou, to see Dr. Keiffer (the same 
person), with whom he held much learned discourse on the subject of Drebbel's 
and the Doctor's own inventions and experiments. Kuffler, indeed, gave out that 
he was possessed of many of his father-in-law's secrets; and one of these, it appears, 
was brought to the notice of the Duke of York, through Mr. Secretary Pepys. In 
the Calendar of State Papers of Charles II, March, 1 662, is a Request of Johannes 
Sibertus KufFeler and Jacob Drebble, for a trial of their father Cornelius Drebble's 
secret of sinking or destroying ships in a moment, and they ask for a reward of 
£10,000 if it should succeed. The secret was left them by will, to preserve for 
the English Crown before any other power. Pepys {Diary, March 14th, 
1662) writes: "Home to dinner. In the afternoon come the German, Dr. 
Knuffler, to discourse with us about his engine to blow up ships. We doubted 
not the matter of fact, it being tried in Cromwell's time, but the safety of carrying 
them in ships ; but he do tell us, that when he comes to tell the King his secret — 
for none but the kings successively and their heirs must know it — it will appear 
to be of no danger at all. We concluded nothing, but shall discourse with the 
Duke of York to-morrow about it." And on October 11th, 1663, is another 
entry : " At noon to the Coffee-house, where, with Dr. Allen, some good dis- 
course about physick and chymistry. And among other things, I telling him 
what Dribble, the German Doctor, do offer of an instrument to sink ships ; he 
tells me that which is more strange, that something made of gold, which they call 
in chymistry Aurum Fulminans, a grain, I think he said, of it, put inte a silver 
spoon and fired, will give a blow like a musquett, and strike a hole through the 
silver spoon downward without the least force upwards ; and this he can make a 
cheaper experiment of, he says, with iron prepared." Evelyn also visited the 
wonderful Doctor, on August 1st, 1666. He says: "I went to Dr. Keffler, 
who married the daughter of the famous Chymist Drebbell, inventor of the 
bodied scarlet. I went to see his iron ovens, made portable (formerly) for the 
Prince of Orange's army." 

Drebbel's writings, many of which are in the British Museum, relate chiefly to 
his own discoveries; it must be confessed, however, that they contain but little 
of scientific value, yet they are curious and rare, and have not hitherto been accu- 
rately described. It would seem that Drebbel, immediately on his arrival in 
England, addressed a letter to King James I, descriptive of his Perpetual Motion. 
The exact year is not known, but from an Epistle by G. P. Schaghen, dated from 
Alcmaer (Drebbel's native place), December, 1607 (printed at p. 45 of the Dutch 
edition, " On the Nature of the Elements," 1621, presently to be mentioned), the 
writer refers to the Perpetual Motion as having been already presented to his 

I I 

242 Notes. 

Majesty ; he moreover extols Drebbel and his surprising discoveries, and alludes 
to the great gifts with which the King had honoured him. Drebbel, in his 
description, says that he was not sufficiently master of the English and Latin lan- 
guages to express perfectly his meaning ; that, therefore, he had written his 
treatise in Dutch {in Duyts), and had caused it to be literally translated. In the 
absence of any original Dutch printed edition in the Museum, there is good reason 
for stating that the work " On the Elements,'* including Drebbel's Letter to the 
King, appeared at Leyden in 1608 ; in that year likewise, and at the same place, 
came out a German translation of the former treatise, having an engraved portrait 
of the author on the back of the title; it was reprinted at Erfurt in 1624. The 
Dutch edition of both works re-appeared at Haerlem in 162 1, sm. 8vo. with a 
woodcut portrait of the author. A Latin translation by Peter Lauremberg, with an 
additional treatise by Drebbel, " De quinta Essentia," was published at Hamburg 
in 1621, by Joach. Morsius, who had travelled in England. Another edition, 
but without the work on the Elements, appeared in the same year, but no place 
of printing is given. The complete version was republished at Geneva, in 1628, 
i2mo. In this year also a distinct Latin translation of the " Nature of the Ele- 
ments," by Johann Ernst Burggrave, was published at Frankfort, in 8vo. This 
edition contains on the reverse of the title a very neatly engraved portrait of 
Drebbel, which may have been done by the author himself, as there is evidence 
of his having, when a young man, worked under the celebrated Goltzius, whose 
sister he afterwards married. While in his service, he executed a few engravings, 
one being a plan of his native place, dated 1597. In 1747, Boomkamp, the Dutch 
historian, was permitted the use of this plate for his work, " Alkmaer en deszelfs 
Geschiedenissen," by the Burgomasters of the town, in whose Chamber it had 
been deposited. The engraving is very accurately and carefully executed. 

85. Page 62. Nonesuch was a very famous palace, situated near Cheam in 
Surrey. It was erected for King Henry VIII, in all probability by the Italian 
painter and architect, Antonio Toto del Nunziata, who resided twenty years in 
this country. Vasari expressly states that Toto built the principal palace (// prin- 
cipal palazzd) of the King of England. (Vite de* pittori ; Firenze, 1854, x. 139.) 
When Elizabeth ascended the throne, Nonesuch was purchased by the Earl of 
Arundel, who completed and ornamented the building, and entertained her 
Majesty with great cheer for five days together. The Queen, however, soon 
became so partial to Nonesuch, that she induced Lord Lumley, the earl's son-in- 
law, to exchange the mansion, so that in 1591 it became again a royal palace. 
She paid frequent visits to it, and in 1600, when in her sixty-seventh year, we 
find her here — a perfect Diana — " excellently disposed to hunting, for every 
second day she is on horseback, and continues the sport long." Mr. J. Gough 
Nichols, in one of his interesting topographical sketches ("Gentleman's Magazine," 
August, 1837,) has carefully traced its vicissitudes through many reigns, until it 
fell into the hands of Charles II's rapacious mistress, Barbara, Countess of Castle- 
maine, who was created " Baroness of Nonesuch," and who speedily consigned 

Notes. 243 

the noble palace and its fair park to destruction and desolation. The Duke of 
Saxe -Weimar visited Nonesuch in the autumn of 161 3, and noticed the exterior 
of the inner court, which was the residence of Henry VIII, beautifully and 
elegantly adorned with plaster-work, representing the labours of Hercules, and 
other histories ; the other side — the Queen's lodgings — exhibited all kinds of 
heathen stories, with naked female figures. The German traveller then speaks of 
the pictures (see ante, p. 163) and gardens, the fountains, the grove and grotto 
of Diana, with statues representing Action's Metamorphosis ; and he copied the 
several verses and mottoes about and around the place. The Parliamentary Sur- 
veyor, when describing, in 1650, the Privy Garden, directs especial attention to 
" six trees called lelack trees, which trees beare no fruite, but only a very pleasant 
flower." Pepys, who was at Nonesuch in 1665, observed" all the house on the 
outside filled with figures of stories." Evelyn in the following year particularly 
remarked and felt surprise at the good preservation of the " plaster statues and 
basse relievos inserted 'twixt the timbers and punchions of the outside walles of the 
court, which must needs have been the work of some celebrated Italian — there are 
some mezzo-relievos as big as the life; the storie is of y e heathen gods, emblems, 
compartments," &c. In the " Gentleman's Magazine," accompanying the descrip- 
tion before referred to, there is a neatly-executed engraving copied from Hoefnagel s 
interesting view of the old Palace in the year 1582 ; in the foreground of this 
is seen England's Elizabeth herself, sitting in solitary grandeur — "in maiden 
meditation, fancy free" — in her clumsy-looking coach drawn by two horses, and 
attended by mounted cavaliers, nimble halberdiers, hunting dogs, &c. 

86. Page 62. Beddington House, in Surrey, was a famous seat of the Carew 
family. The old mansion was built, or perhaps speaking more accurately, re- 
built in the time of Elizabeth by Sir Francis Carew, son of Sir Nicholas, beheaded 
in the reign of Henry VIII. The gardens were celebrated for their choice fruit- 
trees, and for an orangery, the first of the kind in this country. Queen Elizabeth 
visited Beddington in August, 1599, and again in the same month of the follow- 
ing year. On one of these occasions the knight practised a " pretty conceit," 
which is thus told by Sir Hugh Piatt in his " Floraes Paradise" (afterwards 
entitled the "Garden of Eden") 1608, p. 1 73 : " Heere I will conclude with 
a pretty conceit of that delicate knight, Sir Francis Carew, who, for the better 
accomplishment of his royall entertainment of our late Queene of happy memory, 
at his house at Beddington, led her Majestie to a cherrie tree, whose fruite hee 
had of purpose kept backe from ripening, at the least one month after all cherries 
had taken their farewell of England. This secret he performed by straining a 
tent or cover of canvas over the whole tree, and wetting the same now and then 
with a scoope or home, as the heate of the weather required ; and so, by with- 
holding the sunne beames from reflecting uppon the berries, they grew both great, 
and were very long before they had gotten their perfect cherrie-colour ; and when 
hee was assured of her Majesties comming, he removed the tent, and a few sunny 
daies brought them to their full maturitie." It would appear from another work 

244 Notes. 

of Piatt, the "Jewell House of Art and Nature," 1594, p. 5, that the experi- 
ment had been tried some years before by Sir Francis, who is here spoken of only 
as "a Surrey Knight." Aubrey, writing about 1673, describes the mansion as 
a " handsome pile of building," and its " neat gardens," as not yet finished. He 
mentions also a summer-house erected by Sir Francis, in which was a red and 
white marble table, which bore a monumental inscription in Dutch for " myn 
wrowe Margriete" — at the end was a hawk with a label, brought from abroad by 
Sir Francis Carew. On the top of this pleasure-house was painted the Spanish In- 
vasion of 1588, much decayed, under which was a cold bath. The old mansion 
was pulled down at the beginning of the last century, and the present one built. 
The hall, however, — a fine specimen of the Elizabethan domestic architecture, 
with a rich open roof — was the chief portion retained. A small room adjoining 
the hall contains the "ancient panels with mantled carving." ("Manning and 
Bray," ii. 520.) Views of Beddington House are in Campbell's " Vitruvius 
Britannicus," in Malcolm's " Views ;" in Ellis's " Campagna of London ;" of the 
house and hall, in Brayley's " Surrey," and of the hall, in Nash's " Mansions of 
the Olden Time." The orange-trees from which it is said (" Archaeologia," xii. 
182) the gardener had, in 1690, gathered no less than 10,000 oranges, were de- 
stroyed by the hard frost of 1739-40. Sir Francis died in 161 1, unmarried, and 
was buried in Beddington Church, where there are several monuments and brasses 
of the Carews. Sir Walter Raleigh married Sir Francis's niece, a daughter of 
Sir Nicholas Throckmorton. 

87. Page 62. Royston lies partly in Cambridgeshire, but mostly in Hertfordshire. 
James I. built a house in that part of the town which is in the former county, 
and hither he frequently retired to enjoy the amusements of hunting, hawking, and 
dotterel-catching. This house, called the King's House, was, when Clutterbuck 
wrote (1827), occupied by a carpenter. Bishop Hacket speaks of his hospitable 
reception by James I, at " that hunting Court at Royston," and in his Life of 
Lord Keeper Williams (Pt. I. p. 227), presents us with the following curious pic- 
ture of the sporting and theologian monarch. Answering certain objections, he 
writes, " It is said, but mistaken, that Government was neglected at those 
Hunting-Houses ; and by the way, why are they called obscure places, Royston 
and Newmarket? petty if compared with London, but they are market-towns 
and great thorowfares ; where the Court was so frequented, both for business and 
recreations, that many of the followers could not find a lodging in that town 
[Royston], nor scarce in the villages round about it. I held acquaintance with 
some that attended the Principal Secretaries there, who protest they were held to 
it closer, and sat up later in those retirements to make dispatches than at London. 
The King went not out with his hounds above three days in the week, and hunt- 
ing was soon over. Much of the time his Majesty spent in State Contrivances, 
and at his book. I have stood by his table often, when I was about the age of 
two and twenty years and from thenceforward, and have heard learned pieces 
read before him at his dinners (see ante, p. 153, and Note 145), which I thought 

Notes. 245 

strange; but a Chaplain of James Montague, Bishop of Winton, told me th&t the 
Bishop had read over unto him the four tomes of Cardinal Bellarmine's Contro- 
versies at those respites, when his Majesty took fresh air, and weighed the objec- 
tions and answers of that subtle author, and sent often to the Libraries in Cam- 
bridge for books to examine his quotations." In 1609 the highways were mended 
between London, Royston, and Newmarket, " for his Majesty's better passage in 
going and coming to his recreation." (Devon's Issues.) There are also payments 
to Henry Half hide, keeper of the game about Royston, for making bridges, ditches 
and ponds, and providing fowls for his Majesty's disport and pleasure. A keeper 
of the hares at Royston received a salary of 2s. per diem. At the commencement 
of the Civil War, King Charles removed from Hampton Court to his house at 
Royston, previously to his setting up his standard at Nottingham. On the 24th 
of June, 1647, being a prisoner to the Army, he was lodged in his own house 
there two nights. (Lysons' Mag. Brit. Camb. 4to, 1808, p. 247.) The Survey 
of Royston House, taken after the King's death, describes the King's lodgings as 
in good repair, consisting of a presence-chamber, privy-chamber, and other rooms. 

88. Page 63. Richard Thomson, M.A. of Clare Hall, Cambridge, was born 
in Holland of English parents. He was a ripe scholar, philologist and critic. 
Among his friends he reckoned Isaac Casaubon, the Scaligers, and " rare" Ben 
Jonson. He was one of those learned men selected for the revision of the 
English Bible, which resulted in our authorized version. Ant. Wood (Fasti 
Oxon. i. 274) says of Thomson : " This learned person is styled by a noted 
Presbyterian, ■ the grand propagater of Arminianism,' and by another (W. Prynne) 
' a deboist drunken English Dutchman, who seldom went one night to bed sober.' 
Yet a noted writer (Richard Mountague) who knew him well, tells us, that he 
was a most admirable philologer, and that he was better known in Italy, France 
and Germany, than at home." Being an excellent linguist, he frequently acted 
as cicerone to foreigners over the colleges of his University, where he was known 
as Dutch Thomson. Mr. J. E. B. Mayor, of Cambridge, has been at the pains 
of extracting from the printed correspondence of the time notices of Richard 
Thomson. (See Notes and Queries, 2nd Series, vol. 9.) 

89. Page 63. James I. erected at Newmarket for the like purpose of hunt- 
ing, &c. a house, which was destroyed in the Civil Wars. At this place, so 
celebrated in the Annals of the Turf, it seems probable that races were established 
as early as the reign of the above monarch, who much encouraged the sport. 
Fynes Moryson (Itin. 161 7, Pt. I. p. 198) alludes to betting at horse-races by 
" no meane Lords, and Lordes sonnes and Gentlemen." A letter of John Cham- 
berlain, Esq. of March 11, 16 12- 1 3, informs us that "the King escaped a great 
danger at New T market, by reason the foundation of the house where he lay began 
to sink on one side with great cracks, so that the doors and windows flew open, 
and they were fain to carry him out of his bed w r ith all possible expedition : the 
next day he removed to Thetford." (Court and Times of James I, i. 233.) 
At Newmarket, the King, in April, 1616, gave £80 to two Frenchmen, for his 

246 Notes. 

Higlmess's disport and recreation in the exercise of their several arts of fencing 
and dancing. (Devon's Issues of the Exchequer.) In a book entitled " A Dis- 
course of divers Petitions," by John Spencer, 1 641, is a " Petition delivered unto 
our gracious King' Charles upon this occasion : the King was to go towards New- 
Market upon Munday, but the waggon and the hounds went thorow Cheapside upon 
the Lord's Day, which was not lawful!, o King; I never heard that they removed 
since upon the Lord's Day, so gracious was the King's care herein. Good King 
Charles, Remember to keep holy the Sabbath Day." The unfortunate Monarch 
was brought here a prisoner by the army in 1 647, and remained here about ten days. 
Charles II. rebuilt the house, and frequently resorted hither for the sake of the 
races. In the Department of Prints and Drawings, in the British Museum, is a 
very curious print, probably the earliest of the kind known, by Francis Barlow, 
being a representation of the last horse-race run before Charles II, by Dorsett 
Ferry, near Windsor Castle, August 24, 1684, and " drawen from the place." 
The running horses, however, look anything but high-mettled racers, of the breeds 
of Childers and Eclipse. Lysons (Mag. Brit. Camb. 1808, p. 240) says : " The 
present King's house is a moderate-sized brick mansion ; a room is shewn in it, 
called King William's apartment, and another called Queen Anne's." 

90. Page 63. " Touching the Hunting of the Hare, (says Markham) which 
is everie honest man and good mans chase, and which indeed is the freest, readiest 
and most enduring pastime, and likewise in its owne kinde ful of good profit for 
mans preservation : for though the beast be but little, yet are the members worth 
injoyment; as the flesh, which is good for all manner of fluxes; the braines good 
to make children breed their teeth with ease; the wool excellent to stench 
blood; the gall soveraigne for sore eies; the blood which will kil rume, wormes; 
and the stiffling bone, which being worne, taketh away the paine of the crampe; 
with many other good things besides." (Country e Contentments, 1615, b. i. p. 31.) 

91. Page 63. Thetford, 16 miles from Newmarket, is situated both in Nor- 
folk and Suffolk. The date of the erection of a hunting seat here is determined 
by an extract from a letter of Mr. Rowland Whyte, March 4, 1604-5, wno 
writes, " The King is at Thetford, and is soe farre in love with the pleasure of 
that place as he meanes to have a howse there." It is also ordered that none shall 
presume to come to his Majesty "on hunting days." From this time to about 
the year 161 6, the King paid frequent visits to Thetford. In the " Calendar of 
State Papers," there are payments to the Lady Barwick and John her son for 
keeping the King's House at Thetford, izd. by the day, and for keeping the 
garden there izd. by the day : in all by the year ,£36 ioj. James in the above 
year 1616 visited Thetford, and a droll anecdote is told by Martin in his "Hist. 
of Thetford, "(4to. Lond. 1779, p. 57) as follows : "James I. during the hunting 
seasons for several years spent some time in this ancient burgh, till he received an 
affront from one of the farmers belonging to the town, who being highly offended 
at the liberty his Majesty took in riding over his corn, in the transport of his 
passion threatened to bring an action of trespass against the King. Since that 

Notes. 247 

time neither that King nor any of his successors have visited this town." When 
Blomefield wrote, the house was called the " King's House." Martin also says, 
" The Royal Palace was given by James I. to Sir Philip Woodhouse, whose arms 
are yet remaining over the west side of the outer gate. It was rebuilt in the pre- 
sent century, and served for the reception of the Judges during the Assizes." 
In 1620 there were horse-races here, which gave rise to disturbances, and caused 
letters to be sent from the Privy Council to suppress them. {Martin, ut sup. 
p. 293.) 

92. Page 63. William Lord Hay succeeded his father Francis as ninth Earl of 
Erroll in 163 1, and acted as High Constable of Scotland at the Coronation of 
Charles I, 1633. He lived in a manner so splendid that he was obliged to dis- 
pose of his paternal Lordship of Erroll. He died December 7, 1636. 

93. Page 63. The allusion here made to a solemn observance by the King of 
the day of his deliverance from the Gowry Conspiracy on Tuesday, May 8th, 
was for some time a puzzle to the editor. The anniversary of this event is well 
known to be August 5th, which day was ordered to be strictly observed in com- 
memoration of the royal escape. A reference, however, to the "Relation d' 
Angleterre" of Marc' Antonio Correr, the Venetian Ambassador in England at 
this time ( 1 6 1 o), clears up the difficulty. He says : " His Majesty is accustomed to 
go to prayer and to sermon every Sunday and Tuesday, holding in much devotion 
this day, on which he was delivered from a conspiracy formed by certain Scottish 
Earls to kill him in Scotland in 1660 [1600]. It is for this reason he goes every 
Tuesday to church to render thanks to God, who preserved him from those assas- 
sins.'' The Anniversary Sermon was usually preached before the King by the 
celebrated Bishop Andrewes, in whose printed collection of " xcvi Sermons" 
(fol. Lond. 1629), eight of these " Gowrie Sermons" are to be found of the 5 th of 
August, besides ten on the 5 th of November, being the anniversary of the Gun- 
powder Treason. In their dedication of the work to Charles I, by the Bishops 
of London and Ely, (Laud and Buckeridge,) they say : " These Sermons when 
preached gave great contentment to the religious and judicious eares of your Royall 
Father of ever blessed memorie, the most hable Prince that ever this kingdome had, 
to judge of Church-worke" 

94. Page 63. A Dotterel is a grallatorial bird of the plover family. James I. 
was exceedingly fond of the sport of dotterel-catching. Michael Drayton, in his 
topographical poem, the " Polyolbion," 161 3, sings thus of the bird, — 

" The Dotterell, which we think a very dainty dish, 
Whose taking makes such sport as man no more can wish ; 
For, as you creepe, or cowre, or lye, or stoupe, or goe, 
So marking you (with care) the apish bird doth doe, 
And acting everything, doth never mark the net, 
Till he be in the snare which men for him have set." 

Drayton touches on the same subject in some bantering verses prefixed to Coryat's 

"Crudities," 161 1 :— 

248 Notes. 

" Most worthy man, with thee it is even thus, 
As men take Dottrels, so hast thou ta'n us, 
Which as a man his arme or leg doth set, 
So this fond bird will likewise counterfeit,'' &c. 
Lord Bacon, in his Natural History, the " Sylva Sylvarum," 1627, says: " We 
see how ready apes and monkeys are to imitate all motions of man ; and in the 
catching of dottrels, we see how the foolish bird playeth the ape in gestures." 
There are many allusions in our old dramatists to this notion of the imitative ac- 
tion of the dotterel. Ben Jonson has introduced in his play of the " Devil is an 
Ass" a character called ' Fabian Fitzdottrel, a squire of Norfolk.' Willughby, in 
his " Ornithology," fol. 1678, pp. 309, 310, says : " It is a very foolish bird, but 
excellent meat, and with us accounted a great delicacy. It is taken in the night 
time by the light of a candle, by imitating the gestures of the fowler; for if he 
stretches out an arm, that also stretches out a wing ; if he a foot, that likewise a 
foot; in brief, whatever the fowler doth, the same doth the bird; and so being 
intent upon men's gestures, it is deceived and covered with the net spread for it. 
It is a foolish bird, even to a proverb, we calling a foolish dull person a Dotterel. 
Of the catching of dotterels, my very good friend Mr. Peter Dent, an apothecary 
in Cambridge, wrote to me thus: 'A gentleman of Norfolk, where this kind of 
sport is very common, told me that to catch dotterels six or seven persons usually 
go in company. When they have found the birds, they set their net in an advan- 
tageous place, and each of them holding a stone in either hand, get behind the 
birds, and striking their stones often one against another, rouse them which are 
naturally very sluggish ; and so by degrees coup them and drive them into the 
net. The birds being awakened do often stretch themselves, putting out a wing 
or a leg, and in imitation of them the men that drive them thrust out an arm or 
leg for fashion sake, to comply with an old custom. But he thought that this 
imitation did not conduce to the taking of them, for that they seemed not to mind 
or regard it." In Fuller's " Worthies," under Lincolnshire, he writes : " The 
Dotterell is a mirthmaking bird, so ridiculously mimical, that he is easily caught 
(or rather catched himself) by his over-active imitation. As the fowler stretcheth 
forth his arms and legs, going towards the bird, the bird extendeth his legs and 
wings, approaching the fowler, till surprised in the net." But, he adds in his 
humorous vein : " It is observed that the foolisher the fowl or fish, the finer the 
flesh thereof." In Hone's " Every Day Book," i. 645, there is an anecdote told 
of James I. and dotterel catching: " There is a tradition current here, that King 
James I. was very fond of seeing dotterels taken ; and when he came to New- 
market, used to accompany the bird-catchers to the Gogmagog Hills (Cambridge- 
shire) and Moors for that purpose. It is said, a needy clergyman of Sawston, 
very expert in dotterel-catching, attended the King; his Majesty was pleased 
with his skill, and promised him a living : the clergyman waited some years, till, 
concluding that the King had 'remembered to forget ' his promise, he went to 
London and appeared at court, where, too, he was unnoticed and forgotten ; at 

Notes. 249 

length, approaching the King, and making the same signs as he was wont to do 
when catching dotterels with the King near Cambridge, his Majesty exclaimed : 
' Why, here is my reverend dotterel-catcher,' and instantly gave him the long- 
delayed living. 1 ' Clutterbuck {Hertfordshire, iii. 563) mentions that these birds 
were in the reign of James I. met with in great abundance at Royston upon the 
open downs by which the town was at that time surrounded, but that in his time 
(1827) they had become very scarce in consequence of their inclosure. Mr. Selby 
writes: "As to the story of the dotterel mimicking the actions of the fowler, it 
without doubt -arose from the motions that they as well as other birds usually 
and most naturally make when roused from a state of repose, as is frequently 

95. Page 64. Willughby {Ornithology, fol. 1678, p. 331) quoting Faber, 
says : w They are wont in England to train up Cormorants to fishing. When 
they carry them out of the rooms where they are kept to the fish-pools, they hood- 
wink them, that they be not frightned by the way. When they are come to the 
rivers, they take off their hoods, and having tied a leather thong round the lower 
part of their necks that they may not swallow down the fish they catch, they 
throw them into the river.' They presently dive under water, and there for a 
long time, with wonderful swiftness pursue the fish, and when they have caught 
them, they arise presently to the top of the water, and pressing the fish lightly 
with their bills, they swallow them, till each bird hath after this manner devoured 
five or six fishes. Then their keepers call them to the fist, to which they readily 
fly ; and little by little, one after another, vomit up all their fish, a little bruised 
with the nip they gave them with their bills. When they have done fishing, 
setting the birds on some high place, they loose the string from their necks, 
leaving the passage to the stomach free and open ; and for their reward they throw 
them part of their prey they have caught, to each perchance one or two fishes, 
which they, by the way, as they are falling in the air, will catch most dextrously 
in their mouths." This mode of fishing with cormorants has been long practised, 
and is still in use in China. Mendoza's " Historie of China," translated by 
Parke, 1588, chap. 22, treats at some length of the 'pleasant and ingenious kinde 
of fishing by cormorantes or sea ravens.' Sir George Staunton and Mr. Fortune 
have written graphically on the same topic. In the " Calendar of State Papers," 
December 9, 1608, a letter of Mr. Chamberlain informs Dudley Carleton that 
the King was welcomed to Thetford by three Cormorants on the church steeple. 
In Devon's "Issues" are payments in 161 1, 161 2, to John Wood, keeper of his 
Majesty's cormorants, of £30 ' for bringing up and training of certain fowls called 
cormorants, and making them fit for the use of fishing.' Wood was employed 
likewise ' to travel for young cormorants, to be afterwards made fit for his Ma- 
jesty's sport and recreation.' Fish ponds and houses were made in 161 8 for the 
cormorants within the Vine Garden at Westminster. And in August, 1624, 
Robert Wood was paid £98 8s. 6d. in satisfaction of the charge and loss sustained 
by Luke Wood in his late travels to Venice with three cormorants, having been 

K K 

2 5° 


stayed in his passage thither, and his cormorants taken from him by the Duke 
of Savoy. 

96. Page 64. Mr. Beaulieu, in a letter written on May 9th, alludes to " the 
wofull and lamentable newes which we have had within these two dayes." [So 
that the news of the assassination of Henry IV. reached London on the 7th.] 
" Poor Mons 1 *. de la Boderie hath been so afflicted here with this dolefull newes of 
the King's death as that he can scarce speak for greif and sighing to any body. . . . 
The King is not yet returned out of the countrey, but upon the summons of this 
newes sent him by my Lord Treasurer is expected here this day." The effect 
produced on King James when the sad intelligence was communicated to him in 
the presence of the young Prince of Wirtemberg, was that he turned whiter than 
his shirt, ( qifil devint plus blanc que sa chemise? (Letter of La Boderie, 24th 
May, 1 610, in Amkassades, torn. 5, p. 268.) 

97. Page 64. Audley End, sometimes called Audley Inn, near Saffron Walden, ' 
Essex, is the fine seat of Lord Braybrooke. It was erected in the reign of King 
James I. by Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, Lord Treasurer, who had inherited 
the estate of the Lord Chancellor Sir Thomas Audley. The grounds are beautiful. 
The mansion, originally much more extensive than at present, is said to have cost 
at its erection £190,000. Sir Anthony Weldon asserts that " Audley End, that 
famous and great structure, had its foundation of Spanish gold " — alluding to the 
bribes so freely distributed by the Constable of Castile to the English courtiers to 
influence a peace between the two kingdoms ; among them (he adds) not one 
tasted in so large a proportion as the Countess of Suffolk. {Court and Character 
of King James, l2mo. 1650.) On one of James Ps visits, he remarked that 
the house was too large for a king, though perhaps very suitable for a Lord Trea- 
surer. In the Privy Purse expenses of Prince Henry, (Rec. Off. Dom. lvii.) 
under date of November 24, 1609, occurs the entry : " Given to the Workemen 
at Audeley Inne at his highnes coiiiand £20." Wurmsser, the Prince of Wir- 
temberg's Secretary, alludes in a peculiar phrase to the eldest son of the Earl of 
Suffolk being entitled Baron — " dont son filz se dit aisne Baron." This was Sir 
Theophilus Howard, who had been summoned to the House of Lords in 1604 
in his father's Barony of Howard de Walden. In 161 3 the Duke of Saxe-Weimar 
went to see the "new Palace of Adeling" which he thought superior to all the 
king's houses on account of its magnificent architecture. The gallery, which was 
very long, was not then finished. He admired also the convenience of the stair- 
cases. Audley End became a Royal Palace in 1669, having been conveyed to 
Charles II ; but in 1 70 1 it was reconveyed to Henry, fifth Earl of Suffolk. The 
Braybrookes became possessed of it in 1802. The late Lord Braybrooke pub- 
lished in 1836 a handsome quarto volume descriptive of his splendid mansion and 
of Saffron Walden. Winstanley's engravings of Audley End in the reign of 
Charles II. are scarce and valued, so much so that a copy at a recent sale fetched 
the high price of £34 \os. 

98. Page 65. Don Pedro de Zuniga was the returning Spanish Ambassador. 


5 l 

He had been in this country several years, having been the first ' Lieger ' or resi- 
dent Ambassador sent to England after the conclusion of the distasteful peace with 
Spain. He came over in the suite of the Earl of Nottingham (famous old Charles 
Howard), on that nobleman's return from Spain in July, 1605, Don Pedro having 
(as Treswell states) " endured much sickness at sea." He received his first audi- 
ence at Whitehall on Sunday, July 14th. During his residence in London, he 
was regarded with much suspicion, owing to the protection he afforded to the 
Jesuits and Catholics who were ever plotting some mischief. He came, moreover, 
at an unfortunate time, when the discovery of the powder plot roused the popular 
exasperation against those of his own nation and religion. In 1606 a watch was 
set upon his house to intercept such English as should resort thither to mass. {Win- 
wood, vol. ii. p. 273.) The historian Davila, a most orthodox Catholic Castilian, 
and most bitter in his remarks against the perfidious English Lutherans, and par- 
ticularly against that ' monstrous infernal Queen Elizabeth by name ' (in Spanish 
Isabella, see Note 128), calls Don Pedro a very father to the English Catholics ; 
he also informs us that this cabal lero indignantly refused to receive from King James 
(unceremoniously alluded to as " he of England " — el de Inglaterra) a copy of his 
book '* The Apologie for the Oath of Allegiance," 1609, which the royal author 
intended as a present to his most Catholic Majesty the King of Spain. (See Davila's 
Felipe III, printed in Salazar's Monarquia de Espana, 1771 , iii. 107.) Among 
others the Ambassador afforded protection and shelter in his house in Barbican to 
a female of his own country named Dona Luisa Caravajal, who came over about 
the same time as himself to London, ' that confused and miserable Babylon ' 
{quella confusa y miserable Babiliona), for the purpose of aiding and abetting Father 
Walpole in the conversion of the obstinate English heretics. This poor woman, 
who was ' ever sailing in a bitter sea of tribulation,' and whose life has been 
written in Spanish by Luis Muiioz (4-to. Madrid, 1632) died in London, January, 
1 6 14, after having been nine years in England, and was buried at the expense of 
Count Gondomar. (See also Lewis Owen's Running Register, 4to. 1626, p. 
65.) Munoz gives a glowing character of Don P. de Zufiiga ; he says (p. 147): 
" His departure was felt both by Catholics and heretics ; they equally loved him," 
&c. Mr. Cottington writes from Madrid, 19th October, 16 10: "Don Pedro 
de Zuiiiga is made Cavallerizo primero del Rey [principal Equerry to the King], 
a great office, but hath absolutely forgotten that ever he was in England. He 
cannot endure the sight of an Englishman." {Winwood, iii. 229.) For his great 
services, he was created Marquis de Flores de Avila, in April, 161 2, and in May 
following he was despatched again to England. (Cabrera, Relaciones de Espana, 
1 599-1614, 4to. Madrid, 1857.) A letter of George Calvert, Esq., to Sir 
Thomas Edmondes, of August 1st (Birch's Historical Letters, Add. MS. 4176), 
relates the following amusing anecdote respecting him : " The Ambassador, Don 
Pedro de Zuniga, is yet here [in London], no man knows why, for he hath taken 
his leave of the King. But to shew that he is unwelcome, as he was riding in his 
carosse with his six mules over Holborne Bridge the other day, with his great 

252 Notes. 

lethugador about his neck and leaning upon his elbow on the side of the carosse, 
comes a fellow by him on horseback ; and whether de guet-apens, or otherwise, 
I cannot tell, but he snatches the Ambassador's hat off his head, which had a rich 
jewell in it, and rides away with it up the street as fast as he could, the people 
going on and laughing at it. The fellow was not lighted on again, for anything 
I hear; but I am sorry they have so just an advantage against us to say we are 
barbarous in our city of London." We meet with Don Pedro again in Spain in 
1623, when he was deputed by Philip IV. to present in his name to Prince 
Charles (Charles I.) at Madrid, the royal and princely gifts, consisting of fifty-four 
horses, with costly furniture and trappings, pistols, swords, and daggers set with 
diamonds, &c. And the Prince gave the ' Marquesse of Flores ' a rare jewel of 
diamonds. (Mendoza, The Joyfull Returne of Prince Charles from Spaine, 

99. Page 65. Don Alonso de Velasco, Conde de la Ribilla, succeeded Pedro 
de Zuniga as Ambassador in 1610. He had also visited England six years before 
when accompanying his relation the Constable of Castile, who had the manage- 
ment of the negotiation for a peace with Spain. In a letter from Mr. Francis 
Cottington, dated Madrid, January 7th, 1609-10 {Winwood, iii. 103), it is said: 
" Don Alonso de Velasco hath this morning begun his journey for England, there 
to succeed Don Pedro de Cuniga, having in his company divers fayre ladies, and 
two proper gentlemen, his sons. By this Extraordinary he received letters from 
a gentleman of his own appellido (one Don Luys as I take yt) remayning in your 
court, which very violently disswaded him from carrying over these ladies ; say- 
ing that in England they should fy nd a barbarous people, and so far from ordinary 
courtesy as the ladies should run much hazard to be evil entreated ; and amongst 
others, alledged the example of Don Pedro now in England, who (he says) can't 
shew his face in the City for fear of stones and dirt to be thrown at him. (See also 
Note 13.) With this was Don Alonso so much trobled, as he sent for me and 
shewed me all." And Mr. Trumbull, writing from Antwerp, 27th March, 
1610 (O. S.), says : " Don Alonco de Velasco arrived here the last week with a 
great traine of servants and many women in his company. He is resolved pre- 
sently to begin his journey towards England for the relieving of Don Pedro de 
Cuniga, who is most desirous to be at home." {Winwood, iii. 143.) This Am- 
bassador made himself very busy in the abortive attempt to negotiate a match be- 
tween the Prince of Wales and the Infanta of Spain. (See Birch's Prince Henry, 
p. 532, &c.) The famous Gondomar, called by Ben Jonson "Spain's Ambas- 
sador, old -^sop Gundomar," succeeded Velasco in 1613. 

100. Page 65. Robert Rich succeeded his father, as third Lord Rich, in 
1 58 1, and was with the Earl of Essex at Cadiz. He was created Earl of War- 
wick, August, 1 6 1 8, and died in March following. 

1 01. Page 65. Sir David Murray, Knight, was Gentleman of the Bed- 
chamber to Prince Henry ; in December, 1610, he was appointed Groom of the 
Stole. He attended the young Prince during his illness with great assiduity and 

Notes. 253 

kindness, and Cornwallis remarks, that he was the only man in whom the Prince 
had put choice trust. At the funeral of his beloved young master, he sat within 
the chariot, at the feet of the corpse, with its representation in wax-work laid on 
the coffin. (See Birch's Life of Prince Henry ; Cal. of State Papers.) His Poems 
were reprinted for the Bannatyne Club in 1823. A Book containing the Privy 
Purse Expenses of Prince Henry, kept by Sir David Murray, from Michaelmas, 
1609, to Michaelmas, i6io,isin the Public Record Office (Dom. vol. Ivii. No. 87). 
102. Page 6$. Monsieur St. Anthoine was Prince Henry's riding-master, or 
equerry. He was an excellent horseman, and was sent over by Henry IV, in 
the suite of the Duke of Sully, when that Ambassador came to congratulate James 
on his accession to the crown of England in 1603. The copy of the French 
King's letter, introducing St. Anthoine into the service of James, is in the British 
Museum. (Har/. MS. 1760, fo. 24.) The equerry is here spoken of as " ung 
escuier choisy de ma main pour ayder a monter a cheval mon cher nepveu vostre 
filz." Sully, in his Memoirs (iii. 143), says : " I made a present in the name of 
his Most Christian Majesty to the King of England, of six beautiful horses, richly 
caparisoned, and the Sieur de S. Anthoine as riding-master." Sully also presented 
Prince Henry with a " lance and a helmet of gold, enriched with diamonds ; 
together with a fencing- master, and a vaulter or tumbler." St. Anthoine was 
usually called in England " St. Anthony the rider." It was he who communi- 
cated to the French Ambassador, La Boderie, the young Prince's desire for a 
" suit of armour well gilt and enamelled, with pistols and sword." (Birch's Life, 
pp.68, 69.) The beautiful suit of armour which was afterwards sent by Henry IV. 
is now in the Tower. In the Privy Purse Expenses of Prince Henry (Rec. Off. 
Dom. Ivii.), under date of October 11, 1609, is an entry, "To Sant Anthoyne, 
when he went to Redding to bring home the coltis at his Highnes command, £5." 
The Marquis of Newcastle, who was famed for his fine horsemanship, was sent 
by his father for instruction •' to the Mewse, to Mons. Antoine, who was then 
accounted the best Master in that Art." {Life, by the Duchess, 1667, p. 142.) 
On the death of Prince Henry in 161 2, the French equerry led a mourning 
horse — the "cheval de deuil," — in the funeral procession of his late young 
master. He then became equerry to Prince (and subsequently King) Charles, in 
whose well-known magnificent equestrian portrait by Vandyke he is represented 
holding the King's helmet. This subject was repeated many times by the great 
painter, with certain variations of treatment. It was engraved by P. Lombart, 
who, when Cromwell came into power, substituted the head of the Protector for 
that of Charles I. The equerry was also obliterated, and the figure of a youth 
bearing a helmet introduced. In Walpole's " Anecdotes of Painting," an addi- 
tional epithet or dignity of" Chevalier d'Epernon" has been given to St. Anthoine, 
which has been adopted by Mrs. Jameson ; and in the Index to the Catalogue of 
James IPs Pictures, which was drawn up by Walpole who edited the work (4to. 
London, 1758), Mons. St. Anthoine is exalted into a " Duke d'Espernon," which 
has been copied by Dallaway and others. But there is in reality no foundation 

254 Notes. 

for this, for in the original Manuscript of James II's Pictures {HarL MS. 1890, 
foL 76 b ), the picture at Hampton Court is entered thus : " King Charles the 
first on horseback ; Mons r . St. Antwaine by him." He has also been termed 
" Chevalier d'Eperon," which rendering, indeed, might pass, for a Knight of the 
Spur he assuredly was. Granger has erred in stating that St. Anthoine was sent 
with six horses as a present to Charles I ; while Mrs. Jameson is wrong in the 
assertion that Louis XIII. was the donor, instead of Henry IV. Several books 
on Horsemanship, which once belonged to Prince Henry, are in the British 
Museum ; they are in very fine bindings, and have his initials, badge, &c. 
impressed on the covers. The riding-masters of Queen Elizabeth's reign were 
usually Italians. 

103. Page 65. " Mr. Levinus" was Levinus Munck. He was a native of 
Brabant, in Flanders, and was Secretary to the Lord Treasurer Cecil, Earl of 
Salisbury, having been naturalized by Act of Parliament, 1 James I, 1603. He 
held the office of Clerk of the Signet from this date till his death in 1623. In 
1605 he took the examination ofGuido Fawkes, and of other " powder-traitors," 
as the King called them. In 1609, James I. appointed him, in conjunction with 
Thomas Wilson (afterwards knighted), Keeper and Registrar of Papers and 
Records — " to reduce all such into a set form of Library, in some convenient 
place within our palace of Whitehall," with the " wages and fee of 3/. \d. by the 
day, to be equally divided betwixt them;" and with a power of removal from the 
office, by Robert, Earl of Salisbury. Munck was nominated, in 161 2, one of the 
Commissioners to wait upon the Princess Elizabeth to Heidelberg, and to settle 
her jointure. He died May 27, 1623, worth, it is said, £40,000. A few of his 
Letters are printed in Winwood's Memorials. (Winzvood ; Cal. of State Papers ; 
Devon's Issues, p. 307. Foreign Protestants, &c. resident in England, p. 82.) 

104. Page 65. Sir Thomas Edmondes was a diplomatist of great abilities. 
In 1592 he was appointed Ambassador to France, with the modest salary of 20/. 
a day. In 1 596 he was made Secretary to Queen Elizabeth for the French 
tongue. He was knighted by James I. in 1603, and resided at the Court of 
Brussels from 1605 to 1609. He was sent Ambassador to France, 1610, after 
the murder of Henry IV, and remained there till 161 6; on his return he was 
appointed Treasurer of the Household. His MS. State Papers were largely used 
by Dr. Birch, in his " Historical View of the Negotiations between the Courts of 
England, France, and Brussels, from 1592 to 1617." He died, at an advanced 
age, in 1639. 

105. Page 66. The following character of Anne of Denmark is from the pen of 
Correr, the Venetian Ambassador at this time {Relation a" Angleterre, p. 78): "The 
Queen, named Anne, sister of the King of Denmark, is a very affable Princess, of a 
lively humour, rather good looking, and still more gracious ; she has been brought 
up in the Lutheran religion, which is professed in Denmark. The King, while in 
Scotland, did all in his power to oblige her to embrace his religion, and several other 
persons spoke to her of Catholicism, for which she has always evinced, and still 

Notes. 255 

evinces, a particular inclination, whence the report is that she is a Catholic, and 
in fact I am sure that if she were at liberty, she would declare herself for our 
religion ; but knowing the wishes of the King to be quite contrary, and that she 
would be obliged to live continually in anxiety and danger, she accommodates 
herself to the time and to necessity ; so that she seeks only to divert herself, and 
passionately loves dancing and entertainments. This Princess is very prudent and has 
an excellent judgment ; she is perfectly conversant with all the discords of the State, 
but she does not at all participate in them, although many imagine that being 
intensely loved by the King, she must take the greater part in them ; but as this 
Princess is not strong, nor of a nature fit for work, but being young and seeing 
that those who govern are greatly interested and wish not to be interfered with, she 
shows herself to be not solicitous about it — hence it happens that she does not at all 
intermeddle unless to ask a favour for some one ; this it is which makes the people 
love, cherish, and respect her. She is full of sweetness and kindness towards 
those who know how to fall in with her humour, but on the other hand she is ter- 
rible, proud and intolerable towards those whom she dislikes. She has three 
sisters; one married to the Duke of Saxony, another to the Duke of Brunswick, 
and the third to the Duke of Holsace, and by this means the King is allied and 
related to most of the Princes of Germany." (See also Note 147.) 

106. Page 66. Sir Robert Sidney, of Penshurst, was younger brother of Sir 
Philip. He served valiantly in the Netherlands under his uncle, Robert Dudley, 
Earl of Leicester, and was knighted for his gallant behaviour at the battle of 
Zutphen, 1586. In 1588, Queen Elizabeth appointed him Governor of Flushing, 
his patent for this office being renewed under her successor. In May, 1603, he 
was made Baron Sidney of Penshurst, and became Lord Chamberlain to Queen 
Anne of Denmark. In 1605 he was created Viscount L'Isle. In May, 1616, 
the King commissioned him as Governor of Flushing {Vlisbing), in his name to 
render and yield up the town to the States of the United Provinces, upon the 
surrender of which he received in recompense a pension of £1200 per annum 
during his life. In July of the same year he was installed Knight of the Garter, 
and in 161 8 advanced to the dignity of Earl of Leicester. He died July 13, 
1626, and was buried at Penshurst. (Collins' Sydney Papers ,* Somers* Tracts, 
ii. 399.) 

107. Page 66. In the MS. the names appear as "Mr. Spencer Digby 
Angsrietter," from which we may suppose that three names are intended. The 
first, probably, was Sir Richard Spencer, who was Commissioner to Holland, 
with Winwood, in 1607; the second may be Sir John Digby, afterwards Earl 
of Bristol, employed in several embassies, but chiefly to Spain; and the third, Sir 
Robert Anstruther, Chamberlain to the King, a man particularly acceptable to 
Germans, being very familiar with their language and country. 

108. Page 66. Sir James Sandilands was a Scotch knight, who in 1604 held 
the office of Gentleman Usher of the Privy Chamber, for which he received £30 
per annum for life. (Cat. of State Papers, James I.) In the following year the 

256 Notes. 

Queen and Prince Henry were sponsors at the christening of Sir James " San- 
delyn's" child, to whom they made presents of cups of silver gilt. Sir James San- 
dilands (called also " Sandelo") was appointed " Maistre d'hostel" to the Princess 
Elizabeth, at her marriage in 161 3. He received various free gifts from the 
Exchequer in 1606, 7, 14, 16, 17. (See Nichols' Prog, of James I.) Lord Her- 
bert of Cherbury mentions having met in Languedoc " an old Scotch knight 
Sandelands," who borrowed his horses as far as Heidelberg. According to 
Lysons {Environs), Sir James "Sandalen" was buried at Greenwich, June 7, 161 8. 

109. Page 66. Cobham Hall was the baronial residence of the potent Lords 
of Cobham, to whose fame and exploits as statesmen and as warriors the mag- 
nificent assemblage of monumental brasses in the adjacent village church — the 
finest series on one floor in the kingdom — sufficiently testify. The Lord Cobham, 
whose absence the German prince regretted, was Henry Brooke, who had been 
condemned to death for participation in the alleged Raleigh conspiracy, but was 
reprieved on the scaffold. He passed the remainder of a wretched existence 
in imprisonment in the Tower, where he died in 161 9. Sir Walter Raleigh, in 
his defence on his trial at Winchester, November 17th, 1603, contemptuously 
spoke of my Lord Cobham, as an " unworthy, base, silly, simple, poor soul." 

Cobham Hall, now the seat of the Earl of Darnley, was considerably enlarged, 
or in great part rebuilt, by Sir William Brooke, seventh Lord Cobham, during the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, who was entertained there by that nobleman in the first 
year of her reign, 1559. The centre wing of the mansion was afterwards added 
by Inigo Jones. It contains a noble gallery of paintings. The reception and 
entertainment of the Queen has been related by Francis Thynne, a Kentish man 
who was present, in the Life of the then noble owner of Cobham Hall, printed 
in Holinshed's Chronicle, 1587, iii. p. 1510, which has escaped the researches of 
Nichols, in his " Progresses " of the Queen. Thynne notes as follows : " In 
which first yeare of hir Maiestie's reigne, falling in the yeare 1559, this Lord did 
most honorablie interteine the Queene with hir traine, at his house of Cobham 
Hall, with sumptuous fare and manie delights of rare invention. Amongst which 
one comming now to mind, which I then being yoong beheld, urgeth me forward 
in the setting downe thereof: which was, a banketing house made for hir Maiestie 
in Cobham Parke, with a goodlie gallerie thereunto, composed all of greene, with 
severall devises of knotted flowers, supported on each side with a faire row of 
hawthorne trees, which nature seemed to have planted there of purpose in 
summer time to welcome hir Maiestie, and to honor their Lord and maister. But 
because the beautie and maiestie, with the rare devise thereof cannot be so well 
conceived by pen, as the same was artificiallie made, unlesse the reder might at 
one instant behold also the artificiall situation of the place, I thinke it better 
to passe the rest in silence, than not delivering it in such grace as it meriteth. 
. . . Wherefore leaving the maner thereof, I will set downe certeine verses 
made by doctor Haddon, and placed in the forefront of the same banketting 
house, which doo not onlie shew the joifull welcome of hir Maiestie to this 

Notes. 257 

honorable lord, but also to the whole countrie of Kent, which verses were these 
following : — 

" ' Regia progenies, clari stirps inclyta Bruti, 

Grata venis populis Elisabetha tuis : 
Quocunque aspicias plausus et gaudia cernis, 

Laetatur vultu fcemina virque tuo: 
Imberbes pueri, cani, tenerasque puellae, 

Oninis ad aspectum turba profusa ruunt. 
Nos te Reginam, tu nos agnosce clientes, 

Sic tibi, sic nobis, sic bona cuncta fluent.' " 

Thynne, who was a poet as well as an historian and antiquary, has tried his 
hand at versifying this inscription in his MS. Memoirs of the Cobhams, in the 
British Museum : — 

" The kinglye progenye and stocke of Brutes most famous race, 
Elizabethe most welcome is to people of this place. 
Whiche waye thow casts thyne eye thow mirthe and joye doest see, 
For joyfull of thy princelye face both menne and wemen bee. 
The berdlesse boyes, the hoored age, the maydes of tender yeares, 
And trope confus'd flockes to thy sight, in which their love apperes. 
We knowledge thee oure Quene, thy subjectes true us knowe, 
So unto thee, so unto us, all wished good shall flowe." 

In the Add. MS. 5751 (Brit. Mus.), is a List of Plate borrowed by Sir Wil- 
liam Brooke, Lord Cobham, of John Harris, goldsmith, when Sir Walter Raleigh 
visited Cobham Hall. Thynne, speaking further of Sir William Brooke, writes : 
" Besides which, overpassing his goodlie buildings at the Blacke friers in London, 
1582, and since that, the statelie augmenting of his house at Cobham Hall, with 
the rare garden there, in which no varietie of strange flowers and trees doo want, 
which praise or price maie obteine from the furthest part of Europe or from other 
strange countries, whereby it is not inferior to the garden of Semiramis, &c." 

His lordship was evidently preparing to build on a large scale in 1595, as 
appears from an original Warrant on parchment in the British Museum ; it is 
signed by Henry IV. of France, and is dated November 12th, and gives permis- 
sion to the Lord Cobham to transport from Caen into England 200 tons of stone 
for building — " deux cent tomieaux de pierre propre a bastir." Probably this 
stone was used for his new College at Cobham, which his lordship did not live 
to see completed, having died in March, 1596. To this nobleman, William 
Harrison dedicated his "Description of Britain;" and Thomas Newton his 
translation of Lemnius' "Touchstone of Complexions." (See ante, p. 77.) 

In July, 1596, Cobham Hall was visited by the young Prince of Anhalt, who 
sings of it in the following strain : — 

L L 

258 Notes. 

" Wir fiigten uns zu fuss in Baron Combams Haus 
Des andern tages fruh, von dannen wider aus 
Und hin gen Gravesend. Es war gar viel zusehen 
In Combams haus an zierd : Im MahrstalP hett 'er stehen 
Viel rosse schoner art, die hielt er auf der streu, 
Es war bey ihm die Pracht, gewonlich, und nicht neu.'' — 

(F'urst Ludwigs zu Anhalt-Kohten Reisebescbreibung.) 

Having enjoyed a sight of Rochester, and of the ships of war riding there, the 
Prince and companions set out towards Gravesend. " Early on the following 
morning (he says, as above) we walked to Baron Combam's house. There was 
plenty of ornament to be seen in Combam's house. And in the stable, which was 
well littered with straw, there were standing many fine horses. For with him 
splendour was customary and not occasional." 

On July 3rd, 1604, James I. went from Greenwich to Cobham, and on the 
4th proceeded to Chatham, to inspect the ships there. Beaumont, the French 
ambassador in London, communicated this intelligence to his royal master, 
Henry IV, together with the following anecdote : " The King (he writes) took 
so little notice of his fleet at Chatham, that not only the seamen, but likewise 
persons of all ranks were much offended, and said that he loved stags better than 
ships, and the sound of hunting-horns more than that of cannon." (Letter of 
July 18, 1604.) On Wednesday, June 15, 1625, Charles I. and his French 
bride, Henrietta Maria, rode from Canterbury to Cobham Hall, all the highways 
being strewed with roses and all manner of sweet flowers. On the next day they 
left Cobham, and, returning to Rochester, probably as a mark of respect to the 
city, proceeded on their joyful route towards London. 

Sir Egerton Brydges (Peers of England, temp. James I, p. 272), writes thus of 
the seat of the Cobhams: " I have rambled over this large mansion with many 
emotions of regret at the hard fate of the Cobhams, whose antient glories were 
surely too severely punished with ruin and extinction, for the doubtful crimes of 
one weak man. With them, if I recollect, the antient nobility of Kent expired, 
and the descendants of feudal chiefs could no longer be found to display the 
trophies of their ancestors in the Baronial Hall." 

no. Page 66. The Dukes of Pomerania, here mentioned, were two young 
Princes, the sons of Bogislaus XIII : their names George and Ulrich, the former 
born 1582, the latter 1589. They had been making the "grand tour," and 
were in Paris on Easter Day, 1610, when they saw Henry IV. "touch" no less 
than 400 scrofulous persons. They afterwards witnessed the splendid ceremonial 
of the Coronation of Queen Marie de' Medici, at St. Denis. On the following 
day, May 14th [4th O. S.], grief, consternation, and awe took the place of 
rejoicings, owing to the atrocious murder of the French king by Ravaillac. 
The commotion caused by this event hurried away the brothers, and they 
were glad, as many a foreigner has been since, to flee to the peaceful and 

Notes. 259 

hospitable shores of old England — a very pleasant refuge in time of trouble. 
Here they spent two months of enjoyment, extending their tour into Scotland. 
They were received with great honour by King James and his son Henry ; were 
present at the imposing ceremony of the creation of the young Prince of Wales 
in the beginning of June, at the " Parliament House" at Westminster, and joined 
in the festivities which ensued, of masques, shows, and running at the ring ; in 
the last of which the Pomeranian Princes took part, through the introduction of 
Prince Frederick Ulric, of Brunswick. They returned to their fatherland in the 
middle of August, 1610. (Micraelius, Pommeriscbe Jabr-Gescbicbten, 1723: 
buch iv. p. 24.) 

111. Page 70. Fynes Moryson {I tin. 1617, pt. iii. p. 150) says: "The 
Italian Sansovine is much deceived, writing, that in generall the English eate and 
cover the table at least foure times in the day ; for howsoever those that journey, 
and some sickly men staying at home, may perhaps take a small breakfast, yet in 
generall the English eate but two meales (of dinner and supper) each day, and I 
could never see him that useth to eate foure times in the day." Moryson also 
informs us that " the English Cookes, in comparison with other nations, are 
most commended for roasted meates." Hentzner remarks (see ante, p. no) that 
the English are more polite in eating than the French, consuming less bread, but 
more meat, which they roast in perfection. 

112. Page 73. Peacham {Compleat Gentleman, 1622, p. 204), speaking of 
the French, our reputed pioneers of fashion, says : " Every two yeere their 
fashion [of apparel] altereth." 

113. Page 87. The " Device of the Pageant borne before Woolstone Dixi, 
Lord Maior of the Citie of London," October 29, 1585, (4to. Lond. Edward 
Allde, 1585) was written by George Peele, and is the earliest printed description 
of a Lord Mayor's Pageant known to exist. A copy bought for the Guildhall 
Library, consisting of four leaves only, cost £20. October 29th was the regular 
Lord Mayor's day until the alteration of the style in 1752. 

1 14. Page 88. Johann Valentin Andreae was a native of Herrenberg, in Wir- 
temberg (1586- 1654). In his Autobiography he says that as early as 1602 and 
1603, he tried his hand at two comedies, " Esther" and "Hyacinth," which he 
with juvenile temerity imitated from the English actors. " Schon in den J. 1602 
und 1603 fieng ich, zur Uebung meiner Talente, an, Aufsatze zu verfassen. Die 
ersten Versuche waren wohl Esther und Hyacinth, zwey Komodien, die ich mit 
jugendlicher Kuhnheit den Englischen Schauspielern nachbildete." {Selbstbio- 
grapbie Andrea s, ubers. von Prof. Seybold, 1799, p. 15.) It is shown in our 
Introduction that a company of English players performed at Stuttgart in 1597. 

115. Page 89. "Den 27 und 28 Hornung [February] hielten Engelander 
Comcedien allhier auff dem Saltz-Stadel, gab ein Person 4 kr."— Each person 
paid 4 kreutzers=ii*/. (Schorer's Memminger Cbroniek, 1660, p. 115.) 

116. Page 89. This was evidently an exaggerated report of some capture by 
Drake, who with Frobisher had sailed from Plymouth with a powerful fleet on 

260 Notes. 

September 14th, 1585, two days after Kiechel's arrival in London. Drake bent 
his course to the Spanish coast, intending afterwards to visit the West Indies, 
with a view, as he used to term it, of " singeing the King of Spain's beard." 
About the beginning of October, after making a few insignificant prizes, a boat was 
captured near Vigo, laden with the " principall Church stuffe " of the high Church 
of that place, " where also was their great Crosse of silver of very faire embossed 
worke, and double gilt all over, having cost them a great masse of money. They 
complained to have lost in all kind of goods above thirtie thousand duckets in this 
place." While the fleet was before Bayona and Vigo, the Governor of Galicia, 
Pedro Bermudez, together with Don Diego Sarmiento de Acuna (afterwards well- 
known in England as Count Gondomar), made great show of resistance, which 
led to a parley taking place in boats upon the water, when we are told that " that 
English pirate Francisco Draques " (el cosario Ingles Francisco Draques) took 
Don Diego (then a captain, 18 years of age) by the hand to pass into his own 
boat. (See Ant. de Herrera, Historia del Mundo, 161 2, iii. pp. II, &c. and 
Lopez de Haro, Nobiliario de Espana, 1622, i. p. 236.) Drake then made his way 
to the Canaries and the Cape de Verde Islands, and afterwards took and plundered 
Santiago, St. Domingo, and Carthagena, — sailed thence to Virginia, and brought 
back with him to England Raleigh's colonists. They were the first, it is said, to 
introduce tobacco into this country. (Camden's Annates, 1625, bk. 3, p. 107.) 
The Expedition returned in July, 1586, having lost about 750 out of 2300 men. 
The booty was estimated at £60,000. There is a narrative of this famous West 
Indian voyage by Thomas Cates, which was printed in 1589, and afterwards in- 
serted in Hakluyt's Collection, iii. 534, &c. A different account is contained 
in a MS. in the British Museum (Roy. 7. C. xvi.) There is also a black-letter 
Poem on Drake's Exploits at St. Domingo and Carthagena, penned by Thomas 
Greepe, who describes himself as "a rude countriman, brought uppe manie yeeres 
in Husbandrie." It was printed in 1587, and is very rare. 

117. Page 90. The foreigners have revealed to us some very curious and 
rather startling peculiarities of the custom of kissing as practised by our ancestors. 
Thus as early as 1466, a Bohemian nobleman, named Leo von Rozmital, visited 
England, and in the Journal of his Travel (1577) it is noted that "it is the cus- 
tom there, that on the arrival of a distinguished stranger from foreign parts, maids 
and matrons go to the inn and welcome him with gifts. Another custom is 
observed there, which is when guests arrive at an inn, the hostess with all her 
family go out to meet and receive them ; and the guests are required to kiss them 
all (* quam, casterosque omnes deosculari necesse est'), and this among the English 
was the same as shaking hands among other nations." Erasmus, in 1499, wrote 
a Latin letter from England to his friend Fausto Andrelini, an Italian poet, ex- 
horting him in a strain of playful levity to think no more of his gout, but to be- 
take himself to England ; for (he remarks) " here are girls with angels' faces, so 
kind and obliging, that you would far prefer them to all your Muses. Besides, 
there is a custom here never to be sufficiently commended. Wherever you come, 

Notes. 261 

you are received with a kiss by all ; when you take your leave, you are dismissed 
with kisses ; you return, kisses are repeated. They come to visit you, kisses again ; 
they leave you, you kiss them all round. Should they meet you anywhere, kisses 
in abundance: in fine, wherever you move, there is nothing but kisses." (Epistolte, 
fol. Basil. 1558, p. 223.) In 1527, Cardinal Wolsey was appointed Ambassador 
Extraordinary to France. He was accompanied by George Cavendish, his gen- 
tleman-usher, who wrote a Life of the Cardinal. Cavendish had gone forward 
to prepare his lord's lodging. He says : " And I being there [at the Sire de 
Crequi's Castle at Moreuil, about twelve miles from Amiens] tarrying a while, my 
lady Madame Crokey issued out of her chamber into her dining chamber, where 
I attended her comming, who received me very gently like her noble estate, 
having a traine of twelve gentlewomen. And when she and her traine was come 
all out, she saide unto me, * For as much/ quoth she, 'as ye be an Englishman, 
whose custome is to kisse all ladies and gentlemen [" gentlewomen," in Singer's 
edit.'] in your country without offense, although it is not soe here with us in this 
realme, yet I will be so bould as kisse you, and so ye shall doe all my maides.' 
By meanes whereof I kissed her and all her maides." (Cavendish's Life of Wol- 
sey, edit. Holmes, 410. 1852, p. 94.) In the narrative of the visit of the Spanish 
nobleman, the Duke de Najera, in 1543-4, we are told that "after the dancing 
was finished (which lasted several hours), the Queen entered again into her 
chamber, having previously called one of the noblemen who spoke Spanish, to 
offer in her name some presents to the Duke, who again kissed her hand ; and on 
his requesting the same favour of the Princess Mary, she would by no means per- 
mit it, but offered him her lips, and the Duke saluted her, and did the same to 
all the other ladies." {Archcsologia, vol. 23.) A Greek traveller, Nicander 
Nucius, came to England in 1545, and remarks : " They display great simplicity 
and absence of jealousy in their usages towards females. For not only do those 
who are of the same family and household kiss them on the mouth with saluta- 
tions and embraces, but even those too who have never seen them. And to them- 
selves this appears by no means indecent." {Travels of Nic. Nucius, Cam- 
den Soc. 1 841, p. 10.) Again, when the Constable of Castile appeared at the 
court of Whitehall on Saturday afternoon, August 1 8th, 1604, after kissing her 
Majesty's hands, he requested permission to salute the ladies of honour (twenty in 
number, standing in a row, and beautiful exceedingly), according to the custom 
of the country, and any neglect of which is taken as an affront. Whereupon the 
Queen having given him leave, his Excellency complied with the custom, much to 
the satisfaction of the ladies. (' Y besando las manos de su M d ., pidio el Condestable 
licencia para besar las Damas al uso de aquellas provincias, de que se agravian 
quando ay algun descuydo. Y dandosela su M d ., cumplio con el uso, y gusto de 
las Damas.') — Relacion de la Jornada del Exc m0 . Condestable de Castilla, 4to. 
1604, p. 34. In Shakespeare's " Henry VIII," at the Cardinal's banquet, the 
King says to Anne Bullen, — 

262 Notes, 


I were unmannerly to take you out, 
And not to kiss you." 

In dancing it appears to have been the customary fee of a lady's partner. A fur- 
ther illustration of the custom may be seen ante, Note 72. Foreigners of the 
male sex, and especially Frenchmen, are in the more frequent habit of kissing 
each other, and probably not the ladies. M. Misson, a Frenchman who travelled 
in England about 1697, says, " The people of England, when they meet, never 
salute one another, otherwise than by giving one another their hands, and shaking 
them heartily ; they no more dream of pulling off their hats, than the women do 
of pulling off their headcloths." (Travels in England. Eng. tr. 1719, p. 283.) 
118. Page 104. The colour of Queen Elizabeth's hair is expressed by 
Hentzner by " Crinem fulvum." Baret gives the following meanings, as applied 
to the colour of the hair : * A deepe yellowe like gold or copper — fulvusi ' a bright 
yellowe like a womans haire — -flavus / ' light auborne — subjiavus / * yellowe haire 
like gold — capilli rutuli ; i tawnie colour — Bceticus, sive Hispanus color* (Baret's 
Alvearie, or quadruple Dictionaries 1580 ) In a little book by Sir Hugh Piatt, 
entitled " Delightes for Ladies to adorne their persons," &c. circa 1602, is a 
receipt to * make haire of a fair e yellowe or golden colour / this being considered an 
especial mark of female beauty. To attain which the Knight recommends his 
fair friends to take " the last water that is drawne from honie, being of a deepe red 
colour, which performeth the same excellently, but the same hath a strong smell, 
and therefore must be sweetened with some aromaticall body." Sir James Mel- 
ville, in his " Memoirs," p. 123, speaking of his interview with Queen Elizabeth 
in 1564, says: " Hir hair was reder then yellow, curlit apparantly of nature. 
Then sche entrit to dicern what kynd of coulour of hair was repute^ best, and 
inquyred whither the Quenis [Mary, Q^of Scots] or hirs was best, and quhilk of 
them twa was fairest. I said, the fairnes of them baith was not ther worst fakes. 
Bot sche was ernest with me to declaire quhilk of them I thocht fairest. I said, 
sche was the fairest Quen in England, and ours the fairest Quen in Scotland." 
The same day, after dinner, Lord Hunsdon drew him into a quiet gallery to hear 
the Queen play upon the virginals. She discovered his retreat, and came forward 
and pretended to strike him. " Then sche asked whither the Quen or sche played 
best. In that I gaif hir the prayse. Sche said my Frenche was gud ; and sperit 
gif I culd speak Italen, quhilk sche spak raisonable weill. Then sche spak to me 
in Dutche [i.e. German], bot it was not gud." The Queen then gave a lively 
display of her proficiency in dancing; this scene is related with admirable naivete 
by the Scotch Ambassador. 

There is in the Town Hall at Dover a very curious portrait of the Queen, ap- 
parently done about this time (1598). She is in the height of her charms and 
adornments, and seems to wear the very bright auburn wig noticed by Hentzner. 
This picture has been engraved for Dr. Dibdin's intended History of Dover, 

Notes. 263 

although never published. (See Note 2.) Two old portraits, seemingly genuine, of 
Elizabeth, are in the large Zoological Gallery, British Museum. One, assigned to 
Zucchero, was given by the Earl of Macclesfield in 1760; the other, a superior 
and larger painting on panel, is dated 1567, and was presented by Lord Cardross 
in 1765 ; in this the Queen is represented in a very elaborate dress — in both her hair 
appears of an auburn colour. Among the Musgrave MS. Warrants in the British 
Museum, is one dated "Greenwich, 19th April, 1602," and signed by her Ma- 
jesty, ordering payment " to Dorothey Speckarde, our silkewoman, for six heades 
ofheare, twelve yerdes of heare curie, one hundred devises made of heare." 

In the Merchant of Venice (act iii. sc. 2 — edit, folio 1623), on the text of the 
world being deceived with ornament, Shakespeare satirizes the then fashionable 
custom of wearing wigs in this country : — 

" Looke on beautie, 

And you shall see 'tis purchast by the weight, 

Which therein workes a miracle in nature, 

Making them lightest that weare most of it : 

So are those crisped snakie golden locks 

Which makes such wanton gambols with the winde 

Upon supposed fairenesse, often knowne 

To be the dowrie of a second head, 

The skull that bred them in the Sepulcher," &c. 

Again, in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, iv. 4, Julia says : — 
" Her haire is Aburne, mine is perfect Yellow; 
If that be all the difference in his loue, 
He get me such a coulour'd Perry wig." 

119. Page 104. On Hentzner's allusion to the Luneburg Golden Table, 
Walpole, his editor, remarks : " At this distance of time it is difficult to say what 
this was." We shall beg, however, to introduce a note on the subject. The 
Luneburg Golden Table was kept in the Church of St. Michael at Luneburg. 
The gold and jewels of which it was composed are said to have been obtained 
from the immense spoils taken from the Saracens by the Emperor Otho II. in 
the 10th century, when he defeated them in the Neapolitan provinces. This 
precious object is fully described in a German work, entitled " Denkwiirdiger und 
niitzlicher Antiquarius des Elb-Stroms," 1741, p. 702. Hentzner's statement is 
curious as showing that in England, in the sixteenth century, the story obtained 
credence that the regal crown was made of the gold of this table; and this old tra- 
dition seems likewise to have been current in Luneburg. A German author, 
Sigismund Hofmann, published at Celle a work on the subject of the Golden 
Table ; and from the sixth edition of that work, Beckmann (Litt. der alt. Reise- 
beschreibungen, ii. 23) has quoted the passage, of which the following is a trans- 
lation : " I shall not examine the ancient tradition, that once a certain Queen 
of England asked for a piece of this Table in order to put it into her crown, 

264 Notes. 

and when it was taken out for her, her understanding was obscured, and she be- 
came mad ; wherefore she afterwards put back [into the church] a pair of golden 
crucifixes of the same size, together with the gold. Certain it is, that there has 
been here and there something patched into the frame, to judge from the colour, 
which is paler than that of the gold next to it. Should such a thing have hap- 
pened, one would have to consider whether it might not have been during the 
time of Henry the Lion, who married the English Princess Maud, daughter of 
Henry II. of England, she having been brought out from England as the destined 
bride of the Duke Henry the Lion, in 1 168, and united to him at Minden. At 
that time there was much intimate relation with England. Already, in 1644, 
this Table was somewhat despoiled. The thief had also had in his hands the 
golden crucifix, but left it standing, having heard that a Queen had received a 
piece from the table in order to wear it in her crown, but had afterwards gone 
mad, and had the crucifix made from that gold." Hofmann, it would seem, was 
not aware of Hentzner's remark. We learn, moreover, from the first-quoted 
work that the costly table at Luneburg was considerably plundered in 1664, and 
again in 1698, when it was robbed of most of its valuable portions, its jewels and 
relics, by Nicol List and his band of desperadoes. Moryson (Itin. 1617, pt. i. 
p. 6) visited Luneburg, and writes : " In the Monastery within the Towne, they 
shew a Table of Gold, which Henry Leo Duke of Saxony tooke from Milan and 
placed here, and it is fastned to the altar, being more than an ell and halfe 
long, and about three quarters broad, and little or nothing thicker then a French 
crowne. They shew also foure Crosses of pure gold, which they said a certaine 
Queene once tooke from them, but presently fell lunatike, neither could be cured 
untill she had restored them." The subject has not been noticed by S. Martin 
Leake, in his " Remarks on Crowns," reprinted in " Choice Notes on History," 
pp. 248, &c. 

120. Page 105. William Slawata, or Slavata, the Bohemian nobleman who 
was so honoured by Queen Elizabeth at Greenwich, was born in 1572. On com- 
pleting his studies at the Italian Universities, he travelled through the whole of that 
country, Spain, France, England, the Netherlands, and Denmark. He afterwards 
became Imperial High Chancellor, Marshal of the Court, and a Knight of the 
Golden Fleece. He is lauded by his countryman and contemporary, the Baron 
Christoph Harant, in the Preface (setting forth the advantages of travel) prefixed 
to his own Travels in the East, undertaken in 1598, et seq. and written in Bohe- 
mian. (A German translation was published at Nuremberg in 1678, 4to. under 
the title of " Der Christliche Ulysses.") Slavata left Memoirs of his own time, 
contained in more than ten volumes. The first part of a History of Hungary in 
the reign of Ferdinand I, composed by him in Bohemian, was published at Vienna 
in 1857. A notice of him appears in Pelzel's " Abbildungen Bohmischer und 
Mahr. Gelehrten," &c. 1773, theil i. p. 13. In the riot which took place at 
Prague, on May 23rd, 161 8, the two Counsellors, Slavata and Martinitz, who 
were universally detested, together with the Secretary Fabricius, were attacked and 

Notes. . 265 

thrown by the Protestant party out of the highest windows of the Castle. A 
dunghill saved the terrified outcasts from injury. To this dire event is ascribed 
the origin of the thirty years' war ! Slavata died, at the age of eighty, in 1652. 
His name does not appear in the " Biographie Universelle." 

121. Page 105. In the following verses, taken from a rare black-letter volume, 
entitled, " A Fourme of Prayer, with thankesgiving, to be used of all the Queenes 
Maiesties loving subiectes every yeere, the 17 of November, being the day of Her 
Highnes entrie to her kingdome" (London, 1578, 4-to.), we are strikingly 
reminded of our national anthem of God save the Queen: — 

" Lorde keepe Elizabeth our Queene, 

Defend her in thy right : 
Shewe forth thy selfe as thou hast beene, 

Her fortresse and her might. 
Preserve her Grace, confound her foes, 

And bring them downe full lowe : 
Lorde turne thy hande against all those 

That would her overthrowe. 

Mayntaine her scepter as thine owne, 

For thou hast plaste her here : 
And let this mightie worke be knowne, 

To nations farre and nere. 
A noble ancient Nurse, O Lorde, 

In England let her raigne : 
Her Grace among us do afforde, 

For ever to remaine. 

Indue her, Lorde, with vertues store, 

Rule thou her royall Rod ; 
Into her minde thy spirit powre, 

And shewe thy selfe her God. 
In trueth upright, Lorde guide her still, 

Thy Gospell to defende : 
To say and do what thou doest will, 

And stay where thou doest ende. 

Her counsel], Lorde, vouchsafe to guide, 

With wisdome let them shine, 
In godlines for to abide, 

As it becommeth thine. 
To seeke the glorie of thy name, 

Their countries wealth procure, 
And that they may perfourme the same, 

Lorde graunt thy Spirit pure." 
M M 

266 Notes. 

122. Page 107. Giovanni Micheli, the Venetian Ambassador in England 
during the reign of Queen Mary, took the opportunity of depicting, in vivid 
colouring, "Miledi Elisabetta" — the Princess Elizabeth of twenty-three years — 
in his " Relazione d'Inghilterra," presented to the Senate on his return in 1557. 
During her subsequent reign of forty-five years, all diplomatic relations between 
the two Governments ceased, doubtless on account of the differences which the 
change of religion recognized by the Queen occasioned in politics. (Baschet, La 
diplomatic V'enitienne, p. 106.) The Report of Micheli, in an abridged form, 
has been translated and printed by Sir H. Ellis {Letters; 2nd series, vol. 2) ; the 
portion we give within brackets is taken from the more extended document 
included in Alberi's collection of " Relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti," serie 1, 
vol. 2 (Firenze, 1840), pp. 289, &c. 

" My Lady Elizabeth, the daughter of Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyne, 
was born in 1533 [in the month of September — so that she is at present 
twenty-three years of age]. She is a lady of great elegance both of body and 
mind, although her face may rather be called pleasing than beautiful ; she is tall 
and well made ; her complexion fine, though rather sallow (o/ivastra) ; her eyes, 
but, above all, her hands, which she takes care not to conceal, are of superior 
beauty. In her knowledge of the Greek and Italian languages she surpasses the 
Queen. [She excels the Queen in the knowledge of languages ; for in addition 
to Latin, she has acquired no small acquaintance with Greek. She speaks Italian, 
which the Queen does not, in which language she takes such delight, that in the 
presence of Italians it is her ambition not to converse in any other.] Her spirits 
and understanding are admirable, as she has proved by her conduct in the midst 
of suspicion and danger, when she concealed her religion and comported herself 
like a good catholic. She is proud and dignified in her manners ; for, though 
her mother's condition is well known to her, she is also aware that this mother 
of hers was united to the King in wedlock, with the sanction of the holy church 
and the concurrence of the primate of the realm ; and though misled with regard 
to her religion, she is conscious of having acted with good faith ; nor can this 
latter circumstance reflect upon her birth, since she was born in the same faith 
as that professed by the Queen. Her father's affection she shared at least in 
equal measure with her sister; [it is said that she resembles her father more than 
the Queen does], and the King considered them equally in his will, settling on 
both of them 10,000 [30,000] soldi per annum. [Yet with this allowance she 
is always in debt. And she would be much more so, if she did not studiously 
abstain from enlarging her establishment, and so giving greater offence to the 
Queen. For indeed there is not a knight or gentleman in the kingdom who has 
not sought her service, either for himself or for some son or brother; such is 
the affection and love that she commands. This is one reason why her expenses 
are increased. She always alleges her poverty as an excuse to those who wish to 
enter her service, and by this means she has cleverly contrived to excite compas- 
sion, and at the same time a greater affection ; because there is no one to whom 

Notes. 267 

it does not appear strange that she — the daughter of a king — should be treated 
in so miserable a manner. She is allowed to live in one of her houses about 
twelve miles distant from London, but she is surrounded by a number of guards 
and spies, who watch her narrowly and report every movement to the Queen.] 
Moreover, the Queen, though she hates her most sincerely, yet treats her in public 
with every outward sign of affection and regard, and never converses with her 
but on pleasing and agreeable subjects. She has also contrived to ingratiate herself 
with the King of Spain, through whose influence the Queen is prevented from 
bastardising her, as she certainly has it in her power to do by means of an Act 
of Parliament, and which would exclude her from the throne. It is believed that 
but for this interference of the King, the Queen would without remorse chastise 
her in the severest manner; for whatever plots against the Queen are discovered, 
my lady Elizabeth or some of her people, may always be sure to be mentioned 
among the persons concerned in them." 

Elizabeth's studious habits and remarkable proficiency in languages are attested 
by Roger Ascham, who was her preceptor, in his interesting work, " The Schole- 
master," 1571. "It is your shame (I speake to you all, you yong Jentlemen of 
England) that one Mayde [i. e. the Queen] should goe beyond you all in excel- 
lency of learning and knowledge of divers tonges. Pointe forth six of the best 
geven Jentlemen of this Court, and all they togither shew not so much good will, 
spend not so much tyme, bestow not so many houres, dayly, orderly, and con- 
stantly, for the increase of learning and knowledg, as doth the Queenes Maiestie 
her selfe. Yea, I beleeve, that beside her perfit redines in Latin, Italian, French 
and Spanish, she readeth here now at Windsore more Greeke every daye, then 
some Prebendarie of this Church doth read Latin in a whole weeke. And that 
which is most prayse worthy of all, within the walles of her privy chamber, she 
hath obtained that excellency of learning, to understand, speake and write both 
witely with head, and fayre with hand, as scarse one or two rare wittes in both the 
Universyties have in many yeares reached unto. Amongest all the benefites that 
God hath blessed mee withall, next the knowledge of Christes true Religion, I 
count this the greatest, that it pleased God to call mee to be one poore Minister 
in setting forward these excellent giftes of learning in this most excellent Prince. 
Whose onely example, if the rest of our nobilitie would folowe, then might Eng- 
land bee, for learning and wisdome in nobilitie, a spectacle to all the world be- 
side." The following interesting passage, which we have not before seen quoted, 
is from the pen of Dr. William Turner, who, in the Dedication of his " Herbal," 
1568, to the " most noble and learned Princesse in all kindes of good lerninge, 
Quene Elizabeth," speaks thus of her accomplishments : " As for your knowledge 
in the Latin tonge xviij. yeares ago or more, I had in the Duke of Somersettes 
house (beynge his Physition at that tyme) a good tryal thereof, when as it pleased 
your grace to speake Latin vnto me : for although I have both in England, lowe 
and highe Germanye, and other places of my longe traveil and pelgrimage, never 
spake with any noble or gentle woman that spake so wel and so much cengrue fyne 

268 Notes. 

and pure Latin, as your grace did vnto me so long ago : sence whiche tyme hovve 
muche and wounderfullye ye have proceded in the knowledge of the Latin tonge, 
and also profited in the Greke, Frenche and Italian tonges and others also, and in 
all partes of Philosophie and good learninge, not onlye your owne faythfull subiectes, 
beynge far from all suspicion of flattery bear witnes, but also strangers, men of great 
learninge in their bokes set out in the Latin tonge, geve honorable testimonye." 
Numerous specimens of Elizabeth's " fayre hand," both as Princess and as 
Queen, are in the MS. department of the British Museum. One highly interesting 
volume contains Prayers or Meditations composed originally in English by Queen 
Katherine Parr, and translated into Latin, French and Italian, by Elizabeth when 
princess, as a gift to her father Henry VIII. It is written on vellum, entirely in 
her own hand, with a dedication to the King, dated from Hertford, 20 Decem- 
ber, 1545. The binding is of silk, embroidered with silver, supposed to have 
been executed by Elizabeth herself, and on the sides is the monogram of Queen 
Katherine Parr. This translation is mentioned by Bishop Montague, in his 
Preface to the " Workes of King James," fol. 1616. Dr. Bliss has described, in 
a MS. note to Walpole's "Royal and noble Authors," in the British Museum, 
(vol. i. p. 87), a volume deposited in the Bodleian Library, entirely written by 
Elizabeth. It consists of " Latin phrases, quotations, &c. The covers or blank 
leaves before the volume was bound (as it now is in vellum), are filled up with 
what may be actually termed scribbling; nor is it a slight trait of her affection 
towards her brother, that Edv. and Edvardus are continually seen as the words 
fixed on by the princess for her essay in the art of penmanship." Other books 
written by the Queen are noticed at pp. 165, 171, and note 153. 

123. Page 108. The way in which young thieves were educated in the Eliza- 
bethan age to perform their nefarious work neatly and dexterously, is revealed to 
us in the following quaint extract from a report written by Fleetwood, the Re- 
corder of London, dated July 7th, 1585 (Ellis/n.p.zgy): "Amongestour travells 
this one matter tumbled owt by the waye, that one Wotton, a gentilman borne, 
kepte an Alehowse att Smarts Keye neere Byllingsegate, and reared upp a newe 
trade of lyffe, and in the same howse he procured all the Cuttpurses abowt this 
Cittie to repaire to his said howse. There was a Schole Howse sett upp to learne 
younge boyes to cutt pursses. There were hunge up two devises, the one was a 
pockett, the other was a purse. The pockett had in yt certen cownters, and was 
hunge abowte with hawkes bells, and over the toppe did hannge a litle sacringe 
bell ; and he that could take owt a cownter without any noyse was allowed to be 
a publiqueffoyster ; and he that could take a peece of sylver owt of the purse with- 
out the noyse of any of the bells, he was adjudged & judicial? Nypper. Nota that 
a ffoister is a Pickpokett and a Nypper is termed a Pickepurse,or a Cutpurse." 
Those who have read " Oliver Twist" will be reminded of the very curious and 
uncommon game played by the "Artful Dodger" and his companions for the 
edification of the young novice. The rogue Autolycus, in the Winter's Tale, 
who was a " snapper-up of unconsidered trifles," and understood the business 

Notes, 269 

well, asserts that " to have an open ear, a quick eye, and a nimble hand, is neces- 
sary for a cut-purse." John Fit [Fitz] John says, in his " Diamond most pre- 
cious," &c. 1577 : " If you picke or stele above twelve pence, the lawes of this 
realme is death" A cut-purse named John Selman was executed on January 7th, 
161 2, for picking the pocket of Leonard Barry, servant to Lord Harrington, of a 
leather purse in the King's Chapel at Whitehall, on the previous Christmas Day, 
his Majesty being present. From a quarto pamphlet published at the time, we 
learn that the purse, a double one, was valued at one halfpenny , but in it were forty 
shillings. " Selman came into the Chappell in very good and seemely apparell, like 
vnto a Gentleman or Citizen — viz. a faire blacke cloake laced, and either lined 
thorow or faced with velvet." The charge was given to the " Grand Inquest" by 
Sir Francis Bacon, the King's " Solister." The place of execution was between 
Charing Cross and the Court Gate. The work, which contains on the title-page 
a woodcut portrait of the gentlemanly pick-pocket with the stolen purse in his 
hand, ends thus : " But see the gracelesse and vnrepenting minds of such like 
kinde of liuers ; for one of his quality (a picke-pocket I meane) euen at his execu- 
tion, grew master of a true mans purse, who being presently taken, was imprisoned, 
and is like the next sessions to wander the long voiage after his grand Captaine, 
Mounsier Iohn Selman. God, if it bee his blessed will, turne their hearts, and 
make them all honest men !" 

124. Page 108. In 1636, Leo van Aitzema, the Dutch ambassador and his- 
torian, was shown at Woodstock, Queen's Elizabeth's verses pasted on a board 
("een Engelsche ghedicht op een bort geplackt"), and also what he is pleased to 
term " Rosemondboor" (Saken van Staet, &c. 1669, ii. 363.) 

125. Page in. It is curious that the same remark was made by the Vene- 
tian Ambassador, in his Relation of England, written in 1497, but not printed 
until 1847, when this interesting work was carefully translated and edited by 
Miss Sneyd for the Camden Society. The Ambassador says that " the English 
are great lovers of themselves and of everything belonging to them ; they think 
that there are no other men like themselves, and no other world but England ; 
and whenever they see a handsome foreigner, they say that ' he looks like an 
Englishman/ and that ' it is a great pity that he should not be an Englishman* 
{e gran peccato che eglinon sia Inglese); and when they partake of any delicacy with 
a foreigner, they ask him ' whether such a thing is made in their country V " 

126. Page 113. Erasmus, in his Letters, bitterly complains of the rapacity of 
the English custom-house officers. On leaving England after his first visit in 
1499, the regulation prohibiting any person from carrying out of the country coin 
exceeding in amount six angels, was put in force against him. The King's officers 
at Dover took from him all the money he had above that sum, nearly £20, thus, 
in fact, depriving him of the fruits of his learned labours in England. See Erasmus 
On Pilgrimages, edited by J. Gough Nichols, Esq. p. 1 73 . Moryson (I tin. 1 6 1 7, 
pt. 1, p. 275) says: '* In England the Law forbids any Traveller upon paine of 
confiscation to carry more money about him out of the kingdome than will serve 
for the expences of his journey — namely, above twenty pounds sterling." 



127. Page 118. Juan de Tassis, Count Villamediana, had been despatched to 
England the year before (1603) to congratulate the new King, and to pave the 
way for the peace. An interesting account of his mission was published at Se- 
ville in the same year; a copy of this very rare production is in the Grenville 
Library. (See also Chifflet's Maison de Tassis, fol. 1645.) 

128. Page 121. The original of this passage is as follows (Relation, &c. 
p. 41): " Despues embid el Rey al Condestable un gran recaudo con el Conde de 
Northampton, diziendole que aquel dia era dichoso para el, pues se hazia la paz, 
y cumplian sus hijos aiios, y la Princessa Isabella quatro ; y que assi esperava que 
por el nombre, havia de ser medio para conservar en amistad y union los Reynos 
de Hespana y Inglaterra, al contrario de otra Isabella enemiga, que tantos dafios 
havia causado : que assi le diesse licencia para que le brindasse a la salud de los 
hijos," &c. The note respecting this in Ellis's " Original Letters " is : " What 
' Isabel ' King James could allude to, it is not easy to say. Perhaps it was one of 
the children of Philip III, who died at an early age, and are not particularly 
noticed by historians. His next health, * The Princess of Spain ' appears to coun- 
tenance this supposition, under which the singular number has been substituted by 
the translator for the plural 'hijos/ Prince Charles having at the period above alluded 
to nearly completed his fourth year." Here also the translation stands : M This 
season was memorable to his Majesty, not only because he had concluded a peace, 
but also because one of his sons and Princess Isabel were each about completing 
their fourth year." The above passage certainly is obscure, but there can be no 
doubt that the Isabel alluded to was James's eldest daughter Elizabeth, who'after- 
wards married the Elector Palatine; the name Isabella being the Spanish equivalent 
for Elizabeth, as Queen Bess well knew from the atrocious vituperations launched 
against her by the Spaniards. Even after her death, Lope de Vega vilified her in his 
Poem on Mary Queen of Scots, entitled "Corona Tragica," (4to. Madrid, 1627) 
with the epithets 'a bloody Jezebel,' (sangriente Jezabel), a play on the name 
Isabel; a 'second Athaliah,' (nueva A 't alia), and others equally choice. And 
Davila, the Spanish historian, after denouncing the English Queen " Isabel or 
Jezabel as a Calvinistic heretic and the greatest persecutor that the blood of 
Jesus Christ and the sons of the Church ever had" (Vida de Felipe 111, p. 74), 
on recording her death (p. 84) sends the impious Isabella {la impia Isabeld) down 
to the lowest depths of the inferno, there to suffer all the pains and penalties for 
her infamous life. Howell, writing from Madrid in 1622, says, " The Spaniard 
never speaks of Queen Elizabeth but he fetcheth a shrink in the shoulder." In 
Latin documents the name of the Spanish Queen Isabella (the Catholic) is ren- 
dered by " Elisabetha." 

The impressive allusion to the day, made in James's toast, was evidently in- 
tended by him for the day of the month (i. e. the 19th), on which three of his 
children had been born, viz. Henry (at this time ten years old), on the 19th of 
February, 1594; Elizabeth (now exactly eight years old), on the 19th of August, 
1596 ; Charles (scarcely four years old), on the 19th of November, 1600; and 

Notes. 271 

we may conclude that some confusion as to the King's remark in respect of age 
is due to the Spanish reporter and interpreter. 

There is a considerable literature regarding this peace between Spain and Eng- 
land. In the next year (1605), the aged Earl of Nottingham was sent to Valla- 
dolid to receive the oath of his Catholic Majesty ; of this journey there are extant 
two distinct narratives, one by Robert Treswell, Somerset Herald, the other by 
an anonymous writer, who professes to have been present. The pen of the author 
of " Don Quixote " is said to have been likewise called into service on the same 
occasion, the authority for this being a satirical sonnet by the poet Gongora, quoted 
by Pellicer {Vida de Cervantes, p. 115) : — 

" Pario la Reyna : el Luterano vino 

Con seiscientos hereges y heregias : 

Gastamos un millon en quince dias 

En darles joyas, hospedage y vino : 
Hicimos un alarde 6 desatino, 

Y unas fiestas, que fueron tropelias, 

Al Anglico legado y sus espias 

Del que juro la paz sobre Calvino : 
Bautizamos al nino Dominico, 

Que nacio para serlo en las Espanas : 

Hicimos un sarao de encantamento : 
Quedamos pobres, fue Lutero rico : 

Mandaronse escribir estas hazanas 

A Don Quixote, a Sancho, y su jumento." 

In English thus : " The Queen was confined : the Lutheran came with 600 
heretics and heresies : we spent a million in a fortnight to give them feasts, en- 
tertainments, and wine : we made such a display, or rather played such tom- 
fooleries, gave such galas or such guzzlings to the English envoy and his spies, for 
that he swore to the peace on Calvin. We christened the boy [i. e. Philip IV.] 
Dominic, because he was born to domineer over the Spains : we gave a ball quite 
enchanting : we made ourselves poor, but made Luther rich. These our exploits 
were commended for description to Don Quixote, Sancho, and his ass." 

The work thus ascribed to Cervantes on the strength of the above sonnet 
by Gongora, is excessively rare; the original is entitled : "Relacion de lo suce- 
dido en la ciudad de Valladolid desde el punto del felicisimo nacimiento del prin- 
cipe D. Felipe Dominico Victor,' , &c. and was published at Valladolid in 1605, 
4to. In the British Museum there is only an Italian translation, by Cesare 
Parona, printed at Milan in 1608; this copy was once in King James's own 

129. Page 122. The "Princess of Spain" was the afterwards celebrated 
Anne of Austria, wife of Louis XIII. of France, and mother of Louis XIV. She 
was born September 22, 1601. 

272 Notes. 

130. Page 123. A description of the dances mentioned in the text may be 
obtained from a curious work written by Cesare Negri, a Milanese professor of 
the saltatory art, and published at Milan in 1604, in folio, with numerous engrav- 
ings. It is entitled : *' Nuove inventioni di balli," &c. James Ps copy is in 
the British Museum. 

131. Page 123. These were probably the large Irish greyhounds, much 
valued for their strength and boldness, and formerly used in hunting the wolf and 
the boar. Mastiffs were usually selected to encounter Bruin in battle. 

132. Page 127. The population of London at this date was estimated by the 
Venetian Ambassador at 300,000 souls. (Correr's Relation a" Angleterre, circa 

133. Page 128. We have met with no allusion in our chroniclers or histo- 
rians to the strange statement in the text respecting Henry VII's " blood sprinkled 
on the wall" of the chamber wherein he died, at Richmond Palace ; the story is, 
however, repeated by two other travellers, Zinzerling and Eisenberg, who men- 
tion besides a magic mirror used by the King. The MSS. and printed books which 
Grasser saw in the Palace, are now in the British Museum, forming part of the 
Old Royal Collection. The Genealogy of the Kings of England, specially no- 
ticed by Zinzerling, (see p. 134), and by Eisenberg (p. 172), is a vellum roll, 
twenty feet long, and beautifully written. (14. B. 8.) 

134. Page 132. Touching English Inns and their accommodation, Fynes 
Moryson {J tin. 16 17, pt. 3, p. 151) writes : " I have heard some Germans com- 
plaine of the English Innes by the high way, as well for dearenesse as for that 
they had onely roasted meates : but these Germans, landing at Gravesend, per- 
haps were injured by those knaves that flocke thither onely to deceive strangers, 
and use Englishmen no better, and after went from thence to London, and were - 
there entertained by some ordinary Hosts of strangers, returning home little 
acquainted with English customes. But if these strangers had knowne the Eng- 
lish tongue, or had had an honest guide in their journies, and had knowne to live 
at Rome after the Roman fashion (which they seldome doe, using rather Dutch 
Innes and companions), surely they should have found that the World affoords 
not such Innes as England hath, either for good and cheape entertainement after 
the Guests owne pleasure, or for humble attendance on passengers ; yea, even in 
very poore villages. . . . For assoone as a passenger comes to an Inne, the servants 
run to him, and one takes his horse and walkes him till he be cold, then rubs him 
and gives him meate, yet I must say that they are not much to be trusted in this- 
last point, without the eye of the Master or his servant to oversee them. Another 
servant gives the passenger his private chamber, and kindles his fier, the third puis 
of his bootes and makes them cleane. Then the Host or Hostesse visits him, and 
if he will eate with the Host, or at a common table with others, his meale will 
cost him sixe pence, or in some places but foure pence (yet this course is lesse 
honourable, and not used by Gentlemen) ; but if he will eate in his chamber, he 
commands what meate he will according to his appetite, and as much as he 


2 73 

thinkes fit for him and his company, yea, the kitchin is open to him, to command 
the meat to be dressed as he best likes ; and when he sits at Table, the Host or 
Hostesse will accompany him, or if they have many Guests, will at least visit 
him, taking it for curtesie to be bid sit downe : while he eates, if he have com- 
pany especially, he shall be ofFred musicke, which he may freely take or refuse, 
and if he be solitary, the musitians will give him the good day with musicke in the 
morning. It is the custome and no way disgracefull to set up part of supper for 
his breakefast. In the evening or in the morning after breakefast (for the com- 
mon sort use not to dine, but ride from breakefast to supper time, yet comming 
early to the Inne for better resting of their Horses) he shall have a reckoning in 
writing, and if it seeme unreasonable, the Host will satisfie him either for the due 
price, or by abating part, especially if the servant deceive him any way, which 
one of experience will soone find. ... I will now onely adde, that a Gentleman 
and his Man shall spend as much as if he were accompanied with another Gen- 
tleman and his Man, and if Gentlemen will in such sort joyne together to eate at 
one Table, the expences will be much diminished. Lastly, a Man cannot more 
freely command at home in his owne House, then hee may doe in his Inne, and at 
parting if he give some few pence to the Chamberlin and Ostler, they wish him 
a happy journey." At another part of his work (part 3, p. 19) Moryson advises 
his countrymen travelling abroad : " In all Innes, but especially in suspected 
places, let him bolt or locke the doore of his chamber ; let him take heed of his 
chamber fellowes, and alwayes have his sword by his side or by his bed side; let 
him lay his purse under his pillow, but alwayes foulded with his garters or some 
thing hee first useth in the morning, lest hee forget to put it up before hee goe out 
of his chamber. And to the end he may leave nothing behind him in his Innes, 
let the visiting of his chamber and gathering his things together be the last thing 
he doth, before hee put his foote into the stirrup." 

135- P & g e 134. On the subject of this picture the Editor was favoured with 
the following interesting particulars by his friend Mr. Richard Garnett, of the 
British Museum, whose valuable aid on many other occasions he begs gratefully 
to acknowledge. Mr. Garnett writes : — 

" You will remember, in one of the German travellers' descriptions of Hampton 
Court, mention of a supposed portrait of our Saviour, sent, according to tradition, 
by one of the Sultans to the Pope, to obtain the release of his brother. You said 
that the picture had disappeared from the palace without leaving any trace. We 
then referred to Burcardus's account of Bajazet the Second's embassy to Pope Inno- 
cent VIII, in 1492, to obtain, however, the safe custody, not the liberation, of 
his brother Zim. On this occasion he sent the Pope what was represented to be 
the head of the lance by which Christ's side was pierced, but Burcardus does not 
mention any other relic. Now, going over Warwick Castle this morning [June 
15, 1863], I observed with much surprise a small portrait, painted in the Byzan- 
tine manner on a gold ground, and superscribed in capitals : ' This present figure 
is the similitude of our Lord IHS, our Saviour, imprinted in an emirald by the pre- 

N N 

274 Notes. 

decessor of the Great Turke, and sent to Pope Innocent VIII for a token to re- 
deem his brother that was taken prisoner.' This shows that the inscription must 
have been written in the time of Sultan Selim, 1512-20. I can have little doubt 
that this is the picture referred to by the German : the wonder is, how it could 
have got from Hampton Court to Warwick." This portrait of the Saviour would, 
however, appear to be only one among many other pretended " true Portraits." 
Old copies are alluded to in the " Antiquarian Repertory," iii. (where one is 
badly engraved); also in " Notes and Queries" for 1864. Photographs of "the 
only true likeness of our Saviour" — a very beautiful head certainly — have lately 
been exhibited in the shops of London. 

136. Page 135. Mr. J. Gough Nichols informs us {Gent. Mag. 1836, p. 154) 
that Gough, the antiquary, about 1765, purchased so much of the chimney-piece 
of the parlour in Theobalds Palace as had survived the demolition. M It is two- 
thirds of a groupe of figures in alto-relievo, representing in the centre Minerva 
driving away Discord, overthrowing Idolatry, and restoring true Religion. The 
architecture is ornamented with garbs or wheat-sheaves, from the Cecil crest. It 
is carved in clunch or soft stone, probably by Florentine artists." It was after- 
wards presented to his father, Mr. J. B. Nichols. As to the strange names of 
" Sitschitz" and of " Fanacham" mentioned in the text, Mr. J. G. Nichols, in a 
communication with which he has favoured the editor, says: " I have little doubt 
they are in their origin • Cecil ' and ■ Fackenham,' and relate to the legendary 
dispute for arms, of which Lord Burghley, among other genealogical matters, was 
proud. It may have been carved on one of the chimney-pieces, but perhaps only 
painted on the walls." (See also Notes 54 and 55.) 

137. Page 140. Shakespeare has put into the mouth of Trinculo {Tempest, 
act 2, sc. 2, ed. fol. 1623) an admirable skit upon the sight-seeing and curiosity- 
seeking propensity of his countrymen : — 

" What haue we here, a man, or a fish ? . . . a strange fish : were I in England 
now (as once I was), and had but this fish painted, not a holiday-foole there but 
would giue a peece of siluer : there, would this Monster, make a man : any 
strange beast there, makes a man : when they will not giue a doit to relieue a 
lame Begger, they will lay out ten to see a dead Indian" &c. (See also Notes 16 
and 56.) 

138. Page 143. The letter which the Landgrave Maurice wrote fromCassel, 
May 14, 161 1, introducing his son Otto to the Prince of Wales, is in the Harl. 
MS. (7008.) In the same volume are holograph letters of Prince Otto, in French, 
addressed to Prince Henry from Brussels, August 21, and Cassel, October 10, 161 1, 
acknowledging the latter's kindness to him while in England. 

139. Page 144. If the statement in the text— that Prince Otto went to 
Church with James I, to celebrate the " anniversary" of the Gunpowder Plot — 
be accurately given by Rommel, it must imply the day (Tuesday) on which it 
was discovered, the date of this visit of the German Prince being in June, July, 
and August. We have shown in Note 93 that the King was in the habit of 

Notes. 275 

attending church every Tuesday, in commemoration of the Gowry Conspiracy, 
which happened also on that day. 

140. Page 145. There is a 4to. tract descriptive of this mission of Henry 
Clinton, second Earl of Lincoln, written by Edward Monings, and entitled 
** The Landgrave of Hessen his princelie receiuing of her Maiesties Embassador. 
Imprinted at London by Robert Robinson, 1596." It is remarkable that in this 
narrative there is no mention made of the name or titles of the Ambassador, but 
that of his son, " Master Edward Clinton," appears in one or two places. 

141. Page 145. Mr. Fairholt is an excellent authority on the history of 
Tobacco. In his work on that subject (1859) he says, p. 70: "Among the 
papers at Penshurst is a note of expenses of Sir Henry Sidney, Lord Deputy of 
Ireland, among which occurs * three shillings for an ounce of tobacco.' This was 
within about three years of its first introduction to England, and would be equiva- 
lent to about 18/. of our present money." The accounts of the Earls of Cum- 
berland, between 1606 and 1638, show the great consumption of money to be 
in " wines, journeys, cloaths, presents, and tobacco." Whittaker [Craven, p. 
275) says: "The last heavy article of expence was tobacco, of which the finest 
sort cost 18/. per pound, and an inferior kind 12s. A single bill for this article 
amounted to £36 7. 8." By multiplying this by four, remarks Mr. Fairholt, 
we shall be able to judge of the price, as compared with that of our own day, and 
so understand the heavy expense of an indulgence in tobacco at this period. Bar- 
naby Rich, in his " Honestie of this Age" (1614), says he was told that there were 
as many as 7000 shops in and about London where tobacco was sold. Camden 
has a curious passage respecting tobacco and smoking. He says (Annales, 1625, 
bk. 3, p. 107) : "And certes since that time [1586, see Note 116], that Indian 
plant called Tobacco, or Nicotiana, is growne so frequent in vse, and of such 
price, that many, nay, the most part, with an insatiable desire doe take of it, 
drawing into their mouth the smoke thereof, which is of a strong sent, through a 
pipe made of earth, and venting of it againe through their nose; some for wan- 
tonnesse, or rather fashion sake, and other for health sake, insomuch that Tobacco 
shops are set vp in greater number then either Alehouses or Tauernes." (See also 
Hentzner's remarks, Note 56.) 

142. Page 151. The disease called the King's Evil was the scrofula, which it 
was supposed the English Kings were gifted with the power of curing by touching 
those afflicted with the complaint. Multitudes of persons were touched by royal 
hands from the time of Edward the Confessor till the reign of Queen Anne — a 
period of nearly 700 years. Similar miraculous powers of healing were claimed 
for the French monarchs. In 1597, William Tooker, a Doctor of Theology, 
wrote a work on the subject, which he dedicated to Queen Elizabeth, and in 
which he maintained the virtues of the royal touch for the English Kings. This 
work is entitled, " Charisma, sive donum sanationis ; seu explicatio totius quaes- 
tionis . . de curatione strumae, cui Reges Angliae rite inaugurati, divinitus medi- 
cati sunt, &c." Andre Du Laurens (Andreas Laurentius), first Physician to 



Henry IV. of France, claimed the gift for the French Sovereigns in a publication 
entitled, " De mirabili strumas sanandi vi, solis Gallise regibus christianissimis 
divinitus concessa" (8vo. Paris, 1609). In this volume is a large and in- 
teresting engraving by P. Firens, representing Henry IV. touching for the evil. 
The patients are kneeling in the open air. At page 19 the author states that he 
had vainly endeavoured to see Tooker's work, but that he had heard there were 
many absurd and laughable things in it advanced by the writer ; among others, 
that the French Kings had received the power of healing from the English, Sec. 
Shakespeare has described the practice in " Macbeth,'' act iv. sc. 3 (fol. edit. 

" Macd. What's the Disease he meanes ? 

Mai. 'Tis call'd the Euill. 

A most myraculous worke in this good King, 
Which often since my heere remaine in England, 
I haue seene him do : How he solicites heauen, 
Himselfe best knowes : but strangely visited people 
All swolne and Vlcerous, pittifull to the eye, 
The meere dispaire of Surgery, he cures, 
Hanging a golden stampe about their neckes, 
Put on with holy Prayers, and 'tis spoken 
To the succeeding Royalty he leaues 
The healing Benediction." 

Queen Elizabeth seldom performed the ceremony. But the practice was at its 
height in the reign of Charles II, and it is said that the " Merry Monarch" 
touched between the time of his restoration and his death nearly 100,000 persons. 
He ordered a particular medal or touch-piece to be expressly coined, and in two 
years no less a sum than £6000 had been ordered for providing gold for " healing 
medals." The ceremony observed in this reign is described by Pepys and Evelyn, 
and in the Travels of Cosmo III. Grand Duke of Tuscany. Evelyn, under date 
28th March, 1684, mentions that there was so great a concourse of people with 
their children to be touched for the evil, that six or seven were crushed to death by 
pressing at the chirurgeon's door for tickets. Several proclamations were issued and 
announcements published in the newspapers during this and the subsequent reign, 
prohibiting persons from coming to be healed, either on account of the plague or 
other infectious sickness prevalent. William III. did not touch for the evil. " He 
had too much sense to be duped (says Lord Macaulay, who has some admirable 
remarks on this subject, iii. 478, &c), and too much honesty to bear a part in 
what he knew to be an imposture. ' It is a silly superstition,' he exclaimed, when 
he heard that, at the close of Lent, his palace was besieged by a crowd of the 
sick : ' Give the poor creatures some money, and send them away.' On one 
single occasion he was importuned into laying his hand on a patient — ' God give 
you better health,' he said, 'and more sense.' " Dr. Samuel Johnson, when three 

Notes. 277 

years old, in 1712, was touched by Queen Anne, and a touch-piece in the 
British Museum is said to be the identical one which the illustrious lexicographer 
received on that occasion. In the Library of that establishment there is a little 
book printed at London, in 1686, entitled " The Ceremonies for the healing of 
them that be diseased with the Kings Evil, used in the time of King Henry VII ; 
published by His Majesties command." The form "at the Healing" occurs 
often in the Common Prayer books of the reigns of Charles I. and II, James II, 
and Queen Anne. These English forms all vary, and a new one appears to have 
been drawn up for each sovereign. 

143. Page 151. William, third Earl of Pembroke, was the eldest son of 
Henry, second Earl. He was K. G., Chancellor of the University of Oxford, 
and Lord Chamberlain of the Household. He succeeded his father January 19, 
i6o£, and died 10th April, 1630, when the Earldom went to his brother Philip, 
who had been created Earl of Montgomery, May 4, 1605. Philip succeeded his 
brother as Lord Chamberlain, and was also K. G. and Chancellor of Oxford Uni- 
versity, and died January 23, i6f^. They are the ''incomparable paire of bre- 
thren" to whom the first folio of Shakespeare, 1623, is dedicated. 

144. Page 151. Sir James Balfour {Annates of Scotland, ii. 108) makes a re- 
mark, strangely spelt and quaintly expressed, which, however, does not speak much 
for James's cleanly habits : " His skin vas als softe as tafta sarsnet, which felt so 
becausse he neuer vasht his hands, onlie rubb'd his fingers ends slightly vith the 
vett end of a napkin." 

145. Page 153. Bishop Hacket, in his Life of Lord Keeper Williams (fol. 1693, 
p. 38) says: " The King's [James I.] table was a trial of Wits. The reading of 
some books before him was very frequent while he was at his repast. He was 
ever in chase after some disputable doubts, which he would wind and turn about 
with the most stabbing objections that ever I heard ; and was as pleasant and 
fellow-like in all those discourses, as with his Huntsmen in the field." (See also 
Note 87.) 

146. Page 153. Casaubon had resided some years in France, where he appears 
to have led a restless and uncomfortable life, when, soon after the melancholy 
death of Henry IV, in 16 10, he could no longer resist the importunities of 
James I, who had frequently urged him to settle in England. The scholar came, 
and his new master, who had now found the man after his own heart, was not 
slow in availing himself of his services. Casaubon became the alter ego or cat's- 
paw in all the royal pedant's theological controversies. He was perpetually sum- 
moned to Court, very much to his discomfort, but he received his reward in two 
prebends, with a yearly pension of £300. The interview with the King at 
Theobalds, described in the text, is interesting as showing how such engagements 
were fulfilled. Casaubon's Diary has been recently published under the title of 
" Ephemerides," but he has not recorded this visit to his Majesty on September 
20th, 161 3 : the omission may be explained by the anxiety under which he then 
appears to have been labouring, owing to the serious illness of his wife, who was 

278 Notes. 

a daughter of Henri Estienne (Stephens), the learned printer and compiler of the 
famous Greek Thesaurus. The sheet of paper which the scholar laid before 
James for his criticism was in all probability a portion of Casaubon's " Exercita- 
tiones de rebus sacris et ecclesiasticis," which was levelled against the Annals of 
Cardinal Baronius. The work was printed at London in the following year 
(16 14) — the year of Casaubon's death, with a dedication by its author to the 
Most Potent King of England, and Defender of the Faith. Chapter 133 is devoted 
to a confutation of Bellarmine, on the subject of the temporal power of the Pope, 
and the Cardinal is also attacked in the Preface and elsewhere in the volume. It 
is a folio of 773 pages, the merits of which, however, are said to consist in having 
destroyed only the pinnacles of his adversary's castle. In the British Museum is the 
very copy which belonged to King James ; it is in a magnificent contemporary 
binding, with the royal arms on the sides, and in excellent preservation. After 
the learned scholar's death, the King, at the instigation of Patrick Young, his 
librarian, purchased Casaubon's entire Library of his widow, for the sum of £250 
(Devon's Issues of the Exchequer, p. 327). The well-thumbed volumes, having the 
margins covered with his MS. notes, and usually with his autograph signature on 
the title-pages, are now in our National Library. The bindings appear to be 
mostly of the time of Charles I. His initials, I. C, are stamped on the backs of 
the volumes. Not many years after Casaubon's death, one Thomas Scott, B.D. 
a fearless and admirable writer, sent forth various pamphlets attacking the pro- 
jected Spanish alliance. One of the most severe is the " Vox Populi, or Newes 
from Spayne" (1620), which is directed against the celebrated Gondomar, who, 
from his peculiar qualities, was nicknamed Fox Populi. The work was soon sup- 
pressed by royal authority. The following pithy extract is intended to describe 
the cunning artifices of the Papists to possess themselves of the Libraries of the 
heretical English — and of Casaubon's among the number : — 

" My Lord (replyes Gondamor) all the Libraries belonging to the Romane Ca- 
tholiques through the land are at their [i. e. the Jesuits] command, from whence 
they have all such collections as they can require gathered to their hand, as well 
from thence as from all the Libraries of both Universities, and even the bookes 
themselves, if that be requisite. Besides, I have made it a principall part of my 
imployment, to buy all the manuscripts and other ancient and rare authours out 
of the hands of the heretiques, so that there is no great scholler dyes in the land 
but my agents are dealing with his books. In so much, as even their learned Isaack 
Causabon's Library was in election without question to be ours; had not their 
Vigilant King (who forsees all dangers, and hath his eye busy in every place) pre- 
vented my plot. For after the death of that great scholler, I sent to request a 
view and catalogue of his bookes with their price, intending not to be outvyed 
by any man, if mony would fetch them ; because (besides the damage that side 
should have received by their losse prosecuting the same story against Cardinall 
Baronius) we might have made good advantage of his notes, collections, castiga- 
tions, censures, and criticismes, for our owne party, and framed and put out 

Notes. 279 

others under his name at our pleasure. But this was foreseene by their Prome- 
theus, who sent that Torturer of ours (the Bishop of Winchester) to search and 
sort the papers, and to seale up the study : giving a large and princely allowance 
for them to the Relickt of Causabon, togither with a bountiful! pention and pro- 
vision for her and hers. But this plot fayling at that tyme, hath not ever done 
so. Nor had the Universitie of Oxford so triumphed in their many manuscripts 
given by that famous knight Sir Thomas Bodly, if eyther I had been then im- 
ployed, or this course of mine then thought upon ; for I would labour what I 
might this way or any other way to disarme them, and eyther to translate their 
best authours hither, or at least to leave none in the hands of any but Romane 
Catholiques who are assuredly ours. And to this end, an especiall eye would be 
had upon the Library of one S[ir] Robert Cotton (an ingrosser of Antiquities) 
that whensoever it come to be broken up (eyther before his death or after) the 
most choice and singular pieces might be gleaned and gathered up by a Catholique 
hand. Neyther let any man think that descending thus lowe to petty particulars 
is unworthy an Ambassadour, or of small avayle for the ends we ayme at ; since 
we see every mountayne consists of severall sands, and there is no more profitable 
conversing for statesmen then amongst schollers and their bookes, specially where 
the King for whom we watch is the King of Schollers, and loves to live almost 
altogither in their element. Besides, if by any meanes we can continue differences 
in their Church, or make them wider, or beget distast betwixt their clergy and 
common Lawyers (who are men of greatest power in the land) the benefit will 
be ours, the consequence great, opening a way for us to come in betweene, for 
personall quarrels produce reall questions." An anecdote of Casaubon is introduced 
by Coryat in his amusing " Crudities" (161 1, pp. 31-33). Being in Paris, in May, 
1608, he says, " I enjoyed one thing which I most desired above all other things 
— even the sight and company of that rare ornament of learning, Isaac Casaubonus, 
with whom I had much familiar conversation at his house near unto St. Germans 
Gate within the citie. . . . Lately hath this peerlesse man made a happy transmigra- 
tion out of France into our renowned Island of Great Britaine to the great joy of the 
learned men of our nation; myselfe having had the happinesse to enjoy his desiderable 
commerce once since his arrivall here." Casaubon remarked to him that it was 
great pity there was not found some learned man in England that would write the 
life and death of that incomparable Queen Elizabeth in some excellent style. Such 
a task was, indeed, soon afterwards undertaken by William Camden, whose monu- 
ment is placed side by side with that of Casaubon in the south transept of West- 
minster Abbey. A portrait of " the little man with a black beard " is in the 
Picture Gallery of the Bodleian Library at Oxford. A fine engraving by Van 
Gunst, after Vanderwerf, is in the collection of English Portraits of the reign of 
James I. in the Print Room of the British Museum. 

147. Page 154. James's Queen, Anne of Denmark, at times indulged in these 
sylvan sports, of which her royal spouse was so passionately fond. The follow- 
ing anecdote is amusing; the scene being Theobalds, the time a few weeks prior 

280 Notes, 

to this visit of our German Prince. The writer, Mr. Chamberlain, dates his 
letter from " Ware Park," August 1,1613: "At their last being at Theobalds, 
which was a fortnight since, the Queen, shooting at a deer, mistook her mark, and 
killed Jewel, the King's most principal and special hound ; at which he stormed 
exceedingly awhile ; but after he knew who did it, he was soon pacified, and 
with much kindness wished her not to be troubled with it, for he should love her 
never the worse ; and the next day sent her a diamond, worth £2000, as a legacy 
from his dead dog." {Life and Times of "James I, i. 260.) A curious and inter- 
esting large portrait of the Queen, aet. 43, by Van Somer, is at Hampton Court. 
She is attired in a hunting dress, and wears a smart hat with red feather ; 
a negro is holding her richly caparisoned horse ; five small greyhounds are caper- 
ing about; in the distance is a view of the Palace at Oatlands. (See also 
Note 105.) 

148. Page 155. Sir Henry Wotton, speaking of Marc Antonio Correro, the 
Venetian Ambassador accredited to England, says : " His complexion is not strong 
for a long voyage." (Birch's Prince Henry, p. 1 15.) The work of Dr. Levinus 
Lemnius has the same use of the term in "The Touchstone of Complexions," 
1 58 1, noticed at p. yj. In the British Museum is an interesting volume 
which belonged to Charles I, when Prince of Wales. It is the " Aphorismes 
civill and militarie, out of Guicciardine," fol. London, printed by Edward Blount, 
1 613. The book has the royal arms and initials C. P. on its covers ; the binding is 
elaborately ornamented with gold. On the reverse of the title-page is an engraving 
of "The highe and mighty Charles Prince of Great Britanny, &c. ^)tatis suas 
13," 6 in. by 5 in. This portrait conveys the idea of his being of a delicate con- 
stitution. The work is dedicated by Sir Robert Dallington, the translator, who 
became afterwards Master of the Charter House, " To the high and Mightie, 
Charles Prince of Great Britannie," &c. The Museum also possesses the copy of 
Lord Bacon's " Advancement of Learning" (Oxford, 1640), which belonged to 
the unfortunate Charles when King, who has inserted twenty-three Apophthegms 
with his own hand in the volume, probably when he was a prisoner in Caris- 
brooke Castle ; likewise a volume entitled : " Florum Flores, sive Florum ex 
veterum Poetarum floribus excerptorum Flores;" consisting of a selection of pas- 
sages from the Classical Latin Poets, arranged alphabetically under heads, entirely 
in the handwriting of Charles when Prince, and presented by him to his father 
James I. as a new year's gift, to show his progress in his studies. 

1 49. Page 159. This " perspectively painted " Portrait was seen by Hentzner 
in 1598, who describes it as " A Picture of King Edward VI, representing at first 
sight something quite deformed, till by looking through a small hole in the cover 
which is put over it, you see it in its true proportions." It is an optical delusion 
called Anamorphosis, which is a perspective projection of a picture, so that at one 
point of view it shall appear distorted, or different to what it really is ; in another, 
an exact and regular representation. Sometimes it is made to appear confused to 
the naked eye, and correct when viewed in a glass or mirror of a certain form. 

Notes. 281 

Shakespeare, in '* Richard the Second," act ii. sc. 2, has : — ■ 

" Like perspectives, which rightly gaz'd upon, 
Shew nothing but confusion, — ey'd awry, 
Distinguish form." 

And see other allusions in " Twelfth Night" and " Henry V." Dr. Plot {Nat. 
Hist, of Staffordshire, 1686, p. 391) writes : " At the Lord Gerards, at Gerards 
Bromley, there are the pictures of Henry the great of France and his Queen, both 
upon the same indented board, which if beheld directly, you only perceive a con- 
fused piece of work; but if obliquely, of one side you see the King's, and on the 
other side the Queen's picture, which I am told (and not unlikely) were made 
thus. The board being indented according to the magnitude of the pictures, the 
prints or paintings were cut into parallel pieces, equal to the depth and number 
of the indentures on the board ; which being nicely done, the parallel pieces of the 
King's picture were pasted on the flatts that strike the eye beholding it obliquely 
on one side of the board ; and those of the Queen's on the other, so that the 
edges of the parallel pieces of the prints or paintings exactly joyning on the edges 
of the indentures, the work was done." The curiosity above noticed by Hentzner 
is mentioned in Walpole's "Anecdotes of Pain ting," edit. 1862, i. 135. He says: 
" Among the stores of old pictures at Somerset House was one, painted on a long 
board, representing the head of Edward VI, to be discerned only by the reflection 
of a cylindric mirror. On the side of the head was a landscape not ill done. On 
the frame was written Gulielmus pinxit" — probably Guillim Strete, a Dutchman, 
who was painter to King Edward VI. 

150. Page 161. In 1598, Hentzner remarked at Whitehall Palace the following 
pictures : "Queen Elizabeth, at 16 years old; Henry, Richard, Edward, Kings 
of England; Rosamund; Lucrece, a Grecian bride [a mistake] in her nuptial 
habit ; the genealogy of the Kings of England ; the Emperor Charles V ; Charles 
Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy, and Catherine of Spain his wife; Ferdinand, Duke 
of Florence, with his daughters ; Philip, King of Spain, when he came into Eng- 
land and married Mary ; Henry VII ; Henry VIII. and his Mother ; besides 
many more of illustrious men and women ; the Siege of Malta." 

151. Page 164. The wax-figure of Prince Henry is thus noticed by Sir Charles 
Cornwallis : "On Sunday at night, before the funerall, his representation was 
brought (made in so short warning, as like him as could be), and apparelled with 
cloathes, having his creation robes above the same, his cap and crowne upon his 
head, his garter, coller, with a George about his neck, his golden staffe in his right 
hand, lying crosse a little ; briefely, every thing as hee was apparelled at the time 
of his creation. Which being done, it was laid on the back on the coffin, and 
fast bound to the same, the head thereof being supported by two cushions, just as 
it was to bee drawne along the streets in the funerall chariot, drawne by eight 
black horses, decked with his severall scutcheons and plumes." {Life of Pr. Henry, 
p. 85). The wax effigies, "decked and trimmed with cloathes as he went when 

o o 

282 Notes. 

hee was alive," was set up in a Chamber of the Chapel [Henry VII's], at West- 
minster Abbey, " amongst the Representations of the Kings and Queenes, his 
famous predecessors, where it remaineth for ever to be seene." (Cornzuallis, 
p. 93.) According to Monstrelet, the representation of Henry V. was made of 
boiled leather — " cuir bouilli" It was elegantly painted, with a rich crown of gold 
upon his head ; in his right hand was a sceptre, in his left a golden ball; and his 
face was looking to the heavens. The wax-work exhibition at Westminster 
Abbey, popularly called " the play of the dead volks," and the " ragged regi- 
ment," was discontinued in 1839. Some of the figures, however — repetitions or 
restorations, many exceedingly good — are still remaining in a gallery over Abbot 
Islip's Chapel. 

152. Page 165. This "large Bible printed upon parchment" is now in the 
British Museum. It is the first revised edition of Cranmer's English Bible, called 
also "The Great Bible," and was printed in April, 1540, at the expense of An- 
thonye Marler, " haberdassher," of London, by whom this very copy was pre- 
sented to Henry VIII. A payment of £13 6s. 8d. per annum to Andrew Bright 
and Edmond Doubleday occurs among the Expenses of James I. (Somers 1 Tracts, 
ii. 390) for keeping the King's Bible at Whitehall. In an Inventory of the Plate 
in the Jewel House of the Tower, taken in 1649, after Charles I.'s death, there 
is an entry of: "I Large Bible and common prayer booke, covered with silver 
and gilt plate, estimated at 6olb. weight, and valued at 5.;. \d. p. oz.=£l92 o o." 
(Arcbceologia, xv. p. 273.) 

153. Page 165. Hentzner, in 1598, mentions the Royal Library in the Palace 
at Whitehall, as being " well stored with Greek, Latin, Italian, and French books; 
among the rest, a little one in French, upon parchment, in the handwriting of 
the present reigning Queen Elizabeth, thus inscribed : ' A Treshaut & Trespuis- 
sant & Redoubte Prince Henry VIII. de ce nom, Roy d'Angleterre, de France, 
& d'Irlande, defenseur de la foy — 

Elisabeth sa Treshumble fille rend 
Salut & obedience.' 

All these books are bound in velvet of different colours, though chiefly red, with 
clasps of gold and silver ; some have pearls and precious stones set in their bind- 
ings." Many of these royal books have found a safe resting-place in our Na- 
tional Library ; a few retain the beautiful bindings above noticed by Hentzner, 
and are exhibited to the public in the MS. department and in the King's Library. 
Other books written by the Queen have been mentioned in Note 122. Some 
choice specimens which belonged to James I. are also in the British Museum. 
Hentzner also remarked the following curiosities at Whitehall Palace : " Two 
little silver cabinets of exquisite work, in which the Queen keeps her paper, and 
which she uses for writing-boxes. The Queen's bed, ingeniously composed of 
woods of different colours, with quilts of silk, velvet, gold, silver and embroidery. 
A little chest ornamented all over with pearls, in which the Queen keeps her 

Notes. 283 

bracelets, earrings, and other things of extraordinary value. Christ's Passion, in 
painted glass. A small Hermitage, half hid in a rock, finely carved in wood. 
Variety of emblems, on paper, cut in the shape of shields, with mottoes used by 
the nobility at tilts and tournaments, hung up for a memorial. Different instru- 
ments of music, upon one of which two persons may perform at the same time. 
A piece of clock-work, aniEthiop riding upon a Rhinoceros, with four attendants, 
who all make their obeisance when it strikes the hour ; these are put into motion 
by winding up the machine." 

154. Page 167. The streets in London are described by Hentzner as " very 
handsome and clean ; but that which is named from the Goldsmiths who inhabit it, 
surpasses all the rest ; there is in it a gilt tower, with a fountain that plays. Near 
it is a handsome house built by a goldsmith and presented by him to the city. 
There are besides to be seen in this street, as in all others where there are gold- 
smiths' shops, all sorts of gold and silver vessels exposed to sale, as well as ancient 
and modern medals, in such quantities as must surprise a man the first time he 
sees and considers them. We were shown at the house of Leonard Smith (Fabri), 
a tailor, a most perfect looking-glass, ornamented with pearls, gold, silver, and 
velvet, so richly as to be estimated at 500 ecus du soleil. We saw at the same 
place the hippocamp and eagle stone, both very curious and rare." 

Hentzner also informs us that " there are fifteen Colleges, within and without 
the City, nobly built, with beautiful gardens adjoining. Of these the three prin- 
cipal are — I. The Temple, inhabited formerly by the Knights Templars : it 
seems to have taken its name from the old Temple, or Church, which has a 
round Tower added to it, under which lie buried those Kings of Denmark 
that reigned in England [meaning the Knights Templars] ; II. Gray's Inn 
{Greziri) ; and III. Lincoln's Inn {Lyconsin). In these Colleges numbers 
of the young nobility, gentry and others, are educated, chiefly in the studies of 
philosophy, theology, and medicine — for very few apply themselves to that of the 
law. They are allowed a very good table, and silver cups to drink out of. Once 
a person of distinction, who could not help wondering at the great number of 
silver cups, is said to have exclaimed, ' He should have thought it more suitable 
to the life of students, if they had used rather glass or earthenware, than silver.' 
The College answered, ' They were ready to make him a present of all their 
plate, provided he would undertake to supply them with all the glass and earthen- 
ware ; since it was very likely he would find the expense, from constant break^ 
ing, exceed the value of the silver.'" In 1807, Hentzner's Journey into England 
was reprinted at Reading at the private press of Mr. T. E. Williams. Not being 
able to interpret the above two names, Grezin and Lyconsin, the editor inserted 
in his ' Addenda' this instructive note : " The Temple. Names of two Danish 
Kings buried there, ' Gresin and Lyconsin ! ' " 


The letter n. precedes the numbers of the Notes. 

[CTORS, ciii-cxl, 88, n. 
16,56,84, 114, 115. 

Adams (R.) Spanish Ar- 
mada Charts, n. 29. 
Aggas (R.) Maps, n. 12, 

43» So- 
Agricultural Produce, 52. 
Aitzema (L. van) at Woodstock, n. 

Alasco (A.) Visit to England, lv. 
Albums, xxxi-xxxiii. 
Alchemists, Ixxxviii. 
Aldermen of London, 107. 
Ale and Beer, xliv, Iviii, 9, 79, 109, 

152, n. 20, 56. 
Alencon in pledge, Ixxxiv. 
Alkmaer, plan of, 1597, n. 84. 
Alleyn (E.) n. 56. 
All Souls' College, Oxford, 26. 
"Amsterdam Dutchman," n. 10. 
Anamorphosis, n. 149. 
Andres (J. V.) 88, n. 114. 
Andrelini (F.) n. 117. 
Angsrietter, see Anstruther. 
Anhalt, Prince of, Travels in England, 

cxxii, n. 37, 39, 49, 53, 55, 56, 

109 ; Portrait of, 162. 
Anne Boleyn, n. 38. 
Anne of Austria, n. 128, 129. 

Anne of Denmark, 58, 61, 66, 118, 

135, n. 39, 105, 147. 
Anstruther (Sir R.) 65, 66, n. 107. 
Apprentices of London, 7, n. 13. 
Arabella Stuart, 58, 66, n. 71. 
Aragon (Don B. de) 1 20, 1 21. 
Archer's Court, Dover, n. I. 
Arithmaeus (V.) Notes on London, &c. 

Armoury in the Tower, 19, n. 42. 
Arnold (C.) Album of, xxxii. 
Arrows, 19, I 54. 
Art, Works of, in the Royal Palaces, 

Arundel, Earl of, xxvi, 119, n. 85. 
Ascham (R.) Hi, n. 122. 
Ashmole (E.) Ixxviii, Ixxxvi. 
Assum (J. A.) Ixxi, lxxxv. 
Audley End, 64, 135, n. 97. 
Automata, n. 84. 

Bacon, Lord, xviii-xx, n. 94, 123. 
Baden, Margrave of, Visit to England, 

lii, liii. 
" Badenfahrt," xc-xcii. 
Bajazet II, Sultan, n. 135. 
Ball at Whitehall Palace, 123. 
Balliol College, 22, 23. 
Bankes's horse, n. 56. 




Bankside, n. 56. 

Barnfelt (H.) see Oldenbarnevelt. 
Bartholomew Fair, 107. 
"Bason (Silver) i' Chester/' 140. 
Bathing-excursion, xc-xcii. 
Baths in Windsor Castle, xliii. 
Bayona, Sir F. Drake at, n. 116. 
Bear-baiting, xlvi, 46, 61, 123, 133, 

n. 56. 
Bear-garden, 140. 
Beauchamp, "Tomb of," 139. 
Beauvoir la Nocle (M.) 7-15, 46, n. 

ii> 57- 
Beaver " i' the Parke," 140. 
Beckmann, Prof, xxviii, &c. n. 119. 
Bed of Ware, 62, n. 53. 
Beddington, 62, n. 86. 
Bedford, 31, 135. 

Beds, xlii, xliii, 108, 110, n. 33, 153. 
Beef, 152. 
Beer, see Ale. 
Beheading, 1 10, n. 22. 
Bellarmine, Cardinal, 153, n. 87, 146. 
Bell-ringing, III. 
Benet College, 36. 
Bentley (R.) 103. 
Berck (J.) 59, n. 75. 
Bereblock (J.) n. 43. 
Bermudez (P.) n. 116. 
Beze (T. de) n. 29. 
Bibeus (S.) Account of Oxford and 

Cambridge, 21-43, n. 45. 
Bible of Henry VIII, 165, n. 152. 
Birch (T.) n. 104. 
Bird of Paradise, n. 33. 
Birds of prey, 32. 
"Black Bell," The, 133. 
" Black Eagle," The, 58. 
Blood-hounds, 17. 
Boars, wild, 50, 145. 
Boats, 134, [see also "Ships."] 
Bodley (Sir T.) n. 146. 
Boggy country, 30, 31. 

Bohemian Pilgrimage to England, xxxix. 
Books used in travelling, xxiv ; patent 

for printing, cxxv ; sold at Theatres, 

n. 56. 
Boreel (W.) n. 84. 
Botnia (F. de) Album of, xxxii. 
Bow-Dye, n. 84. 
Bows and arrows, 154. 
Boyle (Hon. R.) n. 84. 
Boys, rudeness of English, n. 13. 
Brandenburg Ambassador, 145. 
" Brando," a dance, 123. 
Brandon's lance, 140, n. 42. 
Brandy sold in Hesse, 145. 
Brasenose College, 27. 
Braybrooke, Lord, n. 97. 
Bremen, Iviii. 
Breuning (H. J.) Embassy to England, 

Brooke (Sir W.) see Cobham (Lord). 
Brown (Rawdon) xliii-xliv. 
Browne (Sir W.) 57, n. 68. 
Bruges (L. de) Lord of Gruthuyse, Visit 

to England, xli. 
Brunswick, Christian, Duke of, n. 72. 
Brunswick, Frederick Ulric, Prince of, 

Visit to England, 58, &c. n. 72, 76, 

1 10. 
Brunswick, Henry Julius, Duke of, civ, 

cvii, 161, n. 72. 
Brydges (Sir E.) n. 109. 
Buck (Sir G.) n. 56. 
Buckhurst, Lord, lxviii. 
Buildings in London, xxvi. 
Bull-baiting, 46, 6 1 , 1 24, 1 3 3 , n. 1 6, 56. 
Burghley, Lord, lxii, &c. 44, n. 29, 

54, 136. 
"Burse," The, n. 17. 
Burton (Rob.) on Travel, xxi. 
Butcher, an executioner, 89. 
Buwinckhausen (B. von) Embassy to 

England, lxviii, lxxiii, Ixxvi, Ixxxiv, 

cxvi, cxviii, cxxiv, 61, 65, n. 83. 



Byfleet, n. 59. 

Cadiz, guns taken at, 133. 

Caesar's "wine i' Dover," 140. 

Caius (J.) 42, n. 52. 

Caius (T.) n. 52. 

Caius College, 37. 

Calais, 4, 5. 

Cambridge, cxix, 31-43, 62, 63, 135, 

n. 45, 49-52. 
Camden (W.) 132, 178, n. 24, 84, 

141, 146. 
Cannon in the Tower, 167, n. 42. 
Canterbury, 6, 66, in, 131, n. 6. 
Caravajal (Luisa) n. 98. 
Cardano (G.) Visit to England, xlviii-1, 

n. 84. 
Carew (Sir F.) 61, 62, n. 86. 
Caron (Sir N.) 59, 60, n. 79. 
Carthagena taken, n. 116. 
Carts, 14, n. 32. 
Casaubon (I.) 153, n. 13, 146. 
" Cassawarway," 140. 
Cassel, 144, 145. 

Cassel, William, Landgrave of, lvi. 
Castile, Constable of, see Velasco. 
Castiemaine, Countess of, n. 85. 
Cataia natives, n. 40. 
Cates (T.) n. 116. 
Catharine Hall, 39. 
Catherine of Aragon, xlv. 
Catherine Parr, xlvi. 
Cats, 32. 

Cattle, 30, 51, yg, 109. 
Cavendish (G.) n. 117. 
Caxton's "Book for Travellers," xxxiii. 
Cecil, Lord Burghley, see Burghley. 
Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, Ixxi, 1 63, n. 54. 
Cecilia, Princess of Sweden, li-liv. 
Ceilings in Theobalds Palace, 44, 45. 
Cellius (E.) lxi, lxxiii, lxxviii, xc, xci. 
Cervantes, n. 128. 
Charles, Prince, see Charles I. 

Charles I. cix, ex, exxv, exxvi, exxx, 
58, 150-155, 163, n. 54, 75i 76, 
87, 89, 98, 102, 109, 128, 148. 

Charles II, n. 89, 142. 

Chastillon, Cardinal, 66. 

Chatham, n. 6 1 , [see also " Rochester."] 

Cheke (Sir J.) xlix. 

Chemical Experiments, n. 84. 

Cherry trees, n. 86. 

Chester, Silver "Bason," 140. 

Child-births, 72. 

Chimney-piece at Theobalds, 135, n. 

China, Fishing by Cormorants in, n. 95 . 

Christ, Image of, 167; Christ's Pas- 
sion, on glass, 165. 

Christ Church College, Oxford, 28. 

Christ's College, Cambridge, 40. 

Christenings, 72. 

Christian IV, King of Denmark, n. 36. 

Christina, Queen of Sweden, li, liii. 

Churches of London, 8. 

Churchings, 72. 

Churchyard (T.) lxxii, n. 58. 

Chytraeus (N.) n. 24. 

Clare Hall, 34, 35. 

Clavell (R.) n. 63. 

Cleanliness, English, 78. 

Cleves, Duke of, cxv. 

Climate of England, xlvii, 50, 109. 

Closheys, game of, xli. 

Coaches, lxxiii, 30, 31, 133, n. 30. 

Cobham, W. Brooke, Lord, 77, n. 109. 

Cobham Hall, 66, n. 109. 

"Cobs,"n. 18. 

Cockfighting, 133. 

Cocknies, n. 31. 

Coins, 52. 

Coke (Sir J.) exxv. 

Colleges, n. 154, [see also "Cam- 
bridge" and "Oxford."] 

Colli (H.) cxvi, 61, n. 82. 

Coloma (Don Carlos) 1 17. 

2 88 


Comedians, see Actors. 

"Complexion," n. 148. 

Conduits, 8, n. 18. 

Coneys, n. 65. 

Constable of Castile, see Velasco. 

Conway, Lord, cxxv. 

Cooks, English, n. ill. 

Copernicus, n. 84. 

Cormorants, 64, 1 44, n. 95. 

Corn, in. 

Cornao (M. A.) see Correr. 

Cornelius the Dutchman, see Drebbel. 

Coronation Chair, 10, n. 25.- 

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 

35>3 6 - 

Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 27,28. 

"Correnta" dance, 123. 

Correr (M. A.) Relation of England, cxxi, 
59, n. 21,71,74,76,77,93,105. 

Coryat (T.) xiv-xvii, xxxvi, 140, n. 
24, 56. 

•' Cosen Garmombles," xciv-ciii. 

Cosmo III, xxxvi, xxxvii. 

Cossuma Albertus, Prince, n. 63. 

Cottington (F.) n. 98, 99. 

Cotton (Sir R.) an " ingrosser of an- 
tiquities/' n. 146. 

Courtesy of the English, 78. 

Coventry " Boares-shield," 140. 

Cows, 51. 

Crequi (Mad. de) n. 117. 

Criminals, n. 22. 

Crossbows, 17. 

Crown, English, n. 119. 

Cups of agate and crystal, 120, 121. 

Cure (C. and W.) n. 40. 

Currants, n. 20. 

Currency, 52. 

Cut-purses, n. 123. 

Dallington (R.) xxii. 
Dancing, xxiii, xli, xlii, 
117, 130. 

o, 123, 

Danes in England, x. 

Danish Ambassador cheated, xxxvii. 

Dartford, Paper Mill at, Ixxii. 

Davila, abuse of Queen Elizabeth, n. 
98, 128. 

Deanery at Westminster, 100. 

Dee (Dr. J.) n. 60, 84. 

Deer, 17, 50, 154. 

Denmark House, see Somerset House. 

Deptford, Drake's ship at, 140, 173, 
n. 62. 

Derby, Earl of, 1 19. 

Dethick (Sir W.) Jxxviii, &c. 

Devonshire, Earl of, 119. 

D'Ewes (Sir S.) n. 36. 

Diaries, xix. 

Dibdin's History of Dover, n. 2, 118. 

Dickens (C.) n. 53, 63. 

Digby, Earl of Bristol, 66, n. 107. 

Digges (T.) n. 2. 

Dinner, Queen Elizabeth at, 106, 107 ; 
James I. at, 60, 118-124, l 5 2 ' 1 53 I 
Lord Mayor's, 107 ; to the Con- 
stable of Castile, 1 15-124. 

Divinity Schools, Oxford, 26. 

Dixie (Sir W.) 87, n. 113. 
Dog-fish, 140. 

" Dogge-dayes," 80. 

Dogs, 45, 46, no, 154, n. 56, 131, 

Doncaster, Viscount, cxxiv. 
Dorchester, Viscount, cxxv. 
Dorset, Earl of, 1 19. 
Dort, see Vanderdort. 
Dotterels, 63, 64, n. 94. 
Dover, liii, 5, 66,?$, 112, 113, 131, 

140, n. 2, 118. 
Draining the level, n. 84. 
Drake (Sir F.) 49, 89, 135, 140, 172, 

173, n. 62, 116. 
Drayton (M.) n. 94. 
Drebbel (C.) 61, n. 84. 
Dress, 7, 8, 70, 71, 90. 



Drinking and Drinks, cxxx, 79, 152, 

153, n. 20. 
Drought in the Thames, n. 60. 
"Dutch," meaning German, xxii, n. 

io, 118. 
Dutch clocks, n. 10. 
" Dutch Post," London, 6. 
Dutchman, "great long," 139. 
Dutchmen in England, x. 

Easterlings, n. 19. 

Eating, 70, n. in. 

Eckenstein, Herr, 128. 

Edmondes (Sir T.) 61, 6$, n. 104. 

Edward the Confessor's shrine, 10, n. 

Edward " the Fortunate," Hi, liv. 
Edward III, sword of, 10, 140, n. 26 ; 

wax-figure, 164. 
Edward IV, xxxix, xli-xliii. 
Edward VI, xlix, 159, 160, n. 38, 

122, 149. 
Eisenberg (P.) Notes on England, 169- 


Eleanora, of Scotland, xcii. 

Elements, nature of the, n. 84. 

Elizabeth, Queen, visits to, li, &c; 
favors phe Lady Cecilia, lii ; report 
of in Germany, Iviii ; reception of 
and correspondence with the Duke 
of Wirtemberg, lx-lxxvi ; recep- 
tion of Breuning, lxiv; at Green- 
wich, cxxii, 103-107; at Reading, 
1 1-1 3, n. 27 ; at Richmond, 87, 88 ; 
at Westminster, 94 ; at Woodstock, 
108, 135, 172, n. 124; alluded to 
by James I, 121; monument, 127; 
books written by, 133, 165, 171, n. 
122, 153; portraits, 161-163, n. 
118, 150; wax-figure, 164; look- 
ing-glass, 165; draught-board, 173; 
a musician, n. 28 ; at Windsor, n. 
33; at Hampton Court, n. 38; at 

Oxford, n. 43, 52; at Cambridge, 
n. 50; at Theobalds, n. 54; fond 
of bear-baiting, n. 56 ; letter to 
Lady Norris, n. 58 ; compared with 
James I, n. jy ; visits Sir N. Caron, 
n. 79 ; at Nonesuch, n. 85 ; at 
Beddington, n. 86; reviled by the 
Spaniards, n. 98, 128; at Cobham, 
n. 109; her hair, n. 118; "God 
save the Queen," n. 121 ; notice 
of, by Micheli, n. 122; Camden's 
Life of, n. 146. 

Elizabeth, Princess, daughter of James 
I, cxxvii, 58, &c, 66, 118-124, 
143, n. 70, 72, 81, 128. 

Eltham, 61, 139, n. 84. 

Emden, iviii. 

Emmanuel College, 42, 63. 

Ems, river, 3. 

Engines, n. 84. 

England, foreigners' visits to, ix-xii ; Re- 
lations of, xliii; a paradise for women, 
14; «' Sights and Exhibitions," 137- 

England and the English, t. Edw. III. 
and Ric. II, Froissart, xxxvii ; 1466, 
Rozmital, xxxviii-xl; 1472, Gru- 
thuyse, xli ; 1497, Trevisano, xliii; 
15 15, Pasqualigo and Giustiniani, 
xlv; 1543.4, Duke de Najera, xlvi ; 
1545, Paradin, xlvii; 1545-6, Nic. 
Nucius, xlvii-xlviii 5 1548, Jovius, 
xlviii; 1552, Cardan, xlviii-1; 1556- 
7, Micheli, 1; 1558, Perlin, 1-li ; 
temp. Eliz., Van Meteren, 67-73 ; 
1560, Lemnius, 75-80; 1565, Ce- 
cilia, Princess of Sweden, li-liv ; 
1574, Turler, 81-84; I 5 8 3» Alas- 
co, lv;.i585, Kiechel, 85-90; 
1592, .Frederick, Duke of Wirtem- 
berg, lv-ciii, 1-53 ; 1598, Hentzner, 
101-113 ; 1604, Constable of Cas- 
tile, 1 15-124; c. 1606, Grasser, 125- 

p p 



128; 1610, Prince of Wirtemberg, 
55-66; c. 16 10, Zinzerling, 129- 
135 ; 161 1, Prince of Hesse, 141- 

145; 16 1 3, Duke of Saxe- Weimar, 
147-167; 1 6 14, Eisenberg, 169- 
173; 1617, Arithmaeus, 175-178. 

" English Lion," the, 48. 

English pronunciation of Latin, xxxvi, 

Englishmen abroad, xiii, &c. 

Erasmus, 165, 171, n. 117, 126. 

Eric, King of Sweden, liv. 

Erskine (Sir T.) 1 19. 

Essex, Earl of, 11, 13, 119. 

Eton College, 17, 38. 

Evelyn (J.) n. 84. 

Evil, touching for the, 132, 144, 151, 

152, 154, n. 142. 
Exchange, see Royal Exchange. 
Executions, 133, n. 22, 42, [see also 

" Hanging/'] 
Exeter College, 23. 
Exhibitions in England, 137-140. 
Eynatten (W. and A.) 1 1 3. 

Fabricius, Secretary, n. 120. 

Faithorne (J.) cxxxii. 

Fanacham (G.) I35,n. 136. 

Fare, English, 79. 

Farley (H.) n. 16. 

Farmers, 1 10, III. 

Fashions, 71, 73, n. 112, [see also 

" Dress."] 
Fawkes (G.) n. 103. 
Feathers, worn by ladies, 73. 
Fennor (W.) 145. 
Ferretti (F.) Travels in England, n. 8, 


Ferry at Lambeth, n. 80. 
Finett (Sir J.) xxxvii, n. 4. 
Fire-ships, n. 84. 
Fire-works, 140. 
Fish, 52, 70, 71. 

Fishing with cormorants, 64, n. 95. 

Fleet-Street mandrakes, 139. 

Fleetwood, Recorder, n. 123. 

Flowers in rooms, 78. 

Flushing, 57, n. 68, 106. 

" Flushing " (The) at Gravesend, 132. 

Foreigners in England, ix-xii, cxxiii, 
&c. in London, cviii; rudeness to- 
wards, 7, n. 13 ; remarks on, III. 

Fountains, 17, 19, n. 41. 

Fowl, 52. 

Francis I, xlv. 

Frederick, Elector Palatine, 131, 149, 
n. 70, 72. 

Frederick, of Hesse Cassel, 133. 

French language, xxxv. 

Frenchmen in England, x, xi ; insults 
to, n. 13. 

Frobisher (Sir M.) 18, n. 40, 116. 

Froissart, xxxvii, xxxviii. 

Frontignac wine, 152. 

Fruit, 52, n. 56. 

" Fruitbearing Society ," cxxii, 149. 

Fuller (T.) n. 94. 

Funerals, 72. 

Gad's Hill, 49, n. 6^. 

Galliards, cxxviii. 

Game, 50, [see also " Hunting."] 

Gamlingay, 32. 

Gardens, 18, 45, n. 39, 54. 

ee Garmombles," Iv, xciv, xcviii. 

Garnet (H.) 127. 

Garter, order of the, Ix, &c, 16, 60, 

132, 153, n. 33. 
Garter-plates, Ixxxvi, lxxxvii. 
Gerard (J.) Herbalist, n. 39. 
" German," and " Dutch," n. 10. 
German language, 71 ; Princes, 1 55; 

Travellers, x, xxviii-xxxii, xxxvii, 

I33> 178, n. 134. 
Germany, English actors in, ciii-cxi, 



Gibson, miniature by,'cxxx. 
Giovio, see Jovius. 
Girls, 73. 

Giustiniani (S.) mission to England, xlv. 
Glass-houses, 1 10. 
Globe Theatre, 61, n. 56. 
Goldsmiths, cviii, 166, n. 154. 
Gondomar, Count, n. 13,98,99, 116, 

Gonvile and Caius College, 37. 
Goodman, Dean, 100. 
Gorges (Sir T.) liv. 
"Gosseps," 72. 

Gowry Conspiracy, 63, 178, n. 93. 
Grasser's Notes on England, 125-128. 
Gravesend, 5, 6,48, 49, 58, 66, 132, 

n. 7^ 
Greenwich Palace, xlv, 6, 61, 66, 103- 

107, 135, 163, 167. 
Greepe (T.) n. 116. 
Gresham (Sir T.) n. 17. 
Greyhounds, 123, n. 131. 
Gruthuyse, Lord of, visit to England, 

Guildhall " huge Corinseus," 139. 
Gunpowder Plot, 128, 133, 144, n. 

Guy of Warwick, 139. 

Hacket, Bishop, cxix, n. Sy, 145. 

Hackney, n. 57. 

Hair,ladies', n. 1 1 8 ; Bohemians', xxxix. 

Hakluyt's Voyages, xiii. 

Halberdiers, 124. 

Hall, in Swabia, cxv. 

Hall's Censure of Travel, xxv. 

Halls, 97; at Oxford, 30. 

Hamilton, Archbishop, xlviii. 

Hampton Court, xcii, xciii, 18, 19, 

134, 167, n. 38-40. 
Handbooks of Travel Talk, xxxiii. 
Hanging, Ixxxviii, 89, no, 131, n. 


Hanse Towns, n. 19. 

Harant (C.) n. 120. 

Hares, n. 65 ; hare-hunting, 62-64, 

n. 90. 
Harrison (W.) n. 30, 32, 39, 49, 109. 
" Harry the Lyon," 140. 
Harvest Home, ill. 
Hatching process of Drebbel, n. 84. 
Haugwitz (C. von) lxxv. 
Hawking, 63, 1 10. 
Hawthorne's Remarks on England, xii. 
Hay, floors strewed with, 104. 
Hay, Lord, 63, n. 92. 
Heads on London Bridge, 9, 171, n. 

" Healing," Ceremony of, see Evil. 
Heidelberg, n. 70. 
Helena, Marchioness of Northampton, 

Henry IV, King of England, tomb, 

Henry V, King of England, wax- 
figure, 164, n. 151. 
Henry VI, King of England, 6^ t 152, 

Henry VII, King of England, 84, 128, 

134, 160, 164, 172, n. 133. 
Henry VII's Chapel, 9, 97, 98, n. 23. 
Henry VIII, King of England, xlv, 

xlvii, xlviii, t 9, 131, 1 40, 1 60, 165, 

173, n. 38,42, 85, 152. 
Henry, Prince of Wales, xvi, 58, &c. 

n8, 123, 143, 144, 161, 164, n. 

56, 72, -]6, 79, 84, 97, 101, 102, 

110, 128, 151. 
Henry the Lion, n. 1I9. 
Henry IV, King of France, cxii, cxvi, 

cxvii, 62, 64, 162, 164, n. 75,96, 

102, 109. 
Hentzner's Travels in England, x, 

cxxiii ; description of England, 101- 

113; Dover, n. 2 ; horses and saddles, 

n. 5 ; Gravesend, n. 7 ; swans, n. 



8; foreigners, n. 13; St. Paul's, n. 16; 
London Bridge, n. 21,22 ; servants, 
n. 30; Windsor, n .33 ; music and 
dancing, n. 34 ; unicorn's horn, n. 
37 ; Hampton Court, n. 38, 39 ; 
fountains, n. 41 ; Tower of Lon- 
don, n. 42 ; Oxford, n. 49 ; Cam- 
bridge, n. 50; Theobalds, n. 55 ; 
theatres, n. 56 ; oysters, n. 67 ; 
Whitehall Palace, n. 150, 153; 
streets, colleges, &c. n. 154. 

Herbert of Cherbury, Lord, n. 108. 

Herring- fishery, 71. 

Hertford, paper mill at, lxxii. 

Hesse, Maurice, Landgrave of, Ixvii, 
143, 145, n. 138, 140. 

Hesse, Otto, Prince of, visit to Eng- 
land, 141-145, n. 138, 139. 

Hoefnagel's Views, n. 33, 85. 

Hofmann (S.) n. 119. 

" Hope" Theatre, n. 16. 

Horky (J. E.) xxxix. 

Hormayr, Baron J. von, 87, 90. 

Horseferry at Lambeth, n. 80. 

Horse-racing, n. 89. 

Horses, xlviii, lxxxiii, Ixxxiv, 5, 14, 
30,45,48, 51, uo,n. 14, 31, 32, 
66, 76, 102, 109, 134. 

Hospitality, n. 30. 

Hounslow, 1 1 . 

Housekeeping, n. 30. 

Houses, 9, 1 10. 

Howard, C. Lord High Admiral, 47, 
119, n. 59,98. 

Howard de Walden, Lord, Ixxxiv, 64, 
n. 97. 

Howard, T. Earl of Suffolk, 64. 

Howell (J.) xxvi, n. 13, 20. 

Hudson (Jeffery) n. 54. 

" Hunks of the Beare-garden," 140. 

Hunsdon, Lord, 93, 100, n. 118. 

Hunting, xlii, 14, 15, 17, 63, 154, 
1 55» n ' 77*87,89,91,147. 

Husbands, 72, 73, 
Hyde Park, 100. 

Ignes fatui, 112. 

"Indian, Dead," n. 40, 137, 

Inhabitants of London, 7. 

Innocent VIII, 134, n. 135. 

Inns, 14, 108, n. 134. 

Inns of Court, 133, n. 154. 

Inscriptions, 177, 178, n. 24. 

Ireland, 83. 

" Isabella," Spanish for Elizabeth, 121, 

n. 128. 
Isle of Dogs, xlvi. 
Isle of Wight, xlviii. 
Italian Comedian, n. 56. 
Italian language, Ixv. 
"Italian Ordinary," 155. 
Italians, x, xi, xliv, 1. 

Jacob's stone, 10. 

James I. at Dartford, lxxiii ; sends the 
Garter to the Duke of Wirtemberg, 
lxxvi, &c ; presents of horses to, 
Ixxxiv; " Apology for the Oath of 
Allegiance," cxiv, cxv, n. 98 ; enter- 
tains the Prince of Wirtemberg, 58, 
&c; at Thetford, 63, n. 91 ; ad- 
mirable discourses, 64 ; hunting 
propensities, 117, n. 94, 95; en- 
tertains Spanish Ambassadors, 117; 
entertains Prince Otto, 143-145 ; 
at Theobalds, 149-155, n. 54; ge- 
nealogy, 1 65 ; bust, 1 66 ; visit to 
St. Paul's, 178, n. 16 ; on Witches, 
n. 64; proclaimed at Flushing, n. 
68 ; treatment of the Dutch Am- 
bassadors, n. 75 ; jealous of Prince 
Henry, n. 76 ; character of, by 
Correr, n. 77, 105 ; patronises 
Drebbel, n. 84 ; at Royston, n. 87 ; 
at Newmarket, n. 89 ; Gowry Con- 
spiracy, n. 93 ; received news of 


2 93 

Henry IV's death, n. 96; atAudley 
End, n. 97; at Chatham, n. 109 ; 
" Gunpowder Plot," n. 139 ; "neuer 
vasht his hands," n. 144 ; " at 
table," n. 145; patronises Casau- 
bon, n. 146. 

Jesus College, Cambridge, 39. 

Jesus College, Oxford, 29. 

Jhering, (J.) lxiii. 

Joachimi (A.) 59, n. J$. 

John, King, his sword, 139. 

John a Gaunt's lance, 140. 

Jones (Inigo) xxvi. 

Jonson (B.) xv, xvi, n. 84, 94. 

Jovius (P.) Description of Britain, 
xlviii, n. 13. 

Kenil worth, n. 56. 

Kent, n. 4. 

** Kentish tails," n. 31. 

Ketel (C.) n. 40. 

Kiechel (S.) England and the English, 

King's College, Cambridge, 37, 63, 

i35» n -3 6 - 
Kinloss, Lord, 119. 
Kirchner (H.) xxx. 
Kissing, 90, n. 72, 1 17. 
Knights Templars, n. 154. 
Kuffler (Dr.) n. 84. 

La Boderie, cxvi, cxvii, 58, &c. n. 73, 
9 6. 

Ladies at the Court of Edw. IV, xl; of 
Kent, n. 4; English, n. 20 ; Spanish 
ladies in England, n. 98, 99; hair, 
n. 118; delights for, n. 118, [see 
also " Women."] 

Lambarde (W.) n. 61. 

Lambeth, Caron's house at, 60, n. 79 ; 
ferry at, n. 80. 

Laneham (R.) n. 56. 

Languages, attainment of, xxii; Eng- 
lish language, 1, 71, 79. 
Latin, spoken in travelling, xxxv, xxxvi; 

English pronunciation of, 144. 
Lauremberg (P.) n. 84. 
Law Courts at Westminster, 95. 
Lead roofs, 17. 

League of Catholic princes, cxv. 
Leicester, " King Richard's bed-sted," 

Lemnie (W.) 78. 
Lemnius (L.) Notes on England, 75- 

Lennox, Duke of, 6$, 119, 155, 164. 
Lesieur (Sir S.) lxxiv, lxxv. 
Levinus, Mr. see Munck. 
Lewkenor (Sir L.) 58, 149, n. 4. 
Library of Henry VII, see Henry VII ; 

ofCasaubon, n. 146; at Whitehall 

Palace, 133, 165, n. 153. 
Lilac trees, n. 85. 
Lincoln, Earl of, 145, n. 140. 
Lincoln College, 25, 26. 
Lindsay (J.) 1 19. 
Lions, xlvi, 19, 133, n. 42, 56. 
Lippershey (J.) of Middelburg, n. 84. 
L'Isle, Viscount, 66, n. 106. 
List (Nicol) n. 119. 
Liveries, n. 30. 
London, in 1588, n. 12 ; in 1592, 6- 

10,91-100; in 1610, 58, &c; in 

1 614, 171,172; in 1617, 175-178 ; 

population of, in 1610, n. 132; 

streets, n. 154. 
London Bridge, 9, 132, 171, n. 21. 
London buildings, xxvi. 
London 'prentices, n. 13. 
Looking-glasses, 165, n. 154. 
Lord Mayor of London, 88, 107, 132, 

n. 18. 
Lord Mayor's day, n. 113. 
Lord Mayor's dinner, 128, 145. 
Lumley, Lord, n. 85. 

2 9 4 



Luneburg golden table, 104, n. 119. 
Lyne (R.) n. 52. 

Magdalen College, Cambridge, 41. 

Magdalen College, Oxford, 27. 

Magic, 172. 

Maidenhead, 1 1 . 

Manners and Customs, Sg, &c. 109- 


Manwood (Sir R.) n. 63. 

Margaret, Countess of Richmond, 63. 

" Marget a Barwicke," 139. 

Married persons travelling, xxviii. 

Married women, paradise of, 73. 

Martinitz, n. 120. 

Mary, Queen of England, xlvi, n. 122. 

Mary, Queen of Scots, 161, n. 40, 1 1 8, 

Masks, worn by ladies, J^. 

" Master of the Ceremonies," n. 4. 

Mastiffs, n. 56, 131. 

Maud, Princess, n. 119. 

May-Day at Greenwich, xlv. 

Medals, Ixxxiii-lxxxv. 

Medici (Marie de') coronation of, n. 

Medusius, Dr. 128. 

Medway, 132, n. 61. 

Melon, 119. 

Melville (Sir J.) n. 10, 118. 

Memmingen, English actors at, 89, n. 

Mendoza (Don Hurtado de) 117. 

Merchant adventurers, n. 19. 

Merchants, 8, 79. 

Merlin's cave, 139. 

Merton College, 23. 

Meteren (E. van) Description of Eng- 
land, xxxvi, 67-73, n * 75* 

Mexia (Don D. de) 117. 

Meyer (H.) 128. 

Micheli (G.) Relation of England, 1, n. 
13, 122. 

Microscopes, 5, n. 84. 

Milton, xxxii, xxxvi. 

Mines, no. 

Mint, 133. 

Mirefleur Tower at Greenwich, 107. 

Mirrors, 166, 172. 

Mompelgard (Montbeliard), lv, &c. 

cxx, 30. 
Money, xxiii, 52, 113, n. 126. 
Monkeys, 61. 

Montague (J.) Bishop of Winton, n. 87. 
Montbeliard, see Mompelgard. 
Montgomery, Earl of, 151, n. 143. 
Monuments in Westminster Abbey, 9, 

10, 132. 
Morsius (J.) n. 84. 
Morteaulx, a game, xli. 
Moryson (F.) Travels, xiv, xv, xxxiii, 

lvii, lviii,n. 20, 31, III, 119, 134. 
Moses, image of, 165. 
" Motion of Eltham," 139, [see also 

" Perpetual Motion."] 
Mud, 31. 

Mummied princes, 140. 
Miimppelgart, see Mompelgard. 
Munck (L.) cxxiii, 65, n. 103. 
Murray (Sir D.) 65, n. 72, 101. 
Music, cxxviii, n, 15,105,110,119, 

n. 34,49. 
Musical instruments, 18, 134. 
Musicians, English, abroad, ciii, cvi. 
Mytens (D.) xciii, cxxxii. 

Najera, Duke de, visit to England, 

xlvi, n. 117. 
Name-carving, n. 36; names disfigured 

by foreigners, n. 9. 
Nassau, Count of, 143. 
Navy, see Ships. 
Neale(T.) n. 43. 

Netherlandish postmaster's house, 6. 
Netherlands, English actors in the, ciii- 

cxi; why so called, n. 10. 



Neumayr von Ramssla, 149. 

Newcastle, Marquis of, n. 102. 

New College, Oxford, 25, 135, 172. 

Newmarket, 63,64, n. 87, 89. 

Nine-pins, xii. 

" Ninive, fall of," 140. 

Nonesuch Palace, 62, 134, 163, 167, 

n. 41,85. 
Norden (J.) 91-100, n. 12, 33, 38, 41. 
Norris (Sir J. and Sir E.) lxv, 46, n. 

20, 58. 
Northumberland, Earl of, 119. 
Norwich, 140. 

Nottingham, Earl of, see Howard (C.) 
Nucius (N.) visit to England, xlvii, 

xlviii, n. 1 17. 

Oldenbarnevelt (H. van) 59, n. 75. 

Olderson, Ivii. 

Opitz (M.) cxxix. 

Optical instruments, n. 84. 

Orangery at Beddington, n. 86. 

Oranges, 120. 

Oriel College, 24. 

Ortelius (A.) Travels in England, 

xxxvi, 69. 
Osborne (F.) xxvii. 
" Othello " acted in 161 o, cxviii, cxix. 
Otho II, n. 119. 
Ovens, Iron, n. 84. 
Oxen, 30, 31, 51. 
Oxford, 20-31, 134, 135, 172, n. 43, 

45>4 8 > 49> 5 2 > 7 2 « 
Oysters, 52, n. 67. 

Pages of the Court, 13. 

Paintings at Hampton Court, 18 ; 
Theobalds Palace, 44; Whitehall 
Palace, 122, [see also " Pictures."] 

Palace at Westminster, 47, 98. 

Palaces in London, 172. 

Palmer (T.) xxiv. 

Paradin (G.) Description of England, 

" Paradise room," 134. 
" Paradise of Married Women," 73. 
Paris Garden, bear-baiting at, xlvi. 
Parker (M.) Archbishop of Canterbury, 

Parks in England, 107, 108. 
Parliament at Westminster, 95, 133. 
Parnassus Mount, 166. 
Pasqualigo (P.) Mission to England, xliv, 

Passports, 14, 47. 
Paul's Cross, 178. 
Peace between England and Spain 

(1604), 120, &c. n. 128. 
Peacham (H.) 137-140, n. 20. 
Peasants' huts, 3 1. 
Peek (G.) n. 113. 
Peiresc (N. de) n. 84. 
Pembroke, Earl of, 118, n. 143. 
Pembroke Hall, 35. 
Pepys(S.)n. 84. 

Perlin (E.) England and the English, 
xii, n. 13,15,20,22, 34. 

Perpetual Motion of Drebbel,6i, n.84. 

" Perspectives," n. 149. 

Peter House, 34. 

Pezel (C.) xxxiii. 

Philip III, King of Spain, 120, n. 128. 

Philip IV, King of Spain, n. 128. 

Philipps (E.) lxxviii. 

Physic, 109. 

Pick-pockets, n. 123. 

Pictures in the Royal Palaces, 1 5 7- 1 64 ; 
kept by Vanderdort, cxxx, cxxxi, 
134. n. 38, 150, [see also "Paint- 
ings."] _ 

Pinto, "a liar," xii. 

Plaster statues at Nonesuch, n. 85. 

Piatt (Sir H.) n. 86, 118. 

Players, see Actors. 

Play-houses, see Theatres. 

Plays, 88. 

Pole, Cardinal, 66. 



Pomerania, Dukes of, 66, n. 110. 
Poor Knights of Windsor, 16. 
Pope, James I's horror of the, n. jj. 
Population of England (1592), 50; of 

London in 1610, n. 132. 
Porpoises, 48. 
Post-horses, see Horses. 
Prague, battle of, 149 ; riot at, n. 120. 
Preaching at Paul's Cross, 178. 
Princes, German, xxviii-xxx. 
Printing in England, 83. 
Progresses, Royal, 14, n. 32. 
Pronunciation of Latin, xxxvi. 
Protestant Princes of Germany, cxii, 

&c. 59. 
Public Schools, Oxford, 29. 
Puckeridge, 108. 

" Puppet-show " at Eltham, n. 84. 
Purchas's Voyages, xiii, xx, xxi. 
Puritans, 1 1 1 . 

Queenborough, n. 6y. 

Queen's College, Cambridge, 38, 6^. 

Queen's College, Oxford, 24, 25, 135. 

Rabbits, 32, 50, 51, 108, n. 65. 

Racing, n. 89. 

Raleigh (Sir W.) n. 70, 86, 109, 1 1 6. 

Ramsay (Sir J.) 1 19. 

Rathgeb (J.) lv, lvi, Ixxxix, &c, 3, &c. 

Reading Palace, H-13, n. 27. 

Records at Whitehall, n. 103. 

Regiomontanus (J.) n. 84. 

Rehdiger, (C.) visit to England, 103. 

Relations (Venetian) of England, xi, 

Religion, Travellers', xxii. 
Retainers, 13, n. 30. 
Rich, Lord, 65, n. 100. 
Richard Ill's " bed-sted," 140. 
Richardot, President, 119. 
Richmond, Duchess of, n. 72. 
Richmond Palace, xlv, 128, 134, 172, 

n. 133. 

Riding-masters, n. 102. 
Rindfleisch (D.) album of, xxxii. 
Roast meats, no. 
Robbers, 49, 112, n. 63. 
Rochester, liii, 66, 132, n. 61, 190. 
Rogers (D.) 103. 
Rome, jubilee at, 1599, xci. 
Rope-dancing, 124. 
Rosamond, Fair, 109. 
Rosemary, 18, n. 39. 
Rotispen (A.) n. 84. 
Rovida, Senator, 119. 
Royal Barge, n. 56. 
Royal Exchange, 8, 133, 171, n. 17. 
Royston, 62, n. 87,94. 
Rozmital (Leo von) Travels in Eng- 
land, xxxiii, xxxviii-xl, n. 1, 20, 1 1 7. 
Rudeness towards foreigners, xlvii,n. 13. 
Rudolph II, lxxxviii. 
Rudth (C.) Travels in England, 1 1 3. 
Running at the ring, 62. 
Rushes on floors, 104. 
Ryther (A.) n. 29, 43. 

Sack, xvii, n. 20. 

Sackfield (T.) an actor, civ. 

Saddles, 5. 

Saffron Walden, 64, n. 97. 

Saige, Captain, 31, 48. 

St. Anthoine (Mons.) 65, n. 102. 

St. Denis, monuments at, 84. 

St. Domingo, taken, n. 116. 

St. George's Day, 59, n. 33. 

St. James " Ginney Hens," 140. 

St. James's Palace, 94, 100, 133, 161, 

St. James's Park, 47, 62, 99, 100. 
St. John's College, Cambridge, 40, 63. 
St. John's College, Oxford, 29. 
St. Paul's Cathedral, 8, 132, 177, 178, 

n. 16,36. 
St. Paul's School, 171. 
St. Stephen's Chapel, 98. /"7 



Salander (Dr.) 108, n, 7. 

Salisbury, Earls of, genealogy, 135, 
[see also " Cecil."] 

Salisbury Cathedral, liv. 

Sanders, the Jesuit, III. 

Sandilands (Sir J.) 66, n. 108. 

Sandwich, curious custom at, xxxix. 

Sandy country, 3 1. 

Sannazaro, verses by, 122. 

Sansovino, on English eating, n. 1 1 1. 

Santiago, taken, n. 116. 

Saris (J.) Captain, ex. 

Sattler, Wirtemberg historian, Ix. 

Saviour, portrait of the, 134, n. 135. 

S axe- Wei mar, Duke of, Travels in Eng- 
land, 147-167, n. 38, 62, 71, 85, 

Saxfield (T.) an actor, civ. 

Saxton's maps, n. 29. 

Scarlet dye, n. 84. 

Schassek's character of the English^ 
xxxviii, xl. 

Schickhart (H.) xci. 

Scot (Reginald) n. 2, 64. 

Scot (Sir Thomas) n. 2. 

Scotland, cxiii, 145. 

Scots, described by Cardan, 1. 

Scott (Thomas) B. D., on Gondomar, 
n. 146. 

Scurvy, no. 

Sea-sickness, 3, n. 1. 

Seager, (F.) 144. 

Secretaries, foreign, exxiv, exxv. 

Selman, a cut-purse, executed, n. 123. 

Servants, 14, 70, 110. 

Serving men, n. 30. 

Shakespeare, on Foreign Travel, xvii, 
xviii ; " cosen garmombles " (Duke of 
Wirtemberg), xciv-ciii ; plays acted 
at Sierra Leone, cxi ; " Othello " 
acted in 1610, cxviii-cxix, 61 ; did 
Kiechel see him ? 89 ; " German 
clocks," n. 10; " Ruffs and Cuffs," 

n. 14; " Coronation chair," n. 25 ; 
"Dead Indian," n. 40; " Bed of 
Ware," n. 53 ; plays performed at 
the "Globe," n. 56; "Kissing," 
n. 117; "Wigs," n. 118; touching 
for the "Evil," n. 142. 

Sheep, 20, 30, 31, 51,70, 109. 

Ships, 7, 48, 49, 66, 127, 1 3 2, n. 6 1 ; 
Drake's ship, n. 6z ; submarine ship, 
n. 84. 

Shooter's Hill, xlv, n. 63, 

Shrewsbury, Earl of, 119. 

Sidney-Sussex College, 42, 63. 

Sierra Leone, Shakespeare's plays per- 
formed at, cxi. 

"Sights" in England, 137-140, n. 56, 

Sincerus (J.) see Zinzerling, 
Singing, xlv, 145. 
Sitschitz (Jo. de) 135, n. 136. 
Sittingbourne, 6, 66, 131, 132. 
Slavata (W.) 103, 105, 113, n. 120. 
Smith (W.) MS. description of England, 

n. 6,7, 12, 61. 
Smithfield, 107, n. 16, 31. 
Smoking, n. 56. 
Soil, 109. 
Soldiers, 50. 
Solingen swords, n. 26, 
Solms (P. von) Ixvii. 
Somerset House, 93, 117, 162, 163, 

166, n. 39. 
SorBiere (Mons.) Travels in England, 

n. 13, 
Southampton, Earl of, 118. 
Spain, peace with (1604), 120, &c, n. 

Spaniards in England, x, xi, n. 13. 
Spanish Armada, 4, 13, 49, n. 29, 86. 
Spanish ladies in England, n. 98, 99. 
Spanish ship captured by Drake, 89. 
Spencer, Lord, embassy to Stuttgart, 

lxxvii, &c. 




Spencer (Sir R.) 66, n. 107. 

Spenser (E.) liv. 

Spilman (Sir J.) lxxii. 

Spire, lxxiv. 

Sports before the Lord Mayor, 107, 

Stade, Ambassador, 9, n. 19; Stadian 

freebooters, lvii. 
" Stag'' [Inn] at Ware, 62. 
Stage, see Theatres. 
Stags, 17, 154. 

"Stammbiicher," albums, xxxi-xxxiii. 
Starschedel (O.) 144, 145. 
Steelyard, n. 19. 
Stokenchurch, 20. 
Stone of Westminster Abbey, 132. 
Storms in England, lix, ix, n. 64. 
Strete (G.) n. 149. 
Strziela (D.) n. 7. 

Stuttgart, xxxix, lxxvii, lxxxv, cxxvii. 
Submarine vessel, n. 84. 
Suffolk, Ear] of, 119, 135, n. 97. 
Sugar, 104, no, n. 20. 
Sully, Duke of, n. 102. 
Sunday, 104, &c. 
Suniga, see Zuniga. 
Sussex, Earl of, 1 19. 
Swans, xlvi, 6, n. 8. 
Sweets, fondness for, n. 20. 
Swine, 51. 
Swords, 10, n. 26. 
Symons, (R.) n. 27. 

" Table," old word for Picture, 159. 

Tablecover at Hampton Court, 18. 

Tailed Englishmen, xlvii. 

Tankards, 8,n. 18. 

Tapestries, 17, 18, 89, 167, n. 38. 

Tassis, see Villamediana. 

Taster, 106. 

Telescopes, n. 84. 

Temple (The) n. 154. 

Tetzel (G.) xxxix. 

Thames, 6, 7, 48, n. 12, 60 ; Thames 

Ferry, 60. 
Theatres, 88, 89, 133, n. 56. 
Theobalds Palace, 44, 45, 62, 64, 128- 

J35. I 49 I 55 ? l6 3 ? 172^.54,136. 
Theobalds Road, n. 54. 
Thermometer, n. 84. 
Thetford, 63, n. 78, 91. 
Thieves, n. 123. 
Thirty years' war, cxviii, n. 120. 
Thomson (Richard) of Cambridge, 63, 

n. 88. 
Thorpe (J.) surveyor, n. 54. 
" Three Swans," The, n. 40. 
Throne at Hampton Court, 18. 
Thynne (F.) n. 109. 
Tilt-boat, n. 7. 

Tobacco, 145, n. 56, 116, 141. 
"Tom a Lincolne," 139. 
Tooker(W.) n. 142. 
Toto delNunziata (A.) n. 85. 
Touching for the Evil, see Evil. 
Touchstone table, 45. 
Tower of London, xlvi. ; 19, 20, 133, 

167, n. 42. 
Tradespeople, 7. 
Tragedians, see Actors. 
Travel talk, handbooks of, xxxiii. 
Travelling, precepts for, xxi, &c. ; in 

England, lix, 133. 
Trevisano (A.) Embassy to England, 

xliii, n. 13. 
Trinity College, Cambridge, 41, 62, 

Trinity College, Oxford, 28. 

Trumbull (Elizabeth) cxxxi. 

Tumblers, 124. 

Turler, Remarks on England, xxvii, 81- 

Turner (W.) on Queen Elizabeth, n. 

Tymme (T.)-n. 84. 



Unicorn's horn, xlii, 17, 134, 139, 

Union of Protestant Princes, cxii, &c. 

Universities, see Cambridge and Ox- 

Upnor Castle, n. 61. 

Uxbridge, 20. 

Vanderdort (A.) death of, cxxx. 

Vandyke (Sir A.) n. 84, 102. 

Van Meteren, see Meteren. 

Vega (Lope de) n. 128. 

Velasco (A. de) 65, n. 99. 

Velasco, Constable of Castile, banquet 
to, 1 1 5- 1 24, n. 97, 117, 128. 

Velvet worn, 8. 

Venetian Ambassadors, xliii, xlv, n. 
74 ; Relations of England, xi ; Ve- 
netian gentleman's dancing, xlvi. 

Venus, picture of, 134, 173. 

Verius (A.) 59, n. 75. 

Vigo, Drake at, n. 116. 

Villamediana, Count, embassy to Eng- 
land, 118, &c. n. 4, 20, 127. 

Vine-garden at Westminster, n. 95. 

Virginals, 61, n. 28, 118. 

Virginia, Drake at, n. 116. 

Vizards, worn by ladies, 73. 

Waggons, 14. 

Walpole (Horace) x, 103, n. 39. 

Ware, 43 ; "Great Bed" of, 62, n. 

Warwick, 139, n. 135. 

Washing feet, 132. 

Washing hands, 118, 122, 151, n. 

Water-carriers, n. 18. 
Water-engines, n. 84. 
Water supply in London, 8. 
Water-works at Hampton Court, 19. 
Wax effigies in Westminster Abbey, 

164, n. 151. 

Weather in England, 50. 
Weckherlin (G. R.) memoir of, cxxiii- 

Weelkes (T.) n. 37. 
Weimar, 149. 
Welsh language, 71. 
Wensin (D.) cviii. 
Westminster, 91-100, 175-178, n. 12; 

Palace at, 47, 98. 
Westminster Abbey, 9, 10, 60, 132, 

139, 177, 178, n. 24, 81 ; wax 

effigies in, 164, n. 151. 
Westminster College, 33. 
Westminster Hall, 96. 
Whalebones, Whitehall, 140. 
" White Bear" Inn, 87. 
Whitehall Palace, 94, 99, 132, 159- 

161, 164-166, 171, n. 150, 153. 
Whitehall whalebones, 140. 
Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

Widemarkter (G.) 1 44, 155. 
Wigs, n. 118. 
Wilkins, Bishop, n. 84. 
William of Durham, n. 47. 
William III, n. 142. 
Willoughby, Lord, 58, n. 69. 
Willughby (F.) on dotterels, n. 94 ; 

on cormorants, n. 95. 
Wilson (Sir T.) n. 103. 
Winchester College, 25. 
Windsor, xxxiii, xli, xlii, lxxxiv, 14- 

l 9> '34> i39> l 7*> i73> n - 2 7> 33» 

Wines, xliv, cxxix, cxxx, 9, 52, 109, 

n. 20, 56. 
Winnenberg, Baron, 5, n. 3, 
Winslow, 31. 

Winstanley's Audley End, n. 97. 
Winwood (Sir R.) n. 75. 
Wirtemberg, Frederick, Duke of, Tra- 
vels in England, and memoir, lv- 
ciii, 1-53. 



Wirtemberg, Frederick Achilles, Duke 

of, cviii, cix. 
Wirtemberg, John Frederick, Duke of, 

cxii, cxiv, cxxi. 
Wirtemberg, Lewis Frederick, Prince 

of, Travels in England, and memoir, 

cxii-cxxi, 55-66. 
Wirtemberg ducats, Ixxxiii, Ixxxiv. 
Wirtemberg ladies, portraits of, 163. 
Witches, 50, n. 64. 
Wives, 72, 73 ; apparel, n. 14. 
*' WolrTsklingen "-swords, 10, n. 26. 
Wolsey, Cardinal, 99, n. ^^, 38, 117. 
Wolves, 20, 32, 50, 140. 
Women of England, xxviii, xlviii, 7, 14, 

6 7-73» 8 9> 9°> n - "5> 3 1 * 49> 5 6 > 

[see also "Ladies."] 
Wood, cormorant keeper, n. 95. 
Woodstock, 108, 109, 135, 172, n. 

Woodville (Elizabeth) xl, xli.. 
Worcester, Earl of, 119. 
Wotton, Baron, 119. 
Wotton«(Sir H.) lxv. 
Wurmsser (H. J.) cxiv-cxv, 57. 

Yeomen of the Guard, 87, 88, 106. 

Zedlitz, Baron, 178. 

Zinzerling (J.) Description of England, 

xxxvii, 129-135. 
Zuniga (Don P. de) 65, n. 98. 







021 934 316 4